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Anubhaw sugarcane sesame cotton

Anubhaw sugarcane sesame cotton



Covers Package and Practices for 3 crops.

Covers Package and Practices for 3 crops.



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    Anubhaw sugarcane sesame cotton Anubhaw sugarcane sesame cotton Presentation Transcript

    • Sugarcane, Sesame & Cotton: A Brief Introduction Presented by : Anubhaw Kumar Shandilya 1 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
    • Flow of Presentation Introduction Sugarcane Package of practices Brief discussion Introduction Sesame Package of practices Brief discussion Introduction Cotton Package of practices Brief discussion Questionnaire Discussion Closure 2 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
    • Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) Sugarcane- origin- New Guinea- 6000 BC. Two main groups: i. Thin, hardy North Indian types S. barberi and the Chinese S. sinenses, and, ii. Thick, juicy noble canes S. officinarum.India stands first in area (5.47 M.ha) and production (380 M.t) among the sugarcane growing countries of Asia.The average yield of cane stalk is 60-70 tones per hectare per year. Sugarcane Scenario  Productivity wise, Tamil Nadu stands first with over 100 t/ha followed by Karnataka & Maharashtra.  MSP- 139.12 Rs/ Qtls.  The sugar industry is the Map Legend: second largest agro-based Lowest Productivity Largest Productivity industry, next only to Major Sugar Cane Producing States textiles, in the country. Potential Area Largest Area & Production 3 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
    • Sugarcane Plant 4 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
    • Nursery Management Location of Nursery: i. No Alkaline, Saline, Acidic, or Water Logging. ii. There should be adequate irrigation facility.  Main season iii. Different Division of seed plot for accessibility. Land preparations: i. Early: Dec - Jan Ploughing and Cultivation is essential – High amount of ii. Mid: Feb - March organic manure is advantageous for nursery crops for iii. Late: April - May obtaining a vigorous crop. Therefore, about 25 to 30  Special season: June – July tones of FYM per ha may be applied about 15 days before Early season varieties are planting. suitable for special season. Spacing:  Eksali season: Throughout i. Ridges and furrows – 75-80 cm between rows the year except June. ii. Dual row planting - 150 cm between two broad Nursery Main Field Crop furrows (In middle of the furrows sugarcane setts are Crop planted in two rows adopting a spacing of 30 cm June Dec-Jan (Main Season) between them) July Feb-Mar (Mid Season) iii. Pit method of planting - Pit to pit spacing- 150 cm x 150 cm. August Apr-May (Late Season)  Sett rate: Dec-Apr Jun-Sep (Special Season) Two-budded setts -75,000 setts /ha Three budded setts - 40,000 setts /ha. 5 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
    • Nursery Management Cont/- Sett treatment: i. Preparation of setts for planting: a) Take seed material from short crop (6 to 7 months age) free from pests and diseases incidence. b) Harvest the seed crop one day before planting to obtain higher percentage and uniform germination. c) Detrash the canes with hand before sett preparation. d) Avoid damage to buds while cutting sett. e) Planting material or seed cane should be free from aerial roots and splits. f) Change the seed material after every two to three seasons. If it is inevitable to use mature cane as seed, the top one-third portion can be used satisfactorily. ii. Sett treatment with Azospirillum: Prepare the slurry with 10 packets (2 Kg/ha) in 100l of water and soak the setts in the slurry for 15 minutes before planting. iii. Sett treatment with fungicide: Soaked in Carbendazim at 1 gram/ 1litre water. iv. Aerated steam treatment: Treat setts with Aerated steam at 50° C for one hour to control primary infection of grassy shoot disease. 6 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
