OBG   GLOSSARIESPREPARED AND PRESENTED BYDr . S. ANUKRISHNAN,VICE PRINCIPAL CUM HOD OBG NURSING,P.D.BHARATESH COLLEGE OF N...
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP): Substanceproduced by the unborn baby as it growsinside the uterus.Amino acids: Substances that ac...
Amniocentesis
Amnion: Membrane around the fetus. Itsurrounds the amniotic cavity.
Amnion
Amnion
Amniotic fluid: Liquid surrounding thebaby inside the amniotic sac.
Amniotic fluid
Amniotic sac: Sac that surroundsbaby inside the uterus. It containsthe baby, the placenta and theamniotic fluid.
Amniotic sac
Anencephaly: Defective development ofthe brain combined with the absence ofthe bones normally surrounding the brain.
Anencephaly
Anovulatory: Lack of or cessation ofovulation.Areola:      Pigmented   or   colored   ringsurrounding the nipple of the br...
Arrhythmia:     Irregular   or    missedheartbeat.Aspiration: Swallowing or sucking aforeign body or fluid, such as vomit,...
Atonic uterus: Flaccid; relaxed; lack oftone.
Bilirubin: Breakdown product of pigmentformed in the liver from hemoglobinduring the destruction of red blood cells.Biophy...
Biopsy: Removal of a small piece oftissue for microscopic study.
Blastomere: One of the cells egg dividesinto after it has been fertilized.
Blastomere
Bloody show: Small amount of vaginalbleeding   late   in   pregnancy;   oftenprecedes labor.
Bloody show
Braxton-Hicks contractions: Irregular,painless   tightening   of   uterus   duringpregnancy.Cataract, congenital: Cloudine...
Breech presentation: Abnormal positionof the fetus. Buttocks or legs come intothe birth canal ahead of the head.
Breech presentation
Cesarean section (delivery): Delivery ofa baby through an abdominal incisionrather than through the vagina.
Cesarean section
Chadwicks sign: Dark-blue or purplediscoloration of the mucosa of the vaginaand cervix during pregnancy.
Chloasma: Extensive brown patches ofirregular shape and size on the face orother parts of the body.
Chloasma
Choriocarcinoma:    Highly   malignantcancer that grows in the uterus duringpregnancy or at the site of an ectopicpregnanc...
Chorion
Chorionic villus sampling: Diagnostictest done early in pregnancy. A biopsy oftissue is taken from inside the uterusthroug...
Chorionic villus sampling
Colostrum: Thin, yellow fluid, which isthe first milk to come from the breast.
Colostrum
Conization of the cervix: Surgicalprocedure performed on premalignantand malignant conditions of the cervix. Alarge biopsy...
Conization of the cervix
Conjoined twins: Twins connected atthe body; they may share vital organs.Also called Siamese twins.
Conjoined twins
Constipation: Bowel movements areinfrequent or incomplete.Contraction stress test: Response offetus to uterine contraction...
Contraction stress test
Corpusluteum: Area in the ovary wherethe egg is released at ovulation.
Corpusluteum
Crown-to-rump length: Measurementfrom the top of the babys head to thebuttocks of the baby.
Crown-to-rump length
Cystitis: Inflammation of the bladder.Cytomegalovirus      (CMV)     infection:Group of viruses from the herpes virusfamily.
D&C     (dilatation   and    curettage):Surgical procedure in which the cervix isdilated and the lining of the uterus issc...
Dilatation and curettage
Developmental delay: Condition inwhich the development of the baby orchild is slower than normal.
Diastasis recti: Separation of abdominalmuscles.
Diastasis recti
Dizygotic twins: Twins derived from twodifferent eggs. Often called fraternaltwins.
Dizygotic twins
Dysplasia:     Abnormal,     precancerouschanges in the cells of the cervix.Dysuria: Difficulty or pain urinating.
EDC (estimated date of confinement):Anticipated due date for delivery of thebaby. Calculated from the first day of thelast...
Ectodermal germ layer: Layer in thedeveloping embryo that gives rise todeveloping structures in the fetus. Theseinclude sk...
Ectodermal germ layer
Ectopic pregnancy: Pregnancy thatoccurs outside the uterine cavity.
Ectopic pregnancy
Effacement: Thinning of cervix.
Effacement
Embryo: Organism in the early stages ofdevelopment.Embryonic period: First 10 weeks ofgestation.
Embryo
Embryo
Endodermal germ layer: Area of tissuein early development of the embryo thatgives rise to other structures. Theseinclude t...
Endometrial          cycle:        Regulardevelopment of the mucous membranelining the inside of the uterus. It beginswith...
Endometrium: Mucous membrane thatlines inside of the uterine wall.
Endometrium
Engorgement: Congested; filled withfluid.Enzyme: Protein made by cells. It acts asa catalyst to improve or cause chemicalc...
Epidural block: Type of anesthesia.Medication is injected around the spinalcord during labor or other types ofsurgery.
Epidural block
Episiotomy: Surgical incision of thevulva (area behind the vagina, above therectum). Used during delivery to avoidtearing ...
Episiotomy
Face presentation: Baby comes into thebirth canal face first.
Face presentation
Fallopian tube: Tube that leads from thecavity of the uterus to the area of theovary. Also called uterine tube.False labor...
FertilizationJoining of thesperm and egg.
Fertilization ageDating a pregnancy from the time offertilization. 2 weeks earlier than thegestational age.
Fetal anomaly: Fetal malformation orabnormal development.Fetal goiter: Enlargement of the thyroidin the fetus.
Fetal-growth retardation (IUGR)Inadequategrowth    of    thefetus during thelast   stages    ofpregnancy.
Fetal monitor: Device used before orduring labor to listen to and record thefetal   heartbeat.   Can   be    externalmonit...
Fetal monitor
Fetus: Refers to the unborn baby after10 weeks of gestation until birth.
Fetus
Fetal period: Time period followingthe embryonic period (first 10 weeks ofgestation) until birth.
Fetal period
Forceps: Instrument used to helpremove baby from the birth canalduring delivery.
Forceps
Frank breech: Baby presenting buttocksfirst. Legs are flexed and knees extended.
Breech
Genetic    counseling:     Consultationbetween a couple and a specialist aboutgenetic defects and the possibility ofgeneti...
Genital      herpes     simplex:      Herpessimplex infection involving the genitalarea.   It   can   be   significant   d...
Genitourinary problems: Defects orproblems involving genital organs andthe bladder or kidneys.
Gestational ageDating a pregnancy from the first dayof the last menstrual period; 2 weekslonger than fertilization age.
Gestational diabetesOccurrence or worsening of diabetesduring pregnancy (gestation).
Gestational     trophoblastic       disease(GTN): Abnormal pregnancy with cysticgrowth of the placenta. Characterized bybl...
Gestational trophoblastic     disease (GTN)
Glucose-tolerance test: Blood testdone to evaluate the bodys responseto sugar.Glucosuria: Glucose in the urine.
Gonorrhea:         Contagious         venerealinfection,     transmitted    primarily     byintercourse. Caused by the bac...
Habitual    abortion:   Occurrence   ofthree      or   more      spontaneousmiscarriages.
Habitual abortion
Heartburn: Discomfort or pain thatoccurs in the chest. Often occurs aftereating.Hematocrit: Determines the proportion ofbl...
Heartburn
Hematocrit: Determines the proportionof blood cells to plasma. Important indiagnosing anemia.Hemoglobin: Pigment in red bl...
Hemolytic disease: Destruction of redblood cells.Hemorrhoids: Dilated blood vessels inthe rectum or rectal canal.
Human    chorionic   gonadatropin(HCG): Hormone produced in earlypregnancy. Measured in a pregnancytest.
Human placental lactogen: Hormoneof pregnancy produced by the placenta.Found in the bloodstream.Hyaline      membrane     ...
Hydramnios: Increased amniotic fluid.
Hydramnios
Hydrocephalus:Excessiveaccumulation         offluid   around     thebrain of the baby.Sometimes        calledwater on the ...
Hyperbilirubinemia:        Extremely    highlevel of bilirubin in the blood.Hyperemesis        gravidarum:       Severenau...
Hypertension: Pregnancy-induced-highblood   pressure    that   occurs    duringpregnancy. Defined by an increase in thedia...
Hypoplasia: Defective or incompletedevelopment or formation of tissue.Hypotension: Low blood pressure.Hypothyroidism: Low ...
Immune        globulin         preparation:Substance    used    to   protect   againstinfection with certain diseases, suc...
Incompetent cervix : Cervix that isunable to remain closed until pregnancyreaches term because of a mechanicaldefect in th...
Incompetent cervix
Incomplete abortion: Miscarriage inwhich part, but not all, of the uterinecontents are expelled.
Incomplete abortion
Inevitable     abortion:     Pregnancycomplicated     with     bleeding    andcramping.      Usually     results    inmisc...
Insulin: Peptide hormone made by thepancreas.   It   promotes   the   use   ofglucose.Invasive squamous-cell carcinoma:Can...
Iron-deficiency      anemia:       Anemiaproduced by lack of iron in the diet. Oftenseen in pregnancy.
Isoimmunization:     Development     ofspecific antibody directed at the redblood cells of another individual, suchas a ba...
Jaundice: Yellow staining of the skin,sclera (eyes) and deeper tissues of thebody. Caused by excessive amounts ofbilirubin...
Ketones:      Breakdown         product   ofmetabolism     found       in   the   blood,particularly in starvation or unco...
Laaoo: Process of expelling a fetus fromthe uterus.Laparoscopy: Minor surgical procedureperformed for tubal ligation, diag...
Leukorrhea:      Vaginal      dischargecharacterized by a white or yellowishcolor. Primarily composed of mucus.Lightening:...
Lineanigra:    Line    of   increasedpigmentation running down the abdomenfrom the bellybutton to the pubic areaduring pre...
Linea nigra
Malignant GTN: Cancerous change ofgestational trophoblastic disease.Mammogram:       X-ray   study   of   thebreasts to id...
Mask     of    pregnancy:    Increasedpigmentation over the area of the faceunder each eye. Commonly has theappearance of ...
Meconium: First intestinal discharge ofthe newborn; green or yellow in colour. Itconsists of epithelial or surface cells,m...
Melanoma: Pigmented mole or tumor. Itmay or may not be cancerous.Meningomyelocele: Congenital defectof the central nervous...
Menstruation: Regular or periodic dischargeof a bloody fluid from the uterus.Mesodermal germ layer: Tissue of theembryo th...
MicrocephalyAbnormally smalldevelopment     ofthe head in thedeveloping fetus.
Microphthalmia:   Abnormally   smalleyeballs.
Miscarriage: Abortion.Missed    abortion:   Failed      pregnancywithout bleeding or cramping. Oftendiagnosed   by   ultra...
Mittelschmerz: Pain that coincides withrelease of an egg from the ovary.Monilial     vulvovaginitis:        Infectioncause...
Monozygotic twins: Twins conceivedfrom one egg. Often called identicaltwins.Morning      sickness:       Nausea     andvom...
Morula: Cells resulting from the earlydivision of the fertilized egg at thebeginning of pregnancy.Mucus plug: Secretions i...
Neural-tube defects: Abnormalities inthe development of the spinal cord andbrain   in   a   fetus.   Anencephaly;Hydroceph...
Hydrocephalus
Spinabifida
OligohydramniosLack              ordeficiency        ofamniotic fluid.
OmphalocelePresence              ofcongenital          out-pouching       of   theumbilicus containinginternal organs in t...
Organogenesis: Development of theorgan systems in the embryo.Ossification: Bone formation.Ovarian cycle: Regular productio...
