Presenta(on:	
  Annual	
  Crawford	
  
PhD	
  Conference	
  
Lhawang	
  Ugyel	
  
PhD	
  Candidate	
  in	
  Public	
  Poli...
Outline	
  of	
  Presenta(on	
  
•  Presenta(on	
  Topic	
  
•  Literature	
  Background	
  
•  Case	
  Study	
  
•  Admin...
Presenta(on	
  Topic	
  	
  
•  When	
  implemen(ng	
  public	
  sector	
  reforms	
  
based	
  on	
  best	
  prac(ces	
  ...
Literature	
  Background	
  
•  Spread	
  of	
  public	
  sector	
  reforms	
  
–  NPM	
  is	
  claimed	
  to	
  have	
  s...
Case	
  Study:	
  Why	
  Bhutan?	
  
•  Hybrid	
  Administra(ve	
  System	
  
•  Unique	
  Culture	
  
•  Rela(vely	
  und...
Administra(ve	
  Context	
  and	
  Culture	
  
Administra(ve	
  Tradi(on	
  and	
  Context	
  	
  
Culture	
  and	
  Values	
  
•  Values	
  Survey	
  Module	
  developed	
  by	
  Geert	
  
Hofstede—5	
  dimensions	
  of	...
Findings	
  and	
  Analysis	
  
Overall	
  Percep(on	
  of	
  the	
  PCS	
  
•  Methodology:	
  	
  
–  Quan(ta(ve:	
  Stra(fied	
  random	
  sampling—728	...
•  Change	
  in	
  the	
  percep(on	
  towards	
  the	
  PCS	
  over	
  
the	
  years.	
  	
  
•  Also	
  indica(ve	
  of	...
Successes	
  
•  Recruitment,	
  Selec(on	
  and	
  Promo(on:	
  
–  Fits	
  with	
  the	
  TPA	
  characteris(cs	
  of	
 ...
Mixed	
  Results	
  	
  
•  Classifica(on	
  of	
  Posi(ons	
  and	
  Occupa(onal	
  Groups:	
  
–  Successes:	
  
•  Match...
Unsuccessful	
  
•  Performance	
  Management	
  System:	
  
–  Clash	
  with	
  the	
  emphasis	
  of	
  the	
  Bhutanese...
Conclusion	
  
•  Findings	
  conform	
  to	
  studies	
  which	
  show	
  that	
  
successful	
  reforms	
  are	
  ‘cultu...
Thank	
  You!	
  
Lhawang  PhD Conference 2012
Lhawang  PhD Conference 2012
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Lhawang PhD Conference 2012