    • Nursery Management Cont/- Before planting setts: i. Use young crop (6-8 months old) seed material ii. Discard pest, disease affected and damaged buds and canes. iii. Do not detrash & prop the seed cane crop. iv. Apply 125 kg Urea / ha + 125 kg MOP/ha one month prior to harvest v. Irrigate the crop well before harvest vi. Detrash the cane with hand at the time of sett preparation vii. Selection of proper planting months for raising nursery crop in Nursery relation to main field planting. Polybag Nursery: i. Polythene bags of 10x15cm filled with soil and compost mixture (in 1:1 ratio) are arranged closely in an open space, close to water source. ii. Scooped buds are planted at 1-2 cm depth. iii. Cut sugarcane pieces with one bud can also be used for raising the nursery. iv. Insert these cut pieces into the soil filled bags up to the node level, Polybag Nursery keeping buds just touching the soil. v. Irrigate these bags twice a week. Saplings- ready- 60 days for planting. 7 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
    • Cultivation Practices Land Preparation i) Ploughing: The common method of tillage preparation is ploughing the land and bringing the soil to fine tilth. Ploughing- 2 to 4 times at the depth of 50-60 cm. ii) Harrowing: Harrowing is done at shallow depth of 12- 15 cm to crush the clods by disc harrow or rotavator. iii) Levelling: Levelling can be carried out using a tractor Disc Ploughing operated leveller. iv) Lay out of field: Irrigation-cum-drainage channels along and across the slope of the field at 10-15 m intervals. v) Basal application of organic manures and fertilizers: a) FYM at 12-15 t/ha or compost at 25 t/ha before Harrowing the last ploughing. b) Apply super phosphate (375 kg/ha) along the furrows and incorporate with hand hoe. c) Apply 37.5 kg Zinc sulphate/ha and 100 kg Ferrous sulphate/ha to zinc and iron deficient soils. Layout of Field 8 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
    • Cultivation Practices Cont/-(vi) Main field preparation and transplanting: Manures are applied basally in the furrow in band or by digging a pit at the site of transplant. Then furrow is irrigated. The nursery bed should be well soaked so that the settling could be easily removed without much damage to the root system. Then they are transplanted in the furrow following 30-45 cm spacing. An additional line may be planted in every 10th row. The life irrigation is given on 3rd or 4th day. After 10-15 days, the gap filling is done using the settlings planted on the 10th row. Proper irrigation management till settlings establish is very important. Planting Cane Setts in Furrows Flat Method Furrow Method Placing Setts in Furrows Pit Method Earthed Up in Pit Method 9 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
    • Cultivation Practices Cont/- Intercultural operations i. Trash mulching: a) Mulch the ridges uniformly with cane trash to a thickness of 10 cm within a week after planting. b) It helps to tide over drought, conserve moisture, reduce weed population and minimize shoot borer incidence. c) Mulch the field with trash after 21 days of planting in heavy soil and wetland conditions. Avoid trash mulching in areas where incidence of termites is noticed. Trash Mulching d) Trash mulching in between rows of crop. ii. Raising Inter Crops: Season Main Crop Inter Crop Maize, Soyabean, Sorghum, Kharif (Mid June/ Sep-Oct) Sugarcane Sunflower, Jowar, Mung, Urd. Wheat, Chickpea, Potato, Garlic, Inter Cropping Rabi (Oct-Dec/Apr-Jun) Sugarcane Coriander, Linseed, Lentil, Pea, Mustard. Summer/ Zaid (Short Season) Sugarcane Vegetables. iii. Crop rotation: Sugarcane is generally grown after the harvest of cotton, rice, maize, toria, potato, wheat, etc. – gap-2/3- years. 10 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
    • Cultivation Practices Cont/- iv. Gap Filling: a. Fill the gaps, if any, within 30 days after planting with sprouted setts. b. Maintain adequate moisture for 3 weeks for proper establishment of the sprouted setts. v. Earthing up/ Hilling Up: a. 1st Earthing up- “partial earthing-up” – 2nd/3rd – “full earthing- up". b. The partial earthing-up is done around 45 days after planting. c. Full earthing-up is done after 120 days of planting coinciding with the peak tiller population stage. d. This operation converts the furrows into ridges and ridges into furrows. This operation could be done either manually or by using a bullock-drawn/tractor drawn furrower. e. After application of 3rd dose of fertilizers around 90 Earthing Up days, work a victory plough along the ridges for efficient and economical earthing up. f. Around 150 days after planting, earthing up may be done with spade. 11 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