Ovulation: Cyclical production of anegg from the ovary.Oxytocin:    Medication   that   causesuterine contractions.
Pap smear: A routine screening test thatevaluates the presence of premalignantor cancerous conditions of the cervix.
Para cervical block: Local anesthetic forcervical dilatation.
Para cervical block
Pelvimetry: Evaluation of the size of thebirth canal or pelvis. Performed by X-ray.
Pelvimetry
Physiologic anemia of pregnancy:Anemia during pregnancy caused by anincrease in the amount of plasma (fluid)in the blood c...
Placenta: Organ inside the uterus that isattached to the baby by the umbilicalcord. Essential during pregnancy forgrowth a...
Placenta
Placenta     accreta:    Placenta   thatattaches to muscle of uterus.Placenta increta: Placenta that growsinto muscle of u...
Placenta previa: Low attachment of theplacenta, covering or very close to thecervix.Placental abruption: Premature separat...
Placenta previa
Placental   abruption:    Prematureseparation of the placenta from theuterus.
Placental abruption
Placentamegaly:     Abnormally     largegrowth of the placenta during pregnancy.
Pneumonitis:   Inflammation   of   thelungs.Premature baby: Baby born before 37weeks.
Premature baby
Postnatal blues: Mild depression afterdelivery.Postpartum depression: Depressionafter delivery.
Postpartum depression
Postpartum     hemorrhage:   Bleedinggreater than 15 ounces (450ml) at timeof delivery.
Postpartum hemorrhage
Pre-eclampsia:       Combination       ofsymptoms    significant   to   pregnancy,including high blood pressure, edema,swe...
Premature delivery: Delivery before37 weeks gestation.Presentation: Describes which part ofthe baby comes into the birth c...
Proteinuria: Protein in urine.Pruritis   gravidarum:    Itching   duringpregnancy.Pubic symphysis: Bony prominence inthe p...
Pubic symphysis
Pulmonary embolism: Blood clot fromanother part of the body that travels tothe lungs. Can cause closed passagesin the lung...
Pulmonary embolism
Pyelonephritis:      Serious   kidneyinfection.Quickening: Feeling the baby moveinside the uterus.
Rh-negative:    Absence    of   rhesusantibody in the blood.RhoGAM: Medication given duringpregnancy and following deliver...
Round-ligament pain: Pain caused bystretching ligament on the sides of theuterus during pregnancy.Rupture of membranes: Lo...
Spinabifida:    Congenital    abnormalitycharacterized by a defect in the vertebralcolumn. Membranes of the spinal cordand...
Spontaneous      abortion:    Loss     ofpregnancy during the first 20 weeks ofgestation.Surfactant: Phospholipids present...
Syphilis: Sexually transmitted venerealinfection caused by treponema pallidum.Tay-Sachs disease: Inherited diseasecharacte...
Telangiectasias: Dilatation or swelling ofa small blood vessel. Sometimes calledan angioma. During pregnancy, anothercommo...
Thalassemia:       Group   of     inheriteddisorders of hemoglobin metabolism,which results in a decrease in the amountof ...
Thrush:   Monilial   or   yeast   infectionoccurring in the mouth or mucousmembranes of a newborn infant.Tocolysis: Stoppi...
Transverse lie: Fetus is turned sidewaysin uterus.Trichomonal      vaginitis:     Venerealinfection caused by trichomonas....
Trophoblast: Cell layer important inearly development of the embryo andfetus. It provides nourishment from themother to th...
Trophoblast
Umbilical cord: Cord that connects theplacenta to the developing baby. Itremoves waste products and carbondioxide   from  ...
Umbilical cord
Ureters: Tubes from the kidneys to thebladder that drain urine.Uterine atony: Lack of tone of uterus.Uterus: Organ an embr...
Vacuum extractor: Device used toprovide traction on fetal head duringdelivery.
Vacuum extractor
Varicose veins: Blood vessels (veins)that are dilated or enlarged.
Varicose veins
Vernix: Fatty substance made up ofepithelial cells that cover fetal skin insidethe uterus.
Vernix
Vertex: Head first.Villi:   Projection   from   a   mucousmembrane; most important within theplacenta in the exchange of n...
Villi
Womb: Organ an embryo/fetus growsin. Also called a uterus.Zygote: Cell that results from the unionof a sperm and egg at fe...
Zygote
Abdominal Gestation : Implantation of afertilized ovum outside the uterus butinside the peritoneal cavity.
Abdominal Gestation
Abortion : Termination of pregnancybefore the fetus is viable and capable ofextra uterine existence, usually less than20 w...
Acini cells : Milk producing cells in thebreast.AGA : Appropriate for Gestational Age.Amnioinfusion : Infusion of normal s...
Amnioinfusion
Amnionitis : Inflammation of theamnion, occurring most frequently afterearly rupture of membrane.Amniotic fluid embolism :...
Amniotomy : Artificial rupture of theFetal membranes (AROM).
Amniotomy
Apt test : Differentiation of maternalAnd fetal Blood when there is vaginalbleeding.
Artificial rupture of membrane :Rupture of membranes using a plasticamnihook or surgical clamp.
Augmentation of labor : ArtificialStimulation of uterine contractions afterlabor has started spontaneously but itis not pr...
Biophysical     profile      :    Noninvasiveassessment     of      the   fetus   and     itsenvironment using ultrasonogr...
Bishop’s score : Rating system toevaluate inducibility of the cervix; a higherscore increases the rate of successfulinduct...
Bishop’s score
Cephalopelvic dispropotion : The accuratedefinition   of   cephalopelvic   disproportion(CPD) is when a babys head or body...
Cerclage
Curettage : Scrapping of endometrium liningof the uterus with a curette to remove thecontents of the uterus or to obtain s...
Disparate twins : Twins who aredifferent and distinct from one another.
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation(DIC) : Pathologic form of coagulation inwhich clotting factors are consumed to anex...
Disseminated Intravascular      Coagulation
Dizygotic : Related to or proceeding fromtwo zygotes.Dubowitz assessment : Estimation ofgestational age of a newborn based...
Dysfunctional labor : Abnormal uterinecontractions that prevent normal progressof cervical dilatation and progressDysfunct...
Dystocia    :   Prolonged,   painful   ordifficult birth because of mechanicalfactors produced by the passenger orthe pass...
Gynecology : Study of disease of thefemale, especially of the genital, urinaryand rectal organs.HELLP      syndrome       ...
Hypotonic uterine dysfunction:Weak,neffective uterine contractions usuallyoccurring in the Active phase of labor; oftenrel...
External Cephalic Version (ECV) :Turning the fetus to a vertex position byexertion of pressure on the fetusexternally   th...
External Cephalic Version (ECV)
Kangaroo Care : Skin-to-skin infantcare, especially for preterm infants,which provides warmth to infant. Infantis placed n...
Kangaroo Care
Large for Dates (Large for gestationalage [LGA]): exhibiting excessive growthfor gestational age.
Large for Dates (Large for gestational age [LGA])
Low Birth Weight (LBW) : An infantbirth weight of less than 2500 g.
Low Birth Weight
Multigravida : Woman who has beenpregnant two or more timesMultipara : Women who has carriedtwo or more pregnancies to via...
Nulligravida : Women who has neverbeen pregnant.Nullipara : Women who has not yetcarried a pregnancy to viability.
Percutaneous Umbilical Blood Sampling(PUBS) : Procedure during which the fetalumbilical vessel is accessed for bloodsampli...
Percutaneous Umbilical   Blood Sampling
Postdate Birth : Birth of an infant after42 weeks of gestation.Post-mature Infant : Infant born at orafter the beginning o...
Precipitous Labor : Rapid or sudden labor ofless 3 hours beginning from onset of cervicalchanges to completed birth of neo...
Pregestational Diabetes : Diabetes mellitustype I or type II that exists before pregnancyPregnancy0Induced Hypertension (P...
Preterm Rupture of Membranes :Spontaneous rupture of membranesbefore 37 weeks of gestation.PROM : Premature (before 38 wee...
Preterm Rupture of Membranes
Prolapsed Cord : Protrusion of theumbilical   cord in advance of thepresenting part.
Prolapsed Cord
Small for Dates (Small for gestationalage [SGA]) : Refers to inadequategrowth for gestational age.Spontaneous Rupture of M...
Stillbirth : The birth of a baby after 20weeks of gestation and 1 day or 350 g.(depending on the state code) that does not...
Tocolytic Drug : Drug used to relax the uterus, tosuppress preterm labor, or for version.TORCH      Infections   :   Infec...
Uteroplacental Insufficiency (UPI) : Declinein placental function-exchange of gases,nutrients and wastes-leading to fetal ...
Vaginal Birth After Cesarean (VBAC) :Giving birth vaginally after having had aprevious cesarean birth.Vasectomy : Ligation...
Viable, Viability : Capable, capability ofliving, as in a fetus that has reached astage   of   development,    usually   2...
TerminologiesPuberty – It is the period of sexualmaturation accompanied by developmentof secondary sexual characteristics ...
Menstruation    –    Periodic   vaginaldischarge of bloody fluid from the non-pregnant uterus ( From puberty tomenopause )...
Ovum – Female reproductive cellSperm – Male reproductive cellGametogenesis       –   Development      andMaturation of the...
Gonad – Reproductive gland that producesgametes and sex hormonesOvary – Female gonadTestes – Male GonadOvulation – Release...
Coitus – Sexual union of male and female
   Ejaculation – Expulsion of semen from    penis
   Conceptus – Cell & Membranes    resulting from fertilization of the ovum at    any stage of prenatal development
   Zygote – Cell formed by union of ovum
   Nidation – Implantation of the fertilized    ovum in the uterine endometrium
   Embryo – The developing baby from the    beginning of 3rd week through 8th week    after conception
   Fetus - The developing baby from 9th    week after conception until birth
 Endometrium – Lining of the uterus Decidua – Name of the Endometrium  during pregnancy
   Placenta – Fetal structure that provides    nourishment, removes wastes from the    developing baby and secretes hormo...
   Abortion – A spontaneous or elective    termination of pregnancy before 20th    week of gestation
   Trimester – A division of pregnancy into    3 equal parts
   Preterm birth – A birth that occurs after    the 20th week & before the start of 38th    week of gestation
   Quickening – The first movement of the    fetus in the uterus felt by the mother
   Term birth – A birth that occurs between    the 38th and 42 weeks of gestation
   Striae gravidarum - Irregular reddish    streaks on the abdomen, breasts or    thighs resulting from tare in connectiv...
   Chloasma – Brownish pigmentation of    the face during pregnancy - Mask of    pregnancy
   Braxton Hicks contractions – Irregular,    mild uterine contractions that occur    throughout the pregnancy
Abortion A pregnancy that ends before 20 weeks’ gestation, either spontaneously or electively. Miscarriage is a lay term f...
Amniotomy       Artificial rupture of the amniotic sac(fetal membranes).
Attitude     Relationship of fetal body parts to oneanother.
Bloody ShowMixture of cervical mucus and blood fromruptured capillaries in the cervix. Bloody showoften precedes labor and...
Braxton Hicks Contractions      Irregular, mild uterine contractions thatoccur throughout pregnancy. Thesecontractions bec...
Caput Succedaneum       Area of edema over the presenting part ofthe fetus or newborn, resulting from pressureagainst the ...
Crowning      Appearance of the fetal scalp orpresenting part at the vaginal opening.
EDD      Abbreviation for estimated date ofdelivery. This date may also be abbreviatedEDB (estimated date of birth).
Engagement       Descent of the widest diameter of thefetal presenting part to at least a zero station(the level of the is...
Episiotomy      Surgical incision of the perineum toenlarge the vaginal opening
Fontanel     Space at the intersection of suturesconnecting fetal or infant skull bones.
Gravida      A pregnant woman. Also refers to awoman’s total number of pregnancies,including the one in progress, it appli...
Lie       Relationship of the long axis of the fetusto the long axis of the mother.
Lightening       Descent of the fetus toward the pelvicinlet before labor.
Lochia   Vaginal drainage after birth.
Molding    Shaping of the fetal head duringmovement through the birth canal.
Multipara       A woman who has given birth after twoor more pregnancies of at least 20 weeks’gestation. Also informally u...
Nuchal Cord   Umbilical cord around the fetal neck.
Nullipara     A woman who has not completed apregnancy to at least 20 weeks’ gestation.
ParaA woman who has given birth after apregnancy of at least 20 weeks’ gestation. Paraalso designate the number of pregnan...
Position       Relation of a fixed reference point on thefetus to the quadrants of the maternal pelvis.
Primipara       A woman who has given birth after apregnancy of at least 20 weeks of gestation.The term is also used infor...
Station       Measurement of fetal descent in relationto the ischial spines of the maternal pelvis. Seealso engagement.
Sutures     Narrow areas of flexible tissue thatconnect the fetal skull bones, permitting slightmovement during labor.
VBAC      Abbreviation for vaginal birth aftercesarean birth.
CONCEPTUS      Cells and membranes resulting from fertilization of the ovum at any stage of            prenatal development.
CORPUS LUTEUM     Graffian follicle cells remaining afterovulation. These cells produce estrogenand progesterone.
EJACULATION  Expulsion of semen from the penis.
EMBRYO     The developing baby from thebeginning of the third week through theeighth week after conception.
ENDOMETRIUM      Lining of the uterus.
FERTILIZATION AGE     Prenatal age of the developing baby,calculated from the date of conception.Also called post concepti...
FETUS      The developing baby from 9 weeksafter conception until birth. In everydaypractice, this term is of ten used tod...
GAMETE    Reproductive cell: in the female anovum, and in the male a spermatozoon.
GESTATIONAL AGE       Prenatal age of the developing baby(measured in weeks) calculated from thefirst day of the woman’s l...
GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE      A small sac within the ovary. Thegraafian follicle contains the maturingovum.
NIDATION     Implantation of the fertilized ovum(Zygote) in the uterine endomertrium.
OOGENESIS     Formation of gametes (ova) in thefemale.
OVULATION     Release of the mature ovum from theovary.
PLACENTA     Fetal structure that providesnourishment, removes wastes from thedeveloping baby, and secrete hormonesnecessa...
SPERMATOGENESIS         Formation of male gametes, or germcells.
ZYGOTECell formed by union of an ovum and sperm.
Terminologies Amniotic      fluid   embolism    :     Embolism  resulting from amniotic fluid entering the  maternal bloo...
Terminologies Bearing-down     effort:“Secondary powers”;  energy   exerted    by   the   woman   during  contractions to...
Terminologies   Bloody show: Vaginal discharge that originates    in the cervix and consists of blood and mucus;    incre...
Terminologies Caul:   Hood of fetal membranes covering fetal head during birth. Cephalic   :Pertaining to the head. Cro...
Terminologies   Dilatation of cervix: Stretching of the external    os from an opening a few millimeters in size to    an...
Terminologies   Engagement :In obstetrics, the entrance of the    fetal presenting part into the superior pelvic    strai...
Terminologies External     cephalic        version     (ECV): Turning the fetus to a vertex position by exertion    of   ...
Terminologies Fontanel   :Broad area, or soft spot, consisting of a strong band of connective tissue continuous with cran...
Terminologies   Kangaroo care: Skin-to-skin infant care, especially    for preterm infants, which provides warmth to    i...
Terminologies   Large for dates (large for gestational age (LGA)):Exhibiting excessive growth for gestational age.   Lie...
Terminologies   Lightening :Sensation of decreased abdominal    distention produced by uterine descent into pelvic    cav...
Terminologies   Low birth weight (LBW): An infant birth weight    of less than 2500 g.   Molding: Overlapping of cranial...
Terminologies Multipara   : Woman who has carried two or more pregnancies to viability, whether they ended in live infant...
Terminologies Nulligravida   : Woman who has never been  pregnant. Nullipara:   Woman who has not yet carried a  pregnan...
Terminologies   Percutaneous      umbilical     blood   sampling    (PUBS) : Procedure during which the fetal    umbilica...
Terminologies Postdate   birth: Birth of an infant after 42 weeks of gestation. Post   mature infant: Infant born at or ...
Terminologies   Precipitous labor: Rapid or sudden labor of    less than 3 hours beginning from onset of    cervical chan...
Terminologies Pregestational   diabetes: Diabetes mellitus type I or type II that exists before pregnancy. Pregnancy-ind...
Terminologies Presentation:   That part of the fetus that first enters the pelvis and lies over the inlet: may be head, f...
Terminologies Preterm      rupture     of    membranes: Spontaneous rupture of membranes before 37 weeks of gestation Pr...
Terminologies Ring   of fire: Burning sensation as vagina stretches and fetal head crowns. Ritgen   maneuver:      Proce...
Terminologies Sims’   position: Position in which the client lies on the left side with the right knee and thigh drawn up...
Terminologies Station   : Relationship of the presenting fetal  part to an imaginary line drawn between the  ischial spin...
Terminologies Subinvolution   : Failure of a part (for example, the uterus) to reduce to its normal size and condition af...
Terminologies Third   stage : Stage of labor from the birth of the baby to the expulsion of the placenta. Tocolytic   dr...
Terminologies TORCH    infections : Infections caused by organisms that damage the embryo or fetus; acronym     for    to...
Terminologies Uteroplacental     insufficiency (UPI): Decline in placental function-exchange of gases, nutrients, and was...
Terminologies Vaccum       extraction:    Birth   involving attachment of vaccum cup fetal head and using negative pressu...
Terminologies Valsalva   maneuver : The process of making a forceful attempt at expulsion while holding one’s breath and ...
Terminologies Vertex    : Crown or top of the head. Very   low birth weight (VLBW): Refers to  infant weighing 1500 g or...
Terminologies   After Pain – Cramping pain following    childbirth , caused by alternating    relaxation & contraction of...
   Atony – Absence or lack of usual muscle    tone
 Attachment :     Development of strong affectional ties  as a result of interaction between an infant  and a significant...
   Catabolism:             A destructive process that converts    living cells into simpler compounds.    Process involve...
   Decidua:              Term referring to the endometrium    during pregnancy. All except the deepest    layer is shed a...
   Diastasis Recti:             Separation of the longitudinal muscles    of the abdomen (rectus abdominis) during    pre...
   Dysparenuia:           Difficult or painful coitus in women
   En Face:       Position that allows eye-to-eye contact    between the newborn and a parent. Optimal    distance is 20 ...
   Engorgement:            Swelling of the breasts resulting    from increased blood flow and the presence    of milk
   Engrossment:             Intense fascination and close face-    to-face observation between father and    newborn
   Episiotomy:            Surgical incision of the perineum to    enlarge the vaginal opening
   Involution:             Retrogressive changes that return    the reproductive organs, particularly the    uterus, to t...
   Kegel Exercises:             Alternate contraction and relaxing    of the pelvic muscles
   Lactation :            Secretion of milk from the breasts    The period of time of breast feeding
   Lochia alba:            Whitish or clear vaginal discharge
   Lochia rubra:             Reddish vaginal discharge
   Lochia Serosa            Pinkish or brown-tinged vaginal    discharge
   Milk-ejection reflex:             Release of milk from the alveoli    into the ducts. (letdown reflex)
   Oxytocin:             Posterior pituitary hormone that    stimulates uterine contractions and Milk-    ejection reflex
   Postpartum Blues:                 Temporary, self-limiting    period of weepiness
   Prolactin:             anterior pituitary hormone    (growth of breast tissue and production    of milk)
   Puerperium:              Period from the end of childbirth    until involution of the uterus is complete,    approxima...
   REEDA:           Acronym   for    Redness,    Ecchymosis, Edema, Discharge and    Approximation
Abdominal Gestation : Implantation of afertilized ovum outside the uterus but inside theperitoneal cavity.Abortion : Termi...
Acini cells : Milk producing cells in thebreast.AGA : Appropriate for Gestational Age.Amniocentesis : Procedure in which n...
Amnioinfusion : Infusion of normal salinewarmed to body temperature through an intrauterine catheter into the uterine cavi...
Amniotic fluid embolism : Embolism resultingfrom amniotic fluid entering the maternal bloodstream during labor and birth a...
Apt test : Differentiation of maternal and fetalBlood when there is vaginal bleeding.Artificial rupture of membrane : Rupt...
Biophysical profile : Noninvasive assessment ofthe fetus and its environment usingultrasonography and uterine fetal monito...
Breech presentation : Presentation in whichbuttocks or feet or nearest the cervical openingand are born first.Cephalopelvi...
Chorioamnionitis : Inflammatory reaction infetal membranes to bacteria or viruses in theamniotic fluid, which then become ...
Curettage : Scrapping of endometrium lining ofthe uterus with a curet to remove the contents ofthe uterus or to obtain spe...
Disparate twins : Twins who are different anddistinct from one another.Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation(DIC) : Patho...
Dizygotic : Related to or proceeding from twozygotes.Dizygotic Twins : Twins developed from twoseparate ova fertilized by ...
Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding : Abnormalbleeding from the uterus for reasons that are notreadily established.Dystocia : P...
Eclampsia : Severe complication of pregnancy,more often in primi gravida, characterized bytonic and clonic convulsions, co...
Forceps assisted birth : Birth in which twocurved bladed instruments are used to assist indelivery of the fetal head.Gesta...
HELLP syndrome : Condition characterized byhemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and lowplatelet count; is a form of severe e...
TAH-BSO : Total abdominal hysterectomy andbilateral salpingo-oophorectomy; removal ofuterus, both tubes and ovaries.Incomp...
IUGR : Fetal under growth of any cause, such asdeficient nutrient supply or intrauterineinfection, or associated with cong...
External Cephalic Version (ECV) : Turning the  fetus to a vertex position by exertion of pressure  on the fetus externally...
Large for Dates (Large for festational age  [LGA]): exhibiting excessive growth for  gestational age.Low Birth Weight (LBW...
Non-stress Test (NST) : Evaluation of fetal  response (fetal heart rate) to natural contractile  uterine activity or to an...
Oligohydramnios : Abnormally small amount or  absence of amniotic fluid; often indicative of  fetal urinary tract defect.P...
Post-mature Infant : Infant born at or after the  beginning of week 43 of gestation or later and  exhibiting signs of dysm...
Pregestational Diabetes : Diabetes mellitus type I  or type II that exists before pregnancyPregnancy0Induced Hypertension ...
Preterm Rupture of Membranes : Spontaneous  rupture of membranes before 37 weeks of  gestation.Prolapsed Cord : Protrusion...
Spontaneous Rupture of Membranes : Rupture of  membranes by natural means.Stillbirth : The birth of a baby after 20 weeks ...
Tocolytic Drug : Drug used to relax the uterus, to  suppress preterm labor, or for version.TORCH Infections : Infections c...
Uteroplacental Insufficiency (UPI) : Decline in  placental function-exchange of gases, nutrients  and wastes-leading to fe...
Vaginal Birth After Cesarean (VBAC) : Giving  birth vaginally after having had a previous  cesarean birth.Vasectomy : Liga...
Viable, Viability : Capable, capability of living, as  in a fetus that has reached a stage of  development, usually 22 men...
1. obg glossaries
1. obg glossaries
1. obg glossaries
1. obg glossaries
1. obg glossaries
1. obg glossaries
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  1. 1. OBG GLOSSARIESPREPARED AND PRESENTED BYDr . S. ANUKRISHNAN,VICE PRINCIPAL CUM HOD OBG NURSING,P.D.BHARATESH COLLEGE OF NURSING,HALAGA, BELGAUM.
  2. 2. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP): Substanceproduced by the unborn baby as it growsinside the uterus.Amino acids: Substances that act asbuilding blocks in the developing embryoand fetus.Amniocentesis: Removal of amnioticfluid from the amniotic sac. Fluid is testedfor some genetic defects
  3. 3. Amniocentesis
  4. 4. Amnion: Membrane around the fetus. Itsurrounds the amniotic cavity.
  5. 5. Amnion
  6. 6. Amnion
  7. 7. Amniotic fluid: Liquid surrounding thebaby inside the amniotic sac.
  8. 8. Amniotic fluid
  9. 9. Amniotic sac: Sac that surroundsbaby inside the uterus. It containsthe baby, the placenta and theamniotic fluid.
  10. 10. Amniotic sac
  11. 11. Anencephaly: Defective development ofthe brain combined with the absence ofthe bones normally surrounding the brain.
  12. 12. Anencephaly
  13. 13. Anovulatory: Lack of or cessation ofovulation.Areola: Pigmented or colored ringsurrounding the nipple of the breast.
  14. 14. Arrhythmia: Irregular or missedheartbeat.Aspiration: Swallowing or sucking aforeign body or fluid, such as vomit, intoan airway.Auto antibodies: Antibodies that attackparts of your body or your own tissues.
  15. 15. Atonic uterus: Flaccid; relaxed; lack oftone.
  16. 16. Bilirubin: Breakdown product of pigmentformed in the liver from hemoglobinduring the destruction of red blood cells.Biophysical profile: Method ofevaluating a fetus before birth.
  17. 17. Biopsy: Removal of a small piece oftissue for microscopic study.
  18. 18. Blastomere: One of the cells egg dividesinto after it has been fertilized.
  19. 19. Blastomere
  20. 20. Bloody show: Small amount of vaginalbleeding late in pregnancy; oftenprecedes labor.
  21. 21. Bloody show
  22. 22. Braxton-Hicks contractions: Irregular,painless tightening of uterus duringpregnancy.Cataract, congenital: Cloudiness of theeye lens present at birth.
  23. 23. Breech presentation: Abnormal positionof the fetus. Buttocks or legs come intothe birth canal ahead of the head.
  24. 24. Breech presentation
  25. 25. Cesarean section (delivery): Delivery ofa baby through an abdominal incisionrather than through the vagina.
  26. 26. Cesarean section
  27. 27. Chadwicks sign: Dark-blue or purplediscoloration of the mucosa of the vaginaand cervix during pregnancy.
  28. 28. Chloasma: Extensive brown patches ofirregular shape and size on the face orother parts of the body.
  29. 29. Chloasma
  30. 30. Choriocarcinoma: Highly malignantcancer that grows in the uterus duringpregnancy or at the site of an ectopicpregnancy.Chorion: Outermost fetal membranefound around the amnion.
  31. 31. Chorion
  32. 32. Chorionic villus sampling: Diagnostictest done early in pregnancy. A biopsy oftissue is taken from inside the uterusthrough the cervical opening to determineabnormalities of pregnancy.Colostrum: Thin, yellow fluid, which isthe first milk to come from the breast.
  33. 33. Chorionic villus sampling
  34. 34. Colostrum: Thin, yellow fluid, which isthe first milk to come from the breast.
  35. 35. Colostrum
  36. 36. Conization of the cervix: Surgicalprocedure performed on premalignantand malignant conditions of the cervix. Alarge biopsy of the cervix is taken in theshape of a cone.
  37. 37. Conization of the cervix
  38. 38. Conjoined twins: Twins connected atthe body; they may share vital organs.Also called Siamese twins.
  39. 39. Conjoined twins
  40. 40. Constipation: Bowel movements areinfrequent or incomplete.Contraction stress test: Response offetus to uterine contractions to evaluatefetal well-being.
  41. 41. Contraction stress test
  42. 42. Corpusluteum: Area in the ovary wherethe egg is released at ovulation.
  43. 43. Corpusluteum
  44. 44. Crown-to-rump length: Measurementfrom the top of the babys head to thebuttocks of the baby.
  45. 45. Crown-to-rump length
  46. 46. Cystitis: Inflammation of the bladder.Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection:Group of viruses from the herpes virusfamily.
  47. 47. D&C (dilatation and curettage):Surgical procedure in which the cervix isdilated and the lining of the uterus isscraped.
  48. 48. Dilatation and curettage
  49. 49. Developmental delay: Condition inwhich the development of the baby orchild is slower than normal.
  50. 50. Diastasis recti: Separation of abdominalmuscles.
  51. 51. Diastasis recti
  52. 52. Dizygotic twins: Twins derived from twodifferent eggs. Often called fraternaltwins.
  53. 53. Dizygotic twins
  54. 54. Dysplasia: Abnormal, precancerouschanges in the cells of the cervix.Dysuria: Difficulty or pain urinating.
  55. 55. EDC (estimated date of confinement):Anticipated due date for delivery of thebaby. Calculated from the first day of thelast menstrual period.Eclampsia: Convulsions and coma in awoman with pre-eclampsia. Not related toepilepsy.
  56. 56. Ectodermal germ layer: Layer in thedeveloping embryo that gives rise todeveloping structures in the fetus. Theseinclude skin, teeth and glands of themouth, the nervous system and thepituitary gland.
  57. 57. Ectodermal germ layer
  58. 58. Ectopic pregnancy: Pregnancy thatoccurs outside the uterine cavity.
  59. 59. Ectopic pregnancy
  60. 60. Effacement: Thinning of cervix.
  61. 61. Effacement
  62. 62. Embryo: Organism in the early stages ofdevelopment.Embryonic period: First 10 weeks ofgestation.
  63. 63. Embryo
  64. 64. Embryo
  65. 65. Endodermal germ layer: Area of tissuein early development of the embryo thatgives rise to other structures. Theseinclude the digestive tract, respiratoryorgans, vagina, bladder and urethra.Also called endoderm or entoderm.
  66. 66. Endometrial cycle: Regulardevelopment of the mucous membranelining the inside of the uterus. It beginswith the preparation for acceptance of apregnancy and ends with the shedding ofthe lining during a menstrual period.
  67. 67. Endometrium: Mucous membrane thatlines inside of the uterine wall.
  68. 68. Endometrium
  69. 69. Engorgement: Congested; filled withfluid.Enzyme: Protein made by cells. It acts asa catalyst to improve or cause chemicalchanges in other substances.
  70. 70. Epidural block: Type of anesthesia.Medication is injected around the spinalcord during labor or other types ofsurgery.
  71. 71. Epidural block
  72. 72. Episiotomy: Surgical incision of thevulva (area behind the vagina, above therectum). Used during delivery to avoidtearing or laceration of the vaginalopening and rectum.
  73. 73. Episiotomy
  74. 74. Face presentation: Baby comes into thebirth canal face first.
  75. 75. Face presentation
  76. 76. Fallopian tube: Tube that leads from thecavity of the uterus to the area of theovary. Also called uterine tube.False labor: Tightening of uterus withoutdilatation of the cervix.Fasting blood sugar: Blood test toevaluate the amount of sugar in the bloodfollowing a time period of fasting.
  77. 77. FertilizationJoining of thesperm and egg.
  78. 78. Fertilization ageDating a pregnancy from the time offertilization. 2 weeks earlier than thegestational age.
  79. 79. Fetal anomaly: Fetal malformation orabnormal development.Fetal goiter: Enlargement of the thyroidin the fetus.
  80. 80. Fetal-growth retardation (IUGR)Inadequategrowth of thefetus during thelast stages ofpregnancy.
  81. 81. Fetal monitor: Device used before orduring labor to listen to and record thefetal heartbeat. Can be externalmonitoring (through maternal abdomen)or internal monitoring (through maternalvagina) of the baby inside the uterus.
  82. 82. Fetal monitor
  83. 83. Fetus: Refers to the unborn baby after10 weeks of gestation until birth.
  84. 84. Fetus
  85. 85. Fetal period: Time period followingthe embryonic period (first 10 weeks ofgestation) until birth.
  86. 86. Fetal period
  87. 87. Forceps: Instrument used to helpremove baby from the birth canalduring delivery.
  88. 88. Forceps
  89. 89. Frank breech: Baby presenting buttocksfirst. Legs are flexed and knees extended.
  90. 90. Breech
  91. 91. Genetic counseling: Consultationbetween a couple and a specialist aboutgenetic defects and the possibility ofgenetic problems in a pregnancy.
  92. 92. Genital herpes simplex: Herpessimplex infection involving the genitalarea. It can be significant duringpregnancy because of the danger to anewborn fetus infected with herpessimplex.
  93. 93. Genitourinary problems: Defects orproblems involving genital organs andthe bladder or kidneys.
  94. 94. Gestational ageDating a pregnancy from the first dayof the last menstrual period; 2 weekslonger than fertilization age.
  95. 95. Gestational diabetesOccurrence or worsening of diabetesduring pregnancy (gestation).
  96. 96. Gestational trophoblastic disease(GTN): Abnormal pregnancy with cysticgrowth of the placenta. Characterized bybleeding during early and middlepregnancy.
  97. 97. Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTN)
  98. 98. Glucose-tolerance test: Blood testdone to evaluate the bodys responseto sugar.Glucosuria: Glucose in the urine.
  99. 99. Gonorrhea: Contagious venerealinfection, transmitted primarily byintercourse. Caused by the bacteriaNeisseria gonorrhea.Group-B streptococcal infection:Serious infection occurring in themothers vagina and throat.
  100. 100. Habitual abortion: Occurrence ofthree or more spontaneousmiscarriages.
  101. 101. Habitual abortion
  102. 102. Heartburn: Discomfort or pain thatoccurs in the chest. Often occurs aftereating.Hematocrit: Determines the proportion ofblood cells to plasma. Important indiagnosing anemia.Hemoglobin: Pigment in red blood cellthat carries oxygen to body tissues.
  103. 103. Heartburn
  104. 104. Hematocrit: Determines the proportionof blood cells to plasma. Important indiagnosing anemia.Hemoglobin: Pigment in red blood cellthat carries oxygen to body tissues.
  105. 105. Hemolytic disease: Destruction of redblood cells.Hemorrhoids: Dilated blood vessels inthe rectum or rectal canal.
  106. 106. Human chorionic gonadatropin(HCG): Hormone produced in earlypregnancy. Measured in a pregnancytest.
  107. 107. Human placental lactogen: Hormoneof pregnancy produced by the placenta.Found in the bloodstream.Hyaline membrane disease:Respiratory disease of the newborn
  108. 108. Hydramnios: Increased amniotic fluid.
  109. 109. Hydramnios
  110. 110. Hydrocephalus:Excessiveaccumulation offluid around thebrain of the baby.Sometimes calledwater on the brain.
  111. 111. Hyperbilirubinemia: Extremely highlevel of bilirubin in the blood.Hyperemesis gravidarum: Severenausea, dehydration and vomiting duringpregnancy. Occurs most frequentlyduring the first trimester.Hyperglycemia: Increased blood sugar.
  112. 112. Hypertension: Pregnancy-induced-highblood pressure that occurs duringpregnancy. Defined by an increase in thediastolic and/or systolic blood pressure.Hyperthyroidism: Elevation of thethyroid hormone in the bloodstream.
  113. 113. Hypoplasia: Defective or incompletedevelopment or formation of tissue.Hypotension: Low blood pressure.Hypothyroidism: Low or inadequatelevels of thyroid hormone in thebloodstream
  114. 114. Immune globulin preparation:Substance used to protect againstinfection with certain diseases, such ashepatitis or measles.In utero: Within the uterus.
  115. 115. Incompetent cervix : Cervix that isunable to remain closed until pregnancyreaches term because of a mechanicaldefect in the cervix resulting in thedilatation and effacement usually secondor early third trimester of pregnancy.
  116. 116. Incompetent cervix
  117. 117. Incomplete abortion: Miscarriage inwhich part, but not all, of the uterinecontents are expelled.
  118. 118. Incomplete abortion
  119. 119. Inevitable abortion: Pregnancycomplicated with bleeding andcramping. Usually results inmiscarriage.
  120. 120. Insulin: Peptide hormone made by thepancreas. It promotes the use ofglucose.Invasive squamous-cell carcinoma:Cancer of the cervix that extends beyondthe cervix into surrounding tissues ordeeper layers.
  121. 121. Iron-deficiency anemia: Anemiaproduced by lack of iron in the diet. Oftenseen in pregnancy.
  122. 122. Isoimmunization: Development ofspecific antibody directed at the redblood cells of another individual, suchas a baby in utero. Often occurs whenan Rh-negative woman carries an Rh-positive baby or is given Rh-positiveblood.
  123. 123. Jaundice: Yellow staining of the skin,sclera (eyes) and deeper tissues of thebody. Caused by excessive amounts ofbilirubin. Treated with phototherapy.
  124. 124. Ketones: Breakdown product ofmetabolism found in the blood,particularly in starvation or uncontrolleddiabetes.Kidney stones: Small mass or lesionfound in the kidney or urinary tract. Canblock the flow of urine.
  125. 125. Laaoo: Process of expelling a fetus fromthe uterus.Laparoscopy: Minor surgical procedureperformed for tubal ligation, diagnosis ofpelvic pain or diagnosis of ectopicpregnancy.
  126. 126. Leukorrhea: Vaginal dischargecharacterized by a white or yellowishcolor. Primarily composed of mucus.Lightening: Change in the shape of thepregnant uterus a few weeks beforelabor. Often described as the baby"dropping.“
  127. 127. Lineanigra: Line of increasedpigmentation running down the abdomenfrom the bellybutton to the pubic areaduring pregnancy.
  128. 128. Linea nigra
  129. 129. Malignant GTN: Cancerous change ofgestational trophoblastic disease.Mammogram: X-ray study of thebreasts to identify normal and abnormalbreast tissue.
  130. 130. Mask of pregnancy: Increasedpigmentation over the area of the faceunder each eye. Commonly has theappearance of a butterfly.
  131. 131. Meconium: First intestinal discharge ofthe newborn; green or yellow in colour. Itconsists of epithelial or surface cells,mucus and bile. Discharge may occurbefore or during labor or soon after birth.
  132. 132. Melanoma: Pigmented mole or tumor. Itmay or may not be cancerous.Meningomyelocele: Congenital defectof the central nervous system of thebaby. Membranes and the spinal cordprotrude through an opening or defect inthe vertebral column.
  133. 133. Menstruation: Regular or periodic dischargeof a bloody fluid from the uterus.Mesodermal germ layer: Tissue of theembryo that forms connective tissue,muscles, kidneys, ureters and other organs.Metaplasia: Change in the structure of atissue into another type that is not normal forthat tissue.
  134. 134. MicrocephalyAbnormally smalldevelopment ofthe head in thedeveloping fetus.
  135. 135. Microphthalmia: Abnormally smalleyeballs.
  136. 136. Miscarriage: Abortion.Missed abortion: Failed pregnancywithout bleeding or cramping. Oftendiagnosed by ultrasound weeks ormonths after a pregnancy fails.
  137. 137. Mittelschmerz: Pain that coincides withrelease of an egg from the ovary.Monilial vulvovaginitis: Infectioncaused by yeast or monilia. Usuallyaffects the vagina and vulva.
  138. 138. Monozygotic twins: Twins conceivedfrom one egg. Often called identicaltwins.Morning sickness: Nausea andvomiting, without ill health, foundprimarily during the first trimester ofpregnancy.
  139. 139. Morula: Cells resulting from the earlydivision of the fertilized egg at thebeginning of pregnancy.Mucus plug: Secretions in cervix; oftenreleased just before labor.Mutations: Change in the character of agene. Passed from one cell division toanother.
  140. 140. Neural-tube defects: Abnormalities inthe development of the spinal cord andbrain in a fetus. Anencephaly;Hydrocephalus; Spina bifida.
  141. 141. Hydrocephalus
  142. 142. Spinabifida
  143. 143. OligohydramniosLack ordeficiency ofamniotic fluid.
  144. 144. OmphalocelePresence ofcongenital out-pouching of theumbilicus containinginternal organs in thefetus or newborninfant.
  145. 145. Organogenesis: Development of theorgan systems in the embryo.Ossification: Bone formation.Ovarian cycle: Regular production ofhormones from the ovary in response tohormonal messages from the brain. Theovarian cycle governs the endometrialcycle.
  146. 146. Ovulation: Cyclical production of anegg from the ovary.Oxytocin: Medication that causesuterine contractions.
  147. 147. Pap smear: A routine screening test thatevaluates the presence of premalignantor cancerous conditions of the cervix.
  148. 148. Para cervical block: Local anesthetic forcervical dilatation.
  149. 149. Para cervical block
  150. 150. Pelvimetry: Evaluation of the size of thebirth canal or pelvis. Performed by X-ray.
  151. 151. Pelvimetry
  152. 152. Physiologic anemia of pregnancy:Anemia during pregnancy caused by anincrease in the amount of plasma (fluid)in the blood compared to the number ofcells in the blood.
  153. 153. Placenta: Organ inside the uterus that isattached to the baby by the umbilicalcord. Essential during pregnancy forgrowth and development of the embryoand fetus.
  154. 154. Placenta
  155. 155. Placenta accreta: Placenta thatattaches to muscle of uterus.Placenta increta: Placenta that growsinto muscle of uterus.Placenta percreta: Placenta thatpenetrates muscle of uterus.
  156. 156. Placenta previa: Low attachment of theplacenta, covering or very close to thecervix.Placental abruption: Premature separationof the placenta from the uterus.Placentamegaly: Abnormally large growthof the placenta during pregnancy.
  157. 157. Placenta previa
  158. 158. Placental abruption: Prematureseparation of the placenta from theuterus.
  159. 159. Placental abruption
  160. 160. Placentamegaly: Abnormally largegrowth of the placenta during pregnancy.
  161. 161. Pneumonitis: Inflammation of thelungs.Premature baby: Baby born before 37weeks.
  162. 162. Premature baby
  163. 163. Postnatal blues: Mild depression afterdelivery.Postpartum depression: Depressionafter delivery.
  164. 164. Postpartum depression
  165. 165. Postpartum hemorrhage: Bleedinggreater than 15 ounces (450ml) at timeof delivery.
  166. 166. Postpartum hemorrhage
  167. 167. Pre-eclampsia: Combination ofsymptoms significant to pregnancy,including high blood pressure, edema,swelling and changes in reflexes.
  168. 168. Premature delivery: Delivery before37 weeks gestation.Presentation: Describes which part ofthe baby comes into the birth canalfirst.
  169. 169. Proteinuria: Protein in urine.Pruritis gravidarum: Itching duringpregnancy.Pubic symphysis: Bony prominence inthe pelvic bone found in the midline.Landmark from which the doctor oftenmeasures during pregnancy to followgrowth of the uterus.
  170. 170. Pubic symphysis
  171. 171. Pulmonary embolism: Blood clot fromanother part of the body that travels tothe lungs. Can cause closed passagesin the lungs and decrease oxygenexchange.
  172. 172. Pulmonary embolism
  173. 173. Pyelonephritis: Serious kidneyinfection.Quickening: Feeling the baby moveinside the uterus.
  174. 174. Rh-negative: Absence of rhesusantibody in the blood.RhoGAM: Medication given duringpregnancy and following delivery toprevent isoimmunization.
  175. 175. Round-ligament pain: Pain caused bystretching ligament on the sides of theuterus during pregnancy.Rupture of membranes: Loss of fluidfrom the amniotic sac. Also calledbreaking of waters.
  176. 176. Spinabifida: Congenital abnormalitycharacterized by a defect in the vertebralcolumn. Membranes of the spinal cordand the spinal cord protrude outside theprotective bony canal of the spine.Spinal anesthesia: Anesthesia given inthe spinal canal.
  177. 177. Spontaneous abortion: Loss ofpregnancy during the first 20 weeks ofgestation.Surfactant: Phospholipids present in thelungs. Controls surface tension of lungs.Premature babies often lack sufficientamounts of surfactant to breathe withoutassistance.
  178. 178. Syphilis: Sexually transmitted venerealinfection caused by treponema pallidum.Tay-Sachs disease: Inherited diseasecharacterized by mental and physicalretardation, convulsions, enlargement ofthe head and eventually death.
  179. 179. Telangiectasias: Dilatation or swelling ofa small blood vessel. Sometimes calledan angioma. During pregnancy, anothercommon name is a spider angioma.Teratogenic: Causes abnormaldevelopment.
  180. 180. Thalassemia: Group of inheriteddisorders of hemoglobin metabolism,which results in a decrease in the amountof hemoglobin formed.Threatened abortion: Bleeding duringthe first trimester of pregnancy withoutcramping or contractions.Thrombosis: Formation of a blood clot(thrombus).
  181. 181. Thrush: Monilial or yeast infectionoccurring in the mouth or mucousmembranes of a newborn infant.Tocolysis: Stopping contractions duringpremature labor.Toxoplasmosis: Infection caused bytoxoplasma gondii.
  182. 182. Transverse lie: Fetus is turned sidewaysin uterus.Trichomonal vaginitis: Venerealinfection caused by trichomonas.Trimester: Method of dividing pregnancyinto three equal time periods of about 13weeks each.
  183. 183. Trophoblast: Cell layer important inearly development of the embryo andfetus. It provides nourishment from themother to the fetus and participates in theformation of the placenta.
  184. 184. Trophoblast
  185. 185. Umbilical cord: Cord that connects theplacenta to the developing baby. Itremoves waste products and carbondioxide from the baby and bringsoxygenated blood and nutrients from themother through the placenta to the baby.
  186. 186. Umbilical cord
  187. 187. Ureters: Tubes from the kidneys to thebladder that drain urine.Uterine atony: Lack of tone of uterus.Uterus: Organ an embryo/fetus grows in.Also called a womb.
  188. 188. Vacuum extractor: Device used toprovide traction on fetal head duringdelivery.
  189. 189. Vacuum extractor
  190. 190. Varicose veins: Blood vessels (veins)that are dilated or enlarged.
  191. 191. Varicose veins
  192. 192. Vernix: Fatty substance made up ofepithelial cells that cover fetal skin insidethe uterus.
  193. 193. Vernix
  194. 194. Vertex: Head first.Villi: Projection from a mucousmembrane; most important within theplacenta in the exchange of nutrientsfrom maternal blood to the placenta andfetus.
  195. 195. Villi
  196. 196. Womb: Organ an embryo/fetus growsin. Also called a uterus.Zygote: Cell that results from the unionof a sperm and egg at fertilization
  197. 197. Zygote
  198. 198. Abdominal Gestation : Implantation of afertilized ovum outside the uterus butinside the peritoneal cavity.
  199. 199. Abdominal Gestation
  200. 200. Abortion : Termination of pregnancybefore the fetus is viable and capable ofextra uterine existence, usually less than20 weeks of gestation or when the fetusweighs less than 500 g.
  201. 201. Acini cells : Milk producing cells in thebreast.AGA : Appropriate for Gestational Age.Amnioinfusion : Infusion of normal salinewarmed to body temperature through an intrauterine catheter into the uterine cavity in anattempt to increase the fluid around theumbilical cord and prevent compression duringuterine contractions.
  202. 202. Amnioinfusion
  203. 203. Amnionitis : Inflammation of theamnion, occurring most frequently afterearly rupture of membrane.Amniotic fluid embolism : EmbolismResulting from amniotic fluid enteringThe maternal blood stream during laborand birth after rupture of Membranes.
  204. 204. Amniotomy : Artificial rupture of theFetal membranes (AROM).
  205. 205. Amniotomy
  206. 206. Apt test : Differentiation of maternalAnd fetal Blood when there is vaginalbleeding.
  207. 207. Artificial rupture of membrane :Rupture of membranes using a plasticamnihook or surgical clamp.
  208. 208. Augmentation of labor : ArtificialStimulation of uterine contractions afterlabor has started spontaneously but itis not progressing satisfactorily.
  209. 209. Biophysical profile : Noninvasiveassessment of the fetus and itsenvironment using ultrasonography anduterine fetal monitoring; includes fetalbreathing movements, gross bodymovements, fetal tone, FHR, andqualitative amniotic fluid volume.
  210. 210. Bishop’s score : Rating system toevaluate inducibility of the cervix; a higherscore increases the rate of successfulinduction of labor.
  211. 211. Bishop’s score
  212. 212. Cephalopelvic dispropotion : The accuratedefinition of cephalopelvic disproportion(CPD) is when a babys head or body is toolarge to fit through the mother’s pelvisCerclage : Use of non-absorbable suture tokeep an incompetent cervix closed; releasedwhen pregnancy is at term to allow labor tobegin.
  213. 213. Cerclage
  214. 214. Curettage : Scrapping of endometrium liningof the uterus with a curette to remove thecontents of the uterus or to obtain specimensfor diagnosticpurpose.Daily Fetal Movement Counts : Maternalassessment of fetal activity; the number offetal movements within specific time arecounted.
  215. 215. Disparate twins : Twins who aredifferent and distinct from one another.
  216. 216. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation(DIC) : Pathologic form of coagulation inwhich clotting factors are consumed to anextent that generalized bleeding can occur;associated with Abruptio Placentae,eclampsia, intrauterine fetal demise, amnioticfluid embolism, and hemorrhage.
  217. 217. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
  218. 218. Dizygotic : Related to or proceeding fromtwo zygotes.Dubowitz assessment : Estimation ofgestational age of a newborn based oncriteria developed for that purpose.
  219. 219. Dysfunctional labor : Abnormal uterinecontractions that prevent normal progressof cervical dilatation and progressDysfunctional Uterine Bleeding :Abnormal bleeding from the uterus forreasons that are not readily established.
  220. 220. Dystocia : Prolonged, painful ordifficult birth because of mechanicalfactors produced by the passenger orthe passage, inadequate powers, ormaternal position.
  221. 221. Gynecology : Study of disease of thefemale, especially of the genital, urinaryand rectal organs.HELLP syndrome : Conditioncharacterized by hemolysis, elevatedliver enzymes, and low platelet count; isa form of severe eclampsia.
  222. 222. Hypotonic uterine dysfunction:Weak,neffective uterine contractions usuallyoccurring in the Active phase of labor; oftenrelated to CPD or Malposition of the fetus.TAH-BSO : Total abdominal hysterectomy andbilateral Salpingo-oophorectomy; removal ofuterus, both tubes and ovaries.
  223. 223. External Cephalic Version (ECV) :Turning the fetus to a vertex position byexertion of pressure on the fetusexternally through the maternalabdomen.
  224. 224. External Cephalic Version (ECV)
  225. 225. Kangaroo Care : Skin-to-skin infantcare, especially for preterm infants,which provides warmth to infant. Infantis placed naked or diapered againstmother’s or father’s bare chest and iscovered with parent’s shirt or a warmblanket.
  226. 226. Kangaroo Care
  227. 227. Large for Dates (Large for gestationalage [LGA]): exhibiting excessive growthfor gestational age.
  228. 228. Large for Dates (Large for gestational age [LGA])
  229. 229. Low Birth Weight (LBW) : An infantbirth weight of less than 2500 g.
  230. 230. Low Birth Weight
  231. 231. Multigravida : Woman who has beenpregnant two or more timesMultipara : Women who has carriedtwo or more pregnancies to viability,whether they ended in live infants orstillbirths.
  232. 232. Nulligravida : Women who has neverbeen pregnant.Nullipara : Women who has not yetcarried a pregnancy to viability.
  233. 233. Percutaneous Umbilical Blood Sampling(PUBS) : Procedure during which the fetalumbilical vessel is accessed for bloodsampling of for transfusions.
  234. 234. Percutaneous Umbilical Blood Sampling
  235. 235. Postdate Birth : Birth of an infant after42 weeks of gestation.Post-mature Infant : Infant born at orafter the beginning of week 43 ofgestation or later and exhibiting signsof dysmaturity.
  236. 236. Precipitous Labor : Rapid or sudden labor ofless 3 hours beginning from onset of cervicalchanges to completed birth of neonate.Preeclampsia : Disease encountered after20 weeks of gestation or early in thepuerperium; a vasospastic disease processcharacterized by increasing hypertension,proteinuria, and hemoconcentration
  237. 237. Pregestational Diabetes : Diabetes mellitustype I or type II that exists before pregnancyPregnancy0Induced Hypertension (PIH) :Hypertensive disorders of pregnancyincluding preeclampsia, eclampsia, andtransient hypertensionPreterm Birth : Birth occurring before 37weeks of gestation.
  238. 238. Preterm Rupture of Membranes :Spontaneous rupture of membranesbefore 37 weeks of gestation.PROM : Premature (before 38 weeksof gestation) rupture of members.
  239. 239. Preterm Rupture of Membranes
  240. 240. Prolapsed Cord : Protrusion of theumbilical cord in advance of thepresenting part.
  241. 241. Prolapsed Cord
  242. 242. Small for Dates (Small for gestationalage [SGA]) : Refers to inadequategrowth for gestational age.Spontaneous Rupture of Membranes :Rupture of membranes by naturalmeans.
  243. 243. Stillbirth : The birth of a baby after 20weeks of gestation and 1 day or 350 g.(depending on the state code) that does notshow any signs of life.Sub-involution : failure of a part (forexample, the uterus) to reduce to its normalsize and condition after enlargement formfunctional activity (for example, pregnancy).
  244. 244. Tocolytic Drug : Drug used to relax the uterus, tosuppress preterm labor, or for version.TORCH Infections : Infections caused byorganisms that damage the embryo or fetus;acronym for toxoplasmosis, other (for example,syphilis), rubella, cytomegalovirus and herpessimplex.Toxemia : Term previously used for hypertensivestates of pregnancy.
  245. 245. Uteroplacental Insufficiency (UPI) : Declinein placental function-exchange of gases,nutrients and wastes-leading to fetal hypoxiaand acidosis; evidenced by late fetal heartrate decelerations in response to uterinecontractions.Vacuum Curettage : Uterine aspirationmethod of early abortion
  246. 246. Vaginal Birth After Cesarean (VBAC) :Giving birth vaginally after having had aprevious cesarean birth.Vasectomy : Ligation or removal of a segmentof the vas deferens, usually done bilaterally toproduce sterility in the male.Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) : Refers toinfant weighing 1500 g or less at birth.
  247. 247. Viable, Viability : Capable, capability ofliving, as in a fetus that has reached astage of development, usually 22menstrual weeks (20 weeks ofgestation), which will permit it to liveoutside the uterus.
  248. 248. TerminologiesPuberty – It is the period of sexualmaturation accompanied by developmentof secondary sexual characteristics andthe capacity to reproduce.Menarche – Onset of Menstruation
  249. 249. Menstruation – Periodic vaginaldischarge of bloody fluid from the non-pregnant uterus ( From puberty tomenopause )Amenorrhea – Absence ofMenstruationGamete - Reproductive cell
  250. 250. Ovum – Female reproductive cellSperm – Male reproductive cellGametogenesis – Development andMaturation of the sperm and ovumSpermatogenesis – Formation of malegametes in the testesOogenesis – Formation of female gametes inthe ovary
  251. 251. Gonad – Reproductive gland that producesgametes and sex hormonesOvary – Female gonadTestes – Male GonadOvulation – Release of mature ovum from theovaryPregnancy – Period between conceptionthrough complete birth of products ofconception280 days in human9 calendar months/ 10 lunar months
  252. 252. Coitus – Sexual union of male and female
  253. 253.  Ejaculation – Expulsion of semen from penis
  254. 254.  Conceptus – Cell & Membranes resulting from fertilization of the ovum at any stage of prenatal development
  255. 255.  Zygote – Cell formed by union of ovum
  256. 256.  Nidation – Implantation of the fertilized ovum in the uterine endometrium
  257. 257.  Embryo – The developing baby from the beginning of 3rd week through 8th week after conception
  258. 258.  Fetus - The developing baby from 9th week after conception until birth
  259. 259.  Endometrium – Lining of the uterus Decidua – Name of the Endometrium during pregnancy
  260. 260.  Placenta – Fetal structure that provides nourishment, removes wastes from the developing baby and secretes hormones necessary for the pregnancy to continue
  261. 261.  Abortion – A spontaneous or elective termination of pregnancy before 20th week of gestation
  262. 262.  Trimester – A division of pregnancy into 3 equal parts
  263. 263.  Preterm birth – A birth that occurs after the 20th week & before the start of 38th week of gestation
  264. 264.  Quickening – The first movement of the fetus in the uterus felt by the mother
  265. 265.  Term birth – A birth that occurs between the 38th and 42 weeks of gestation
  266. 266.  Striae gravidarum - Irregular reddish streaks on the abdomen, breasts or thighs resulting from tare in connective tissue
  267. 267.  Chloasma – Brownish pigmentation of the face during pregnancy - Mask of pregnancy
  268. 268.  Braxton Hicks contractions – Irregular, mild uterine contractions that occur throughout the pregnancy
  269. 269. Abortion A pregnancy that ends before 20 weeks’ gestation, either spontaneously or electively. Miscarriage is a lay term for a spontaneous abortion.
  270. 270. Amniotomy Artificial rupture of the amniotic sac(fetal membranes).
  271. 271. Attitude Relationship of fetal body parts to oneanother.
  272. 272. Bloody ShowMixture of cervical mucus and blood fromruptured capillaries in the cervix. Bloody showoften precedes labor and increases withcervical dilation.
  273. 273. Braxton Hicks Contractions Irregular, mild uterine contractions thatoccur throughout pregnancy. Thesecontractions become stronger in the lasttrimester.
  274. 274. Caput Succedaneum Area of edema over the presenting part ofthe fetus or newborn, resulting from pressureagainst the cervix. Usually called simplycaput.
  275. 275. Crowning Appearance of the fetal scalp orpresenting part at the vaginal opening.
  276. 276. EDD Abbreviation for estimated date ofdelivery. This date may also be abbreviatedEDB (estimated date of birth).
  277. 277. Engagement Descent of the widest diameter of thefetal presenting part to at least a zero station(the level of the ischial spines in the maternalpelvis).
  278. 278. Episiotomy Surgical incision of the perineum toenlarge the vaginal opening
  279. 279. Fontanel Space at the intersection of suturesconnecting fetal or infant skull bones.
  280. 280. Gravida A pregnant woman. Also refers to awoman’s total number of pregnancies,including the one in progress, it applicable.
  281. 281. Lie Relationship of the long axis of the fetusto the long axis of the mother.
  282. 282. Lightening Descent of the fetus toward the pelvicinlet before labor.
  283. 283. Lochia Vaginal drainage after birth.
  284. 284. Molding Shaping of the fetal head duringmovement through the birth canal.
  285. 285. Multipara A woman who has given birth after twoor more pregnancies of at least 20 weeks’gestation. Also informally used to describe apregnant woman before the birth of her secondor later child.
  286. 286. Nuchal Cord Umbilical cord around the fetal neck.
  287. 287. Nullipara A woman who has not completed apregnancy to at least 20 weeks’ gestation.
  288. 288. ParaA woman who has given birth after apregnancy of at least 20 weeks’ gestation. Paraalso designate the number of pregnancies thatend after at least 20 weeks of gestation. (Amultifetal gestation, such as twins, isconsidered one birth when calculating parity.)
  289. 289. Position Relation of a fixed reference point on thefetus to the quadrants of the maternal pelvis.
  290. 290. Primipara A woman who has given birth after apregnancy of at least 20 weeks of gestation.The term is also used informally to describe apregnant woman before the birth of her firstchild.
  291. 291. Station Measurement of fetal descent in relationto the ischial spines of the maternal pelvis. Seealso engagement.
  292. 292. Sutures Narrow areas of flexible tissue thatconnect the fetal skull bones, permitting slightmovement during labor.
  293. 293. VBAC Abbreviation for vaginal birth aftercesarean birth.
  294. 294. CONCEPTUS Cells and membranes resulting from fertilization of the ovum at any stage of prenatal development.
  295. 295. CORPUS LUTEUM Graffian follicle cells remaining afterovulation. These cells produce estrogenand progesterone.
  296. 296. EJACULATION Expulsion of semen from the penis.
  297. 297. EMBRYO The developing baby from thebeginning of the third week through theeighth week after conception.
  298. 298. ENDOMETRIUM Lining of the uterus.
  299. 299. FERTILIZATION AGE Prenatal age of the developing baby,calculated from the date of conception.Also called post conceptional age.
  300. 300. FETUS The developing baby from 9 weeksafter conception until birth. In everydaypractice, this term is of ten used todescribe a developing baby duringpregnancy, regardless of age.
  301. 301. GAMETE Reproductive cell: in the female anovum, and in the male a spermatozoon.
  302. 302. GESTATIONAL AGE Prenatal age of the developing baby(measured in weeks) calculated from thefirst day of the woman’s last menstrualperiod. Also called menstrual age, about 2weeks longer than the fertilization age.
  303. 303. GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE A small sac within the ovary. Thegraafian follicle contains the maturingovum.
  304. 304. NIDATION Implantation of the fertilized ovum(Zygote) in the uterine endomertrium.
  305. 305. OOGENESIS Formation of gametes (ova) in thefemale.
  306. 306. OVULATION Release of the mature ovum from theovary.
  307. 307. PLACENTA Fetal structure that providesnourishment, removes wastes from thedeveloping baby, and secrete hormonesnecessary for the pregnancy to continue.
  308. 308. SPERMATOGENESIS Formation of male gametes, or germcells.
  309. 309. ZYGOTECell formed by union of an ovum and sperm.
  310. 310. Terminologies Amniotic fluid embolism : Embolism resulting from amniotic fluid entering the maternal bloodstream during labor and birth after rupture of membranes; this is often fatal to the woman if it is a pulmonary embolism. Attitude: Body posture or position.
  311. 311. Terminologies Bearing-down effort:“Secondary powers”; energy exerted by the woman during contractions to push out the baby. Biparietal diameter :Largest transverse diameter of the fetal head; extends from one parietal bone to the other.
  312. 312. Terminologies Bloody show: Vaginal discharge that originates in the cervix and consists of blood and mucus; increase as cervix dilates during labor. Breech presentation: Presentation in which buttocks or feet are nearest the cervical opening and are born first; occurs in approximately 3% of all births.
  313. 313. Terminologies Caul: Hood of fetal membranes covering fetal head during birth. Cephalic :Pertaining to the head. Crowning: Stage of birth when the top of the fetal head can be seen at the vaginal orifice.
  314. 314. Terminologies Dilatation of cervix: Stretching of the external os from an opening a few millimeters in size to an opening large enough to allow the passage of the infant. Effacement : Thinning and shortening or obliteration of the cervix that occurs during late pregnancy or labor or both.
  315. 315. Terminologies Engagement :In obstetrics, the entrance of the fetal presenting part into the superior pelvic strait and the beginning of the descent through the pelvic canal. Episiotomy : Surgical incision of the perineum at the end of the second stage of labor to facilitate birth and to avoid laceration of the perineum.
  316. 316. Terminologies External cephalic version (ECV): Turning the fetus to a vertex position by exertion of pressure on the fetus externally through the maternal abdomen.. Ferguson’s reflex: Reflex contractions of the uterus after stimulation of the cervix.
  317. 317. Terminologies Fontanel :Broad area, or soft spot, consisting of a strong band of connective tissue continuous with cranial bones and located at the junctions of the bones. Gynecoid pelvis: Pelvis in which the inlet is round instead of oval or blunt; heart shaped. Typical female pelvis.
  318. 318. Terminologies Kangaroo care: Skin-to-skin infant care, especially for preterm infants, which provides warmth to infant. Infant is placed naked or diapered against mother’s or father’s bare chest and is covered with parent’s shirt or a warm blanket. Labor :Series of processes by which the fetus is expelled from the uterus; parturition; childbirth
  319. 319. Terminologies Large for dates (large for gestational age (LGA)):Exhibiting excessive growth for gestational age. Lie: Relationship existing between the long axis of the fetus and the long axis of the mother. In a longitudinal lie, the fetus is lying lengthwise or vertically, whereas in a transverse lie, the fetus is lying crosswise or horizontally in the mother’s uterus.
  320. 320. Terminologies Lightening :Sensation of decreased abdominal distention produced by uterine descent into pelvic cavity as the fetal presenting part settles into the pelvis. It usually occurs 2 weeks before the onset of labor in nulliparas. Lithotomy position :Position in which the woman lies on her back with her knees flexed and with abducted thighs drawn up toward her chest.
  321. 321. Terminologies Low birth weight (LBW): An infant birth weight of less than 2500 g. Molding: Overlapping of cranial bones or shaping of the fetal head to accommodate and conform to the bony and soft parts of the mother’s birth canal during labor. Multigravida: Woman who has been pregnant two or more times.
  322. 322. Terminologies Multipara : Woman who has carried two or more pregnancies to viability, whether they ended in live infants or stillbirths. Nonstress test (NST) : Evaluation of fetal response (fetal heart rate) to natural contractile uterine activity or to an increase in fetal activity. Nuchal cord : Encircling of fetal neck
  323. 323. Terminologies Nulligravida : Woman who has never been pregnant. Nullipara: Woman who has not yet carried a pregnancy to viability. Oligohydramnios: Abnormally small amount or absence of amniotic fluid; often indicative of fetal urinary tract defect.
  324. 324. Terminologies Percutaneous umbilical blood sampling (PUBS) : Procedure during which the fetal umbilical vessel is accessed for blood sampling or for transfusions. Position: Relationship of an arbitrarily chosen fetal reference point, such as the occiput, sacrum, chin, or scapula on the presenting part of the fetus to its location in the front, back, or sides of the maternal pelvis.
  325. 325. Terminologies Postdate birth: Birth of an infant after 42 weeks of gestation. Post mature infant: Infant born at or after the beginning of week 43 of gestation or later and exhibiting signs of dysmaturity.
  326. 326. Terminologies Precipitous labor: Rapid or sudden labor of less than 3 hours beginning from onset of cervical changes to completed birth of neonate. Preeclampsia: Disease encountered after 20 weeks of gestation or early in the puerperium; a vasospastic disease process characterized by increasing hypertension, proteinuria, and hemoconcentration.
  327. 327. Terminologies Pregestational diabetes: Diabetes mellitus type I or type II that exists before pregnancy. Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH): Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy including preeclampsia, eclampsia, and transient hypertension.
  328. 328. Terminologies Presentation: That part of the fetus that first enters the pelvis and lies over the inlet: may be head, face, breech, or shoulder. Presenting part: That part of the fetus that lies closest to the internal os of the cervix Preterm birth : Birth occurring before 37 weeks of gestation.
  329. 329. Terminologies Preterm rupture of membranes: Spontaneous rupture of membranes before 37 weeks of gestation Prolapsed cord: Protrusion of the umbilical cord in advance of the presenting part. PROM: Premature (before 38 weeks of gestation) rupture of membranes.
  330. 330. Terminologies Ring of fire: Burning sensation as vagina stretches and fetal head crowns. Ritgen maneuver: Procedure used to control the birth of the head. Second stage: Stage of labor from full dilatation of the cervix to the birth of the baby.
  331. 331. Terminologies Sims’ position: Position in which the client lies on the left side with the right knee and thigh drawn upward toward the chest. Small for dates (small for gestational age (SGA)): Refers to inadequate growth for gestational age. Spontaneous rupture of membranes :Rupture of membranes by natural means.
  332. 332. Terminologies Station : Relationship of the presenting fetal part to an imaginary line drawn between the ischial spines of the pelvis. Stillbirth: The birth of a baby after 20 weeks of gestation and I day or 350 g (depending on the state code) that does not show any signs of life.
  333. 333. Terminologies Subinvolution : Failure of a part (for example, the uterus) to reduce to its normal size and condition after enlargement from functional activity (for example, pregnancy). Suboccipito bregmatic diameter : Smallest diameter of the fetal head-follows a line drawn from the middle of the occipital bone.
  334. 334. Terminologies Third stage : Stage of labor from the birth of the baby to the expulsion of the placenta. Tocolytic drug: Drug used to relax the uterus, to suppress preterm labor, or for version
  335. 335. Terminologies TORCH infections : Infections caused by organisms that damage the embryo or fetus; acronym for toxoplasmosis, other (for example, syphilis), rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex. Toxemia: Term previously used for hypertensive states of pregnancy.
  336. 336. Terminologies Uteroplacental insufficiency (UPI): Decline in placental function-exchange of gases, nutrients, and wastes-leading to fetal hypoxia and acidosis; evidenced by late fetal heart rate decelerations in response to uterine contractions. Vaccum curettage: Uterine aspiration method of early abortion
  337. 337. Terminologies Vaccum extraction: Birth involving attachment of vaccum cup fetal head and using negative pressure to assist in birth of the fetus. Vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC): Giving birth vaginally after having had a previous cesarean birth.
  338. 338. Terminologies Valsalva maneuver : The process of making a forceful attempt at expulsion while holding one’s breath and tightening the abdominal muscles (as in pushing during the second stage of labor). Vasectomy: Ligation or removal of a segment of the vas deferens, usually done bilaterally to produce sterility in the male.
  339. 339. Terminologies Vertex : Crown or top of the head. Very low birth weight (VLBW): Refers to infant weighing 1500 g or less at birth. Viable, viability: Capable, capability of living, as in a fetus that has reached a stage of development, usually 22 menstrual weeks (20 weeks of gestation), which will permit it to live outside the uterus.
  340. 340. Terminologies After Pain – Cramping pain following childbirth , caused by alternating relaxation & contraction of uterine muscles
  341. 341.  Atony – Absence or lack of usual muscle tone
  342. 342.  Attachment : Development of strong affectional ties as a result of interaction between an infant and a significant other(mother, father, sibling, caretaker).
  343. 343.  Catabolism: A destructive process that converts living cells into simpler compounds. Process involved in involution (changes) of the uterus after child birth
  344. 344.  Decidua: Term referring to the endometrium during pregnancy. All except the deepest layer is shed after childbirth
  345. 345.  Diastasis Recti: Separation of the longitudinal muscles of the abdomen (rectus abdominis) during pregnancy
  346. 346.  Dysparenuia: Difficult or painful coitus in women
  347. 347.  En Face: Position that allows eye-to-eye contact between the newborn and a parent. Optimal distance is 20 to 22cm ( 8 to 9 inches)
  348. 348.  Engorgement: Swelling of the breasts resulting from increased blood flow and the presence of milk
  349. 349.  Engrossment: Intense fascination and close face- to-face observation between father and newborn
  350. 350.  Episiotomy: Surgical incision of the perineum to enlarge the vaginal opening
  351. 351.  Involution: Retrogressive changes that return the reproductive organs, particularly the uterus, to their nonpregnant size and condition
  352. 352.  Kegel Exercises: Alternate contraction and relaxing of the pelvic muscles
  353. 353.  Lactation : Secretion of milk from the breasts The period of time of breast feeding
  354. 354.  Lochia alba: Whitish or clear vaginal discharge
  355. 355.  Lochia rubra: Reddish vaginal discharge
  356. 356.  Lochia Serosa Pinkish or brown-tinged vaginal discharge
  357. 357.  Milk-ejection reflex: Release of milk from the alveoli into the ducts. (letdown reflex)
  358. 358.  Oxytocin: Posterior pituitary hormone that stimulates uterine contractions and Milk- ejection reflex
  359. 359.  Postpartum Blues: Temporary, self-limiting period of weepiness
  360. 360.  Prolactin: anterior pituitary hormone (growth of breast tissue and production of milk)
  361. 361.  Puerperium: Period from the end of childbirth until involution of the uterus is complete, approximately 6 weeks
  362. 362.  REEDA: Acronym for Redness, Ecchymosis, Edema, Discharge and Approximation
  363. 363. Abdominal Gestation : Implantation of afertilized ovum outside the uterus but inside theperitoneal cavity.Abortion : Termination of pregnancy before thefetus is viable and capable of extrauterineexistence, usually less than 20 weeks of gestationor when the fetus weighs less than 500 g.Abruptio Placentae : Partial or completepremature separation of a normally implantedplacenta
  364. 364. Acini cells : Milk producing cells in thebreast.AGA : Appropriate for Gestational Age.Amniocentesis : Procedure in which needle isinserted through the abdominal and uterine wallsinto the amniotic fluid; used for assessment offetal health and maturity and for therapeuticabortion.
  365. 365. Amnioinfusion : Infusion of normal salinewarmed to body temperature through an intrauterine catheter into the uterine cavity in anattempt to increase the fluid around the umbilicalcord and prevent compression during uterinecontractions.Amnionitis : Inflammation of the amnion,occurring most frequently after early rupture ofmembrane.
  366. 366. Amniotic fluid embolism : Embolism resultingfrom amniotic fluid entering the maternal bloodstream during labor and birth after rupture ofMembranes.Amniotomy : Artificial rupture of the fetalmembranes (AROM).Anencephaly : Congenital deformitycharacterized by the absence of cerebrum,cerebellum, and flat bones of the skull.
  367. 367. Apt test : Differentiation of maternal and fetalBlood when there is vaginal bleeding.Artificial rupture of membrane : Rupture ofmembranes using a plastic amnihook or surgicalclamp.Augmentation of labor : Artificial stimulationof uterine contractions after labor has startedspontaneously but it is not progressingsatisfactorily.
  368. 368. Biophysical profile : Noninvasive assessment ofthe fetus and its environment usingultrasonography and uterine fetal monitoring;includes fetal breathing movements, gross bodymovements, fetal tone, FHR, and qualitativeamniotic fluid volume.Bishop’s score : Rating system to evaluateinducibility of the cervix; a higher scoreincreases the rate of successful induction oflabor.
  369. 369. Breech presentation : Presentation in whichbuttocks or feet or nearest the cervical openingand are born first.Cephalopelvic dispropositionCerclage : Use of nonabsorbable suture to keepan incompetent cervix closed; released whenpregnancy is at term to allow labor to begin.Cesarean Birth : Birth of fetus by an incisionthrough the abdominal wall and uterus.
  370. 370. Chorioamnionitis : Inflammatory reaction infetal membranes to bacteria or viruses in theamniotic fluid, which then become infiltratedwith polymorphonuclear leucocytes.Chorionic villi sampling (CVS) : Removal offetal tissue from placenta for genetic diagnosticstudies.Conjoined twins : Twins who are physicallyunited. Siamese Twins
  371. 371. Curettage : Scrapping of endometrium lining ofthe uterus with a curet to remove the contents ofthe uterus or to obtain specimens for diagnosticpurpose.Daily Fetal Movement Counts : Maternalassessment of fetal activity; the number of fetalmovements within specific time are counted.Dilatation and Curettage (D and C) : Vaginalprocedure in which the cervical canal is stretchedenough to admit passage of an instrument.
  372. 372. Disparate twins : Twins who are different anddistinct from one another.Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation(DIC) : Pathologic form of coagulation in whichclotting factors are consumed to an extent thatgeneralized bleeding can occur; associated withAbruptio Placentae, eclampsia, intrauterine fetaldemise, amniotic fluid embolism, andhemorrhage.
  373. 373. Dizygotic : Related to or proceeding from twozygotes.Dizygotic Twins : Twins developed from twoseparate ova fertilized by two separate sperm atthe same time. Fraternal TwinsDubowitz assessment : Estimation ofgestational age of a newborn based on criteriadeveloped for that purpose.Dysfunctional labor : Abnormal uterine contractionsthat prevent normal progress of cervical dilatation and progress
  374. 374. Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding : Abnormalbleeding from the uterus for reasons that are notreadily established.Dystocia : Prolonged, painful or difficult birthbecause of mechanical factors produced by thepassenger or the passage, inadequate powers, ormaternal position.
  375. 375. Eclampsia : Severe complication of pregnancy,more often in primi gravida, characterized bytonic and clonic convulsions, coma, high BP,albuminuria, and oliguria occurring duringpregnancy or shortly after birth.False labor : Uterine contraction that do notresult in cervical dilatation, are irregular often donot lost more than 20 seconds, and don’t becomelonger and stronger.
  376. 376. Forceps assisted birth : Birth in which twocurved bladed instruments are used to assist indelivery of the fetal head.Gestational Diabetes : Glucose intolerance firstrecognized during pregnancy.Gynecology : Study of disease of the female,especially of the genital, urinary and rectalorgans.
  377. 377. HELLP syndrome : Condition characterized byhemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and lowplatelet count; is a form of severe eclampsia.Hypotonic uterine dysfunction:weak,ineffectiveuterine contractions usually occurring in theActive phase of labor; often related to CPD orMalposition of the fetus.
  378. 378. TAH-BSO : Total abdominal hysterectomy andbilateral salpingo-oophorectomy; removal ofuterus, both tubes and ovaries.Incompetent cervix : Cervix that is unable toremain closed until pregnancy reaches termbecause of a mechanical defect in the cervixresulting in the dilatation and effacement usuallysecond or early third trimester of pregnancy.
  379. 379. IUGR : Fetal under growth of any cause, such asdeficient nutrient supply or intrauterineinfection, or associated with congenitalmalformation.Intrauterine resuscitation : Interventionsinitiated when nonreassuring fetal heart ratepatterns are noted and are directed at improvingintrauterine blood flow.
  380. 380. External Cephalic Version (ECV) : Turning the fetus to a vertex position by exertion of pressure on the fetus externally through the maternal abdomen.Kangaroo Care : Skin-to-skin infant care, especially for preterm infants, which provides warmth to infant. Infant is placed naked or diapered against mother’s or father’s bare chest and is covered with parent’s shirt or a warm blanket.
  381. 381. Large for Dates (Large for festational age [LGA]): exhibiting excessive growth for gestational age.Low Birth Weight (LBW) : An infant birth weight of less than 2500 g.Multigravida : Woman who has been pregnant two or more timesMultipara : Women who has carried two or more pregnancies to viability, whether they ended in live infants or stillbirths.
  382. 382. Non-stress Test (NST) : Evaluation of fetal response (fetal heart rate) to natural contractile uterine activity or to an increase in fetal activity.Nulligravida : Women who has never been pregnant.Nullipara : Women who has not yet carried a pregnancy to viability.
  383. 383. Oligohydramnios : Abnormally small amount or absence of amniotic fluid; often indicative of fetal urinary tract defect.Percutaneous Umbilical Blood Sampling (PUBS) : Procedure during which the fetal umbilical vessel is accessed for blood sampling of for transfusions.Postdate Birth : Birth of an infant after 42 weeks of gestation.
  384. 384. Post-mature Infant : Infant born at or after the beginning of week 43 of gestation or later and exhibiting signs of dysmaturity.Precipitous Labor : Rapid or sudden labor of less 3 hours beginning from onset of cervical changes to completed birth of neonate.Preeclampsia : Disease encountered after 20 weeks of gestation or early in the puerperium; a vasospastic disease process characterized by increasing hypertension, proteniuria, and hemoconcentration
  385. 385. Pregestational Diabetes : Diabetes mellitus type I or type II that exists before pregnancyPregnancy0Induced Hypertension (PIH) : Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy including preeclampsia, eclampsia, and transient hypertensionPreterm Birth : Birth occurring before 37 weeks of gestation.
  386. 386. Preterm Rupture of Membranes : Spontaneous rupture of membranes before 37 weeks of gestation.Prolapsed Cord : Protrusion of the umbilical cord in advance of the presenting part.PROM : Premature (before 38 weeks of gestation) rupture of members.Small for Dates (Small for gestational age [SGA]) : Refers to inadequate growth for gestational age.
  387. 387. Spontaneous Rupture of Membranes : Rupture of membranes by natural means.Stillbirth : The birth of a baby after 20 weeks of gestation and 1 day or 350 g. (depending on the state code) that does not show any signs of life.Sub-involution : failure of a part (for example, the uterus) to reduce to its normal size and condition after enlargement form functional activity (for example, pregnancy).
  388. 388. Tocolytic Drug : Drug used to relax the uterus, to suppress preterm labor, or for version.TORCH Infections : Infections caused by organisms that damage the embryo or fetus; acronym for toxoplasmosis, other (for example, syphilis), rubella, cytomegalovirus and berpes simplex.Toxemia : Term previously used for hypertensive states of pregnancy.
  389. 389. Uteroplacental Insufficiency (UPI) : Decline in placental function-exchange of gases, nutrients and wastes-leading to fetal hypoxia and acidosis; evidenced by late fetal heart rate decelerations in response to uterine contractions.Vacuum Curettage : Uterine aspiration method of early abortion
  390. 390. Vaginal Birth After Cesarean (VBAC) : Giving birth vaginally after having had a previous cesarean birth.Vasectomy : Ligation or removal of a segment of the vas deferens, usually done bilaterally to produce sterility in the male.Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) : Refers to infant weighing 1500 g or less at birth.
  391. 391. Viable, Viability : Capable, capability of living, as in a fetus that has reached a stage of development, usually 22 menstrual weeks (20 weeks of gestation), which will permit it to live outside the uterus.

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