  1. 1. Presenta(on:  Annual  Crawford   PhD  Conference   Lhawang  Ugyel   PhD  Candidate  in  Public  Policy     Supervisors:     Janine  O’  Flynn   Yusaku  Horiuchi   Paul  Atkins  
  2. 2. Outline  of  Presenta(on   •  Presenta(on  Topic   •  Literature  Background   •  Case  Study   •  Administra(ve  Context  and  Culture   •  Findings  and  Analysis   •  Conclusion   2  
  3. 3. Presenta(on  Topic     •  When  implemen(ng  public  sector  reforms   based  on  best  prac(ces  it  is  important  to   consider:   – The  administra(ve  tradi(on  and  context  within   which  reforms  are  applied   – The  values  and  culture  that  are  associated  with   the  reforms  
  4. 4. Literature  Background   •  Spread  of  public  sector  reforms   –  NPM  is  claimed  to  have  spread  with  an  ‘energy’  and  ‘simultaneity’  never   experienced  before  (Jones  and  KeQl  2004:  463),  and  is  notable  for  its  magnitude,   breadth  and  significance  (Halligan  2001)   •  Countries  chose  a  combina(on  of  instruments  during  implementa(on  of   reforms   –  Different  needs,  poli(cal  pressures,  historical  tradi(ons  (Aberbach  and   Christensen  2003:  504)     –  Differences  in  na(onal  reform  paths  and  reform  paQerns  (Hajnal  2005:  496)   •  For  success,  important  to  consider  the  administra(ve  context  and  the  culture   within  which  the  reforms  are  applied   –  The  understanding  of  the  na(onal  cultural  variable  is  essen(al  to  get  an   ‘understanding  of  the  interplay  between  public  ins(tu(ons  and  the  social  context’   as  na(onal  cultures  influence  the  ‘structure’  and  ‘performance’  of  public   administra(on  (Andrews,  2008:  171-­‐172)   –  It  also  gives  an  understanding  of  why  administra(ve  reforms  vary  in  nature  and   follow  different  paths  (Capano  2003:  782)   4  
  5. 5. Case  Study:  Why  Bhutan?   •  Hybrid  Administra(ve  System   •  Unique  Culture   •  Rela(vely  under-­‐studied  country     •  Posi(on  Classifica(on  System  (PCS):  bundle  of   public  sector  reforms  
  6. 6. Administra(ve  Context  and  Culture  
  7. 7. Administra(ve  Tradi(on  and  Context    
  8. 8. Culture  and  Values   •  Values  Survey  Module  developed  by  Geert   Hofstede—5  dimensions  of  culture   •  Methodology:   – Bhutan:  271  civil  servants  from  17  agencies   – Australia:  75  public  servants  from  27  agencies   – “Anchored”  against  the  VSM2008  scores  to  get  the   World  Average  
  9. 9. Findings  and  Analysis  
  10. 10. Overall  Percep(on  of  the  PCS   •  Methodology:     –  Quan(ta(ve:  Stra(fied  random  sampling—728  surveys  sent,  271  surveys   received   –  Qualita(ve:  21  interviews   •  Response  not  random:   –  Pseudo  R-­‐Square  0.14  and  the  p-­‐value  of  the  chi-­‐square  <  .001—T-­‐test  of  the   means  large  enough  to  reject  the  null  hypothesis  (p  value  is  <  .001).    
  11. 11. •  Change  in  the  percep(on  towards  the  PCS  over   the  years.     •  Also  indica(ve  of  the  poor  transi(on   management  of  such  a  major  reform-­‐ini(a(ve:   – PCS  was  perceived  by  officials  as  being  a  major   reform  situated  ‘within  a  larger  social  context’  and   one  that  required  people  to  ‘change  their  mindset’   in  a  big  way.   •  PCS  has  its  share  of  successes  as  well  as  failures  
  12. 12. Successes   •  Recruitment,  Selec(on  and  Promo(on:   –  Fits  with  the  TPA  characteris(cs  of  impar&ality  and  a   bureaucra&c  characteriza&on.     –  Average  PDI  scores  for  Bhutan  reflects  the  emphasis  on   manager’s  reliance  on  formal  rules  and  procedures  as  the   guiding  principles.     •  Human  Resource  Development  (HRD):   –  HRD  comprises  mostly  training  and  development  ac(vi(es     –  Approximately  70%  of  the  respondents  agreed  that  the   PCS  provided  opportuni(es  to  upgrade  their   qualifica(ons.    
  13. 13. Mixed  Results     •  Classifica(on  of  Posi(ons  and  Occupa(onal  Groups:   –  Successes:   •  Matched  the  bureaucra&c  nature  of  the  public  administra(on   system  in  Bhutan     •  Also  matched  the  presence  of  a  power  distance  culture  in  the   system  where  work  places  have  taller  organiza(on  pyramids  and   there  is  hierarchy     –  Failures:   •  Inculca(on  of  professionalism  under  the  NPM     –  ‘There  is  a  lot  of  power  and  pomp  associated  with  being  a  secretary  to  the   government  who  enjoys  a  lot  of  authority,  whereas  the  specialists  have   none  of  these  benefits:  thus  people  do  not  opt  to  join  the  specialist   category’.     •  Reflec(ve  of  Bhutan’s  low  scores  in  the  LTO  index  and  the   importance  accorded  to  preserving  face  and  fulfilling  social   obliga(ons.  
  14. 14. Unsuccessful   •  Performance  Management  System:   –  Clash  with  the  emphasis  of  the  Bhutanese  public   administra(on  system  of  focusing  largely  on  inputs  and   following  standard  opera&on  procedures,  which  are  the   predominant  characteris(cs  of  TPA.     –  PMS  was  seen  as  promo&ng  the  values  of  individualism   and  compe&&on,  as  one  interviewee  pointed  out,  ‘values   that  most  Bhutanese  are  not  familiar  with’.     –  The  unfamiliar  values  of  individualism  made  it  difficult  for   managers  during  evalua(on—cri(cized  by  their  staff  for  not   being  compassionate  enough  (‘compassion  misplaced’).    
  15. 15. Conclusion   •  Findings  conform  to  studies  which  show  that   successful  reforms  are  ‘culturally  sensi(ve’  and   that  there  should  be  a  match  between  rules,   iden((es  and  situa(ons  (Theonig  2003:  133).   •  Varia(ons  exist  across  administra(ve  systems— Inherent    differences  in  culture  and  values  require   the  recipient  countries  to  either:     –  Accept  or  adapt  the  new  culture  and  values  embedded   with  the  reforms;  or     –  To  acknowledge  the  differences  and  change  the   reforms  to  suit  the  local  context.    
  16. 16. Thank  You!  
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