    • Cultivation Practices Cont/- vi. Control/ Regulation of flowering: Ethephon (ethrel) applied at the rate of 500 ppm effectively controlled flowering in a number of profuse flowering varieties. By altering the planting date, flowering can be avoided in heavy flowering areas. Adsali planting or special season planting (July to September) helps in avoiding flowering and its adverse effects. vii. Detrashing: Detrashing refers to removal of unwanted dry and green leaves at the bottom regular intervals. Sugarcane stalk bears large number of leaves (30-35) equal to the number of inter-nodes under good management systems. Detrashing should be taken up after the cane formation around 150 days after planting. viii. Propping: The operation of tying the top leaves together using the bottom dry and green leaves is known as propping. It is primarily done to avoid lodging of cane. Propping can be either done for each row or two rows can be brought together and tied. It is done around the age of 210 days of the crop. ix. Removal of water shoots: Water shoots are late formed tillers or side shoots, which are robust and fast growing. They originate mainly due to excess water supply, heavy and late manuring, inadequate earthing up. Water shoots contain lot of water, low sucrose and more of reducing sugars. Therefore removal of water shoots whenever they appear is highly essential. Water shoots can be used as cattle feed. 12 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
    • Cultivation Practices Cont/- Harvesting: Harvesting in sugarcane is practiced in collaboration with the industry, in most of the cases, to suit the factory timings. Sucrose content in the plants will reach the desirable level on the 10th month of the one year crop duration, and they will be ready for harvest within the next two months Sugarcane Harvester •Can harvest up to 40 Ton/Hour of Sugarcane. •Complete solution to harvesting which includes base cutting, De-Topping, De- Trashing, Cutting to Billets and loading to trailer •Capable of handling heavy lodged canes. •Self cleaning cooling package eliminates the need for Traditional Method regular stops to remove trash from the cooling system’s air intake system. •Capable of handling tallest cane with unmatched topper reach. 13 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
    • Management Practices- Nutrients Fertilizer Requirement: Sugarcane – plant crop 275: 62.5: 112.5 kg N, P2O5 and K2O per ha Recommended Super Muriate of N P K Urea Dose Phosphate Potash Basal - 62.5 - - 390 - 30-45 90 - 37.5 200 - 62.5 75-90 92.5 - 37.5 205 - 62.5 120-135 DAP 92.5 - 37.5 205 - 62.5 Total 275 62.5 112.5 610 390 187.5 Sugarcane – Ratoon crop 275+ 25% Extra: 62.5: 112.5 kg N, P2O5 and K2O per ha Recommended Super Muriate of N P K Urea Dose Phosphate Potash Basal 68.5 62.5 - 148 390 - 30-45 90 - 37.5 200 - 62.5 75-90 92.5 - 37.5 205 - 62.5 120-135 DAP 92.5 - 37.5 205 - 62.5 Total 343.5 62.5 112.5 758 390 187.5 14 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
    • Nutrient Deficiency ammonium SSP- 12% S or, Foliar spray of KCl molybdate (54% Ammonium 1% twice at Mo) and sodium Sulphate - 24% S fortnight interval molybdate (39% @ 10-20 Kg/ ha Mo) Sulphur Deficiency Potassium Deficiency Molybdenum Deficiency Soil application of Foliar sprays 3-4 N fertilizer or Foliar spray of KCl times of 0.5-1.0% foliar spray of 1% twice at MnSO4 solution urea 1-2% twice fortnight interval (7.5-15 kg/ ha) at weekly interval.Manganese Deficiency Potassium Deficiency Nitrogen Deficiency Soil application of 25kg/ha of FeSO4 or Soil application of Application of foliar spray of MgSo4 25kg/ha 1.5-2.0 kg/ ha of FeSO4 0.5% on Boron or borax. 90, 105 and 120 days after planting.Magnesium Deficiency Boron Deficiency Iron Deficiency Spray 0.2% Soil application of Foliar spray of copper sulphate 100kg/ha of DAP 2% twice at solution 2-3 gypsum fortnight interval times at weekly intervals Copper Deficiency Calcium Deficiency Phosphorous Deficiency 15 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
    • Management Practices- PestsCrop Stage/ Target insect Crop Stage/ Target Control measures Control measures Period pest Period insect pest Seed material should preferably Removal of egg-masses and Borers, mealy be taken from a healthy crop. No infested shoots from the groundSelection of bug and scale seed should be taken from a crop Pre-monsoon Shoot, root level. Copious irrigation and trashseed crop insect having pest incidence above 20 (March-June) and top borers mulching. Avoid irrigation at the per cent peak period of top borer moth Borers, mealy emergence during summer.Selection of Borer infested seed setts should bug and scale Release of Sturmiopsis inferens @seed pieces not be used for planting insect 125 gravid females/ha. SprayPre-planting Borers, mealy Heat therapy followed by dipping Shoot borer granulosis virus of shoot borer at(seed bug and scale setts in Aretan/Agallol (0.1% 107 inclusion bodies/ha in 500treatment ) insect solution.) litres of water/ ha (tropical India). Rubbing of setts with gunny bag (i.) Soil application of carbofuran 3 Scale insect and pieces dipped in Malathion (0.1% G@1.0 kg a.i. /ha or phorate mealy bug solution.) 10G@ 3 kg a.i./ha against third Dipping setts in Malathion (0.1%) brood (June last week or July first Scale insect and Top borer or Dimethoate (0.06% solution.) week) of the pest. (ii.) Release mealy bug for 15 min. of Isotima javensis Rohw against Two to three extra ploughing to third and fourth broods of top White grubs expose white grubs for predation borer. in endemic areas. Whorl application of Endosulphan Application of Endosulphan @ 1 Termites and Black bug emulsion @ 1.0 kg a.i./ha orAt planting kg a.i./ha over the cane setts in shoot borers Endosulphan 5 G@12 kg/ha 1600 to 1800 litres of water 16 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
    • Management Practices- Pest Cont/-Crop Stage/ Target Crop Stage/ Target Control measures Control measures Period insect pest Period insect pest 1. Removal and destruction of two Field release of Trichogramma lower most leaves bearing egg-masses chilonis adults@ 50,000/ha or 3.5 cc. Monsoon and during April/ May 2. Release of 4000- Internode parasitized Corcoran eggs/ha at Post-monsoon 5000 cocoons and 4 to 5 lakhs eggs borer fortnightly intervals regularly from (July-January) Pyrilla of Epiricania melanoleuca per hectare the start of borer activity until a during July-August. Crop having month before harvest no Epiricaniapopulation be sprayed Stalk borer, with Endosulphan or monocroptophos internode @ 1.0 kg ai per hectare. borer, pyrilla, Detrashing the crop from August scale insect, through October at monthly intervals Spraying of the crop with 0.08 percent Scales and mealy bug, dimethoate or 1.0 percent Malathion aphids white flies after detrashing Dusting with Malathion spray @ 0.1 1. Collection of adult beetles through Pyrilla per cent or Endosulfan@1.5 litres light trap. 2. Picking of grubs manually per hectare. from field. 3. Collection and destruction White grubs Scale insect Malathion spray @ 0.1%. of adult beetles from host trees Two sprayings of monocroptophos @ immediately after first heavy summer 0.75 kg a.i./ha at monthly intervals rains. Stalk borer during September and October after Spraying the crop with demecron detrashing dry leaves. Thrips (0.1%)/ monocroptophos/ dimethoate Harvesting the crop form the ground (0.04%) Application level. Removal of late and water Spraying the crop with Kelthane (0.1%)/ At harvest to most of shoots. Burning trash and left over Mites the pests dry canes. immediately after chlorfenvin/ monocroptophos (0.4%) harvesting 17 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
    • Disease Management Red Rot Grassy Shoot sett treatment with Carbendazim before planting (Carbendazim 50 WP (0.5 Spray dimethoate @ 1ml in 1 gm in 1 litre of water) or litre of water to control Carbendazim 25 DS (1gm in insect vectors 1 litre of water) along with Urea (10 gm in 1 litre of water) for 5 minutes.C O: Colletotrichum falcatum C O: Browtista moesta (MPO) Smut Wilt Dipping the setts in 40 ppm Sett treatment with of boron or manganese, or fungicides viz., Triadimefon spraying the plants with @ 1gm in 1 litre of water or either of these minor Carbendazim @ 1gm in 1 elements reduces the litre of water for 10 minutes. disease intensity C O: Ustilago scitaminea C O: Fusarium sacchari Rust Leaf Spot Secondary transmission of the Spray Tridemorph 1.0 litres disease by insect vectors can or Mancozeb 2.0 kg/ha be controlled by application of Malathion(0.1%) or Dimecron(0.2%). C O: Puccinia erianthi C O:Cercospora longipes 18 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
    • 19
    • Sesame (Sesamum spp.) Sesamum are native to sub-Saharan Africa. Sesame Indicum the cultivated type, originated in India. Area 1.20 Mha- Production- 275’ 000 tones- Productivity 330 Kg/ ha. Export- 150’ 000 tones (Shefexil & Traders). Grown in both Rabi and Kharif Season, North India- Kharif and in South India Rabi and Kharif. Sesame Scenario  Due to the presence of potent antioxidant, sesame seeds are known as “the seed of immortality”.  MSP- RS. 4200/ Qtls.  Two distinct types of seed are recognized, the white and the black. There are also intermediate colored Map Legend: varieties varying from red to Potential Areas Max production rose or from brown or grey. 20 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
    • Sesame Plant Tubular Flower Fruit/ Capsule Alternate opposite Leaves 15-20 Seeds per capsule Tap Root can go upto 9 mtrs deep 21 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
    • Cultivation Practices Soil: Sesame comes up well on soils with slightly acidic or neutral reaction. It can be grown on well drained soils and performs well in lightly loamy soils. i. It is highly sensitive to water logging. ii. Very sandy, saline and alkaline soils are not suitable. Climate: i. Sesame is essentially a tropical crop grown in arid and semi-arid areas. ii. It requires fairly hot conditions during growth for optimum yield. iii. Ideal optimum temperature for growth is 25-27 degree C. iv. Extremely low temperatures of 10 degree C, there is a complete ceasing of growth. v. High light intensity increase number of Capsules/ plant. Rainfall: i. Sesame is capable of with standing a higher degree of water stress. ii. The crop can be grown entirely on stored soil moisture. iii. A rainfall of 600-1000mm results in optimum yield 22 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
    • Cultivation Practices Cont/- Seeds & Seeding: Seed Rate: Seed Rate Kg/ ha Rainfed Irrigated Under Broadcasting 6 5 Row Seeding 5 4 Mixed (or) Intercropping 1 Spacing: 30 X 10 Cm/ or, 45 X 15 Cm. Seed Treatment: Seed treatment with Thiram (3g/kg) is effective against seed borne diseases. Seeds may be soaked in 0.025% solution of Agrimycin-100 for 30min. prior to seeding will minimize bacterial leaf spot. Methods of Sowing: i. Broad casting is usually most widely used in all situations. Seed is mixed with sand in equal quantities (or) 3 times to facilitate uniform distribution of yield. After sowing, seed is covered by shallow ploughing and planting by cultivators and harrowers . ii. Line sowing (or) Row seeding is done with seed drills to promote higher yields. Optimum depth of sowing is 2-3 cm 23 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
    • Cultivation Practices Cont/- Manures & Fertilizers: Seed Rate Kg/ ha Rainfed Irrigated ½ basal Nitrogen 40 60 ½ (30-35 DAS) Phosphorous 60 60 Potassium 40 40 Application of sulphur@ 50 Kg/ha increases the yield if soils are deficient in sulphur. Integrated nutrient management consisting of 5 t/ ha of FYM, 40 Kg nitrogen, 20 Kg Phosphorous and seed treatment with Azospirillum has given encouraging results at several situations. Weed Management: Sesame is sensitive to weed competition during the first 15-25 DAS. A minimum of two weeding, one after 15 DAS and another 35 DAS are required to keep the field relatively weed free Row seeded crop facilitates use of blade harrows for intercultivation. Two intercultivation, 15 DAS and 35 DAS followed by one hand weeding keeps the field free of weeds. If necessary, Alachlor (1.0kg/ha) or Thiobencarb (2.0kg/ha) can be used as pre emergence spray for effective control of weeds. Use of pre emergence herbicides followed by one hand weeding around 30 DAS is the most appropriate way of weed management in sesame. 24 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
    • Cultivation Practices Cont/- Irrigation: Water requirement is 300-350mm. For Rabi crop 5-6 irrigations are required. 1st irrigation – At sowing 2nd irrigation – 3 WAS 3rd irrigation – 6 WAS 4th irrigation – 8 WAS 5th irrigation – 9 WAS Harvesting: Depending on the variety, sesame crop takes 80-150 days for maturity. The crop is harvested when the leaves, stems and capsules begin to turn yellow and the lower leaves start shedding. To prevent shedding of seed, the crop should not become dead ripe in the field. The ripe plants are cut at the ground level carried to threshing yard, stacked for a week in the sun with the cut ends upwards. Inter Cropping: Crop Rotation: Sesame + Greengram (1:1) Rice / Groundnut – Sesam Sesame + Pigeonpea (2:1) Sesame – Horse gram – Chickpea Sesame + Soybean (2:1) Rice / Potato – Sesame Sesame + Cowpea (8:1) Cotton – Sesame – Wheat Sesame + Groundnut (1:1) Sesame–Groundnut/Cotton/Maize 25 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
    • Diseases Management Alternaria leaf spot Phylladoy Disease Treat the seed with thiram Soil application of (0.15%) + Bavistin (0.05%) in 1:1 Phorate at the rate of 10 ratio. kg/ha. Three sprays Topsin M(0.1%) as Three spray of and when disease appears, at 15 Dimethoate (0.03%) at days interval 30,40 and 60 days after sowing.CO: Alternaria sesami CO: PPLO Bacterial Blight Powdery Mildew Steep the seed in Agrimycin- 100 (250 ppm) or Foliar spray (2 to 3) of Streptocycline suspension wettable sulphur (0.2%) as (0.05%) for 30 minutes. and when disease appears, Foliar spray of Streptocycline at 10 days interval. (500 ppm) as soon as symptoms are noticed. CO: X. campestris CO:Oidium sp Stem & Root RotCercospora Leaf Spot Seed treatment with Thiram Treat the seed with Thiram 75 SD (0.15%)+Bavistin (0.15%) + Bavistin (0.05%) in 1:1 (0.05%) 1:1 or Thiram 75 SD ratio. (0.3%). Three sprays Topsin M(0.1%) or On appearance of the Zineb (0.25%) or mancozeb disease, drench soil with (0.25 %)as and when disease Thiram + Bavistin (1:1) along appears, at 15 days interval. with diseased plants at 7 days interval. CO: C. sesami CO:Rhizoctonia bataticola 26 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
    • 27
    • Cotton (Gossypium spp.) Cotton- 7000 B.C Western Pakistan- Gossypium hirsutum→ Mexico 5000 B.C. India ranks 2nd in cotton production- area 10.2 mha- Productivity 502 kg/ ha- production- 305’ lakh bale. Price Sold- Rs. 4377.43 per quintal. Gujarat has highest productivity with 659 Kg/ ha. Bt Cotton covers more than 85% of the cotton growing area. Maturity of the crop takes 80-210 days. Cotton Scenario  Export Scenario leads to 83 lakh bales in the year 2009-10.  MSP- RS. 3600/ Qtls.  The Cotton industry is the Map Legend: 30%, 10 of 33 States (Territories) largest agro-based industry, Highest Productivity as it directly contributes to Potential Areas textiles, in the country. Largest Cotton Area 28 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
    • Cotton Plant 29 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
    • Cultivation Practices Growing Season: i. Irrigated (main) Winter Irrigated (Aug- Sep) ii. Summer Irrigated (Feb- Mar) iii. Rainfed (Sep- Oct) Preparation of Field Main/ Irrigated Crop: i. Prepare the field to get a fine tilth. ii. Chiselling for soils with hard pen: Chiset the soils having hard pen formation at shallow depths with chisel plough at 0.5 M interval, first in one direction and then in the direction perpendicular to the previous one, once in three years. iii. Apply 12.5 farm yard manure or composted coir pith/ha besides chiseling to get increased yield. If intercropping of Greengram/ Soyabean is proposed, prepare the main field, so as to provide ridges and furrows to take up sowing 20 days earlier. iv. Application of FYM or Compost: Spread 12.5 t of FYM or compost or 2.5 t of vermicompost per ha if available, uniformly on the unploughed soil. v. Application of Biofertilizer: Seed treatment with 3 packets of Azospirillum (600 g/ha) and 3 packets (600 g/ha) of Phosphobacteria or 6 packets of Azophost (1200 g/ha). In addition apply and 10 packets of Azospirillum (2000 g/ha) and 10 packets (2000 g/ha) of Phosphobacteria or 20 packets of Azophos (4000 g/ha) mixed with 25 kg FYM and 25 kg of soil on the seed line. This save 25% nitrogen. 30 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
    • Cultivation Practices Cont/- vi. Formation of Ridges and Furrow: Form ridges and furrows 10 m long with appropriate spacing depending upon the variety (generally 75- 120 cm). Use ridge plough or bund former to form ridges so as to economic on cost of cultivation. In fields with ragi stubbles, just dibble cotton seeds at the specified spacings. Adopt the following spacing between ridges for different varieties/hybrids. vii. Application of Inorganic Fertilizer: 60-80-120 N, 30-40-60 P, 30-40-60 K If basal application could not be done apply the 25th day after sowing. Apply 50 per cent of N and K full dose of P2O5 as basal and remaining ½ N and K at 40 – 45 DAS for varieties. For hybrids apply N in three splits viz., basal, 45 and 65 DAS. Foliar application of 2% DAP + 1% KCI will improve yield. Apply the fertilizers in a band, two thirds of the distance from the top of the ridge, and incorporate. viii. Application of Micronutrient Mixture: In the case of Zinc deficient soils ZnSO4 @ 50 kg/ha as basal or ZnSO4 0.5% spray thrice at 45, 60 and 75 DAS. When reddening occurs in leaves apply 5% MgSO4 Urea(1.0%) and ZnSO4 (0.10%) as foliar spray on 50th and 80th day to correct this malady. In Mg deficient areas apply MgSO4 @ 20 kg/ha basally. 31 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
    • Cultivation Practices Cont/- Management of Main Field Operation: i. Seed Rate: 6.50 – 20.0 Kg/ ha ii. Spacing: 75-120 X 30-60 cm iii. Seed Hardening: Soak the seeds in equal volume of Pungam leaf extract (1%) for 8 hours and dry back to original moisture to increase germination and vigour. Dry the seeds in shade. iv. Seed pelleting: Seeds coated with arappu leaf powder (100 g/kg) along with DAP (40 g/kg), micronutrient mixture (15 g/kg) and Azospirillum (200 g/kg) phosphobacteria (200 g/ha) or Azophos (400 g/ha) using 5% maida solution or gruel as adhesive (300 m/kg) to increase the germination and vigour. v. Sowing: Dibble the seeds at a depth of 3-5 cm on the side of the ridge 2/3 height from the top and above the band where fertilizers and insecticides are applied, maintaining the correct spacing and then cover seeds with soil. In the case of intercropping, sow the seeds of the intercrop in between the paired rows of cotton in a row of 5 cm apart and cover the seeds. Sow the required number of seeds in each hole. (2-3 seeds per hole). vi. Weed Management: Apply Pendimethalin @ 3.3 l/ha three days sowing using a hand operated sprayer fitted with deflecting or fan type nozzle. Sufficient moisture should be present in the soil at the time of herbicide application. This will ensure weed free condition upto 40 days. One hand weeding on 45 DAS will keep weed free environment upto 60 DAS. Hoe and hand weed between 18th to 20th day of sowing, if herbicide is not applied at the time of sowing. 32 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
    • Cultivation Practices Cont/- vii. Top Dressing: Top dress 50% of the recommended dose of N and K on 40 – 45 DAS for varieties. Top dress 1/3rd of recommended dose of N on 40 – 45 DAS and the remaining 1/3rd on 60 – 65th DAS for hybrids. viii. Maintain Ridges & Furrows: Reform the ridges and furrows after first top dressing in such a way that the plants are on the top of the ridges and well supported by soil. ix. Arresting Terminal Growth: For varieties having less than 160 days duration nip the terminal portion of the main stem beyond the 15th node (75 to 80 DAS) and for varieties and hybrids having more than 160 days duration beyond the 20th node (85 – 90 DAS). x. Irrigation: Growth Phase Light Soil Heavy Soil Germination Phase Immediately after sowing Immediately after sowing 1- 15 days Irrigate on 20th / 21st and Vegetative Phase Irrigate on 20th / 21st and 35th/ 40th days of sowing 16-44 days 36th days of sowing Flowering Phase 48th, 60th, 72nd, 84thdays of 55th, 70th, 85th days of 45- 90 days sowing sowing Maturity Phase 91- 108 th, 120th, 132nd, 158th days of 115 th, 130th, 145th, 150th beyond 100 days sowing days of sowing. 33 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
    • Cultivation Practices Cont/- xi. Harvesting: Harvest at frequent intervals, at less than 7 days interval. Harvest in the morning hours upto 10 to 11 a.m only when there is moisture so that dry leaves and bracts do not stick to the kapas and lower than market value. Pick kapas from well burst boll only. Remove only the kapas from the bolls and leaves the bracts on the plants. After kapas is picked, sort out good puffy ones and keep separately . xii. Post Harvest Operations: Immediately after picking, dry the kapas in shade. If it is not dried immediately the colour will change which will lower than market value. Do not dry the kapas under direct sun as the fibre strength and luster will be lost. Grade the kapas into good and second quality ones, if it is not sorted out at the time of picking. Spread a thin layer of dry sand on the ground and keep the kapas over it. 34 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
    • Pest Management Associated with ripe seeds, all stages Insect pest Symptoms of damage Dusky cotton characterized by a powerful smell, bugSucking pests discoloured lint. Affected leaves curl downwards, turn yellowish, Foliage feedersJassids then to brownish before drying and shedding, Causes significant loss of leaf area to "hopper burn" stunts young plants Semi looper young plants, larvae with looping Leaf crumpling and downward curling of leaves, action are seen on plant parts.Aphids sticky cotton due to deposits of honey dew on open Leaves are folded and larvae are seen bolls in groups amidst fecal materials, Leaves of seedlings become wrinkled and distortedThrips commonly seen on leaves at the with white shiny patches, Leaf roller bottom of crop canopy at low Upward curling of leaves, reduced plant vigour, lint infestation levels, severe infestationWhiteflies contamination with honey dew and associated defoliates the whole plant fungiBollworms Young larvae in groups skeletinise Spodoptera Boremark in main shoot, dried and withered away leafworm leaves and older larvae voraciouslySpotted defoliate leaves shoot, twining of main stem due to axillaryspiny monopodia, feeding holes in flower buds and bolls Grey weevil Marginal notching - off of leavesbollworms blocked by excrementPink "Rosetted" bloom, pink larvae inside developing Grass hopper Defoliation of leaves - partial or fullbollworm bolls with interloculi movement Root / Stem feederStainers Feed on developing and mature seeds, stain the lint Root damage by grubs kills youngRed cotton to typical yellow colour, reddish nymphs seen in Stem weevil seedlings, gall like swelling seen onbug lower stem, wilting of seedlings aggregations around developing and open bolls 35 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
    • Pest Management Cont/- Pest Chemicals to be used Dose Jassids, Aphids, Thrips Methyl demeton 25 EC 500 / 750 ml Dimethoate 30 EC 500 / 750 ml Phosphamidon 100 EC 100 / 250 ml 500 / 750 ml Methyl demeton 25 EC 3.0 / 3.551 + Neem oil + Teepol Whiteflies 500 ml Fish oil resin soap 14 / 15 kg Phosalone 35 EC 2.5 / 3.0 litres Spotted, Pink and Endosulfan 35 EC 2.5 / 3.0 litres Chlorpyriphos 20 EC 2.5 / 3.0 litres Quinalphos 25 EC 2.5 / 3.0 litres Monocrotophos 40 EC 2.5 - 3.0 litres American bollworms Carbaryl 50 WP 1.5 / 2.5 kg Fenvalerate 20 EC 400 / 500 ml Cypermethrin 10 EC 800 / 1000 ml Decamethrin 2.8 EC 600 / 700 ml Chlorpyriphos 20 EC 1.5 / 2.0 litres Fenvalerate 20 EC 400 / 500 ml Spodoptera leaf worm Cypermethrin 10 EC 800 / 1000 ml Decamethrin 2.8 EC 600 - 700 ml Aldicarb 10 G 10 kg / ha Ash weevil Carbofuran 3 G 30 kg / ha Drenching stem portion on 1.5 ml / litre 20 th & 35 th day with of water Stem weevil Monocrotophos 40 EC 2.0 ml / litre Phosalone 35 EC of water Mite Dicofol 25 EC 1.5 / 2.0 litres 36 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
    • Disease Management Alternaria Leaf Spot Fusarium wilt Spraying with 0.2 per cent Spray of 0.4% solution of difolatan (captafol) or oxathilin. OR 0.1% solution mancozeb at 20 days interval of organomercuria. Seed from first appearance is treatment with carbendazim effective in managing the @ 2 g/kg seeds should be disease given C O: A. macrospora C O: F. oxysporum Anthracnose Bacterial blight Spraying synthetic Acid delinted and treat the pyrethroids fenvalerate 20 seeds with carbendazim or EC @ 400-500 ml/ha or benomyl. Spray carