Presenta(on: Annual Crawford PhD Conference Lhawang Ugyel PhD Candidate in Public Policy Supervisors: Janine O’ Flynn Yusaku Horiuchi Paul Atkins
Outline of Presenta(on • Presenta(on Topic • Literature Background • Case Study • Administra(ve Context and Culture • Findings and Analysis • Conclusion 2
Presenta(on Topic • When implemen(ng public sector reforms based on best prac(ces it is important to consider: – The administra(ve tradi(on and context within which reforms are applied – The values and culture that are associated with the reforms
Literature Background • Spread of public sector reforms – NPM is claimed to have spread with an ‘energy’ and ‘simultaneity’ never experienced before (Jones and KeQl 2004: 463), and is notable for its magnitude, breadth and signiﬁcance (Halligan 2001) • Countries chose a combina(on of instruments during implementa(on of reforms – Diﬀerent needs, poli(cal pressures, historical tradi(ons (Aberbach and Christensen 2003: 504) – Diﬀerences in na(onal reform paths and reform paQerns (Hajnal 2005: 496) • For success, important to consider the administra(ve context and the culture within which the reforms are applied – The understanding of the na(onal cultural variable is essen(al to get an ‘understanding of the interplay between public ins(tu(ons and the social context’ as na(onal cultures inﬂuence the ‘structure’ and ‘performance’ of public administra(on (Andrews, 2008: 171-‐172) – It also gives an understanding of why administra(ve reforms vary in nature and follow diﬀerent paths (Capano 2003: 782) 4
Case Study: Why Bhutan? • Hybrid Administra(ve System • Unique Culture • Rela(vely under-‐studied country • Posi(on Classiﬁca(on System (PCS): bundle of public sector reforms
Administra(ve Context and Culture
Administra(ve Tradi(on and Context
Culture and Values • Values Survey Module developed by Geert Hofstede—5 dimensions of culture • Methodology: – Bhutan: 271 civil servants from 17 agencies – Australia: 75 public servants from 27 agencies – “Anchored” against the VSM2008 scores to get the World Average
Findings and Analysis
Overall Percep(on of the PCS • Methodology: – Quan(ta(ve: Stra(ﬁed random sampling—728 surveys sent, 271 surveys received – Qualita(ve: 21 interviews • Response not random: – Pseudo R-‐Square 0.14 and the p-‐value of the chi-‐square < .001—T-‐test of the means large enough to reject the null hypothesis (p value is < .001).
• Change in the percep(on towards the PCS over the years. • Also indica(ve of the poor transi(on management of such a major reform-‐ini(a(ve: – PCS was perceived by oﬃcials as being a major reform situated ‘within a larger social context’ and one that required people to ‘change their mindset’ in a big way. • PCS has its share of successes as well as failures
Successes • Recruitment, Selec(on and Promo(on: – Fits with the TPA characteris(cs of impar&ality and a bureaucra&c characteriza&on. – Average PDI scores for Bhutan reﬂects the emphasis on manager’s reliance on formal rules and procedures as the guiding principles. • Human Resource Development (HRD): – HRD comprises mostly training and development ac(vi(es – Approximately 70% of the respondents agreed that the PCS provided opportuni(es to upgrade their qualiﬁca(ons.
Mixed Results • Classiﬁca(on of Posi(ons and Occupa(onal Groups: – Successes: • Matched the bureaucra&c nature of the public administra(on system in Bhutan • Also matched the presence of a power distance culture in the system where work places have taller organiza(on pyramids and there is hierarchy – Failures: • Inculca(on of professionalism under the NPM – ‘There is a lot of power and pomp associated with being a secretary to the government who enjoys a lot of authority, whereas the specialists have none of these beneﬁts: thus people do not opt to join the specialist category’. • Reﬂec(ve of Bhutan’s low scores in the LTO index and the importance accorded to preserving face and fulﬁlling social obliga(ons.
Unsuccessful • Performance Management System: – Clash with the emphasis of the Bhutanese public administra(on system of focusing largely on inputs and following standard opera&on procedures, which are the predominant characteris(cs of TPA. – PMS was seen as promo&ng the values of individualism and compe&&on, as one interviewee pointed out, ‘values that most Bhutanese are not familiar with’. – The unfamiliar values of individualism made it diﬃcult for managers during evalua(on—cri(cized by their staﬀ for not being compassionate enough (‘compassion misplaced’).
Conclusion • Findings conform to studies which show that successful reforms are ‘culturally sensi(ve’ and that there should be a match between rules, iden((es and situa(ons (Theonig 2003: 133). • Varia(ons exist across administra(ve systems— Inherent diﬀerences in culture and values require the recipient countries to either: – Accept or adapt the new culture and values embedded with the reforms; or – To acknowledge the diﬀerences and change the reforms to suit the local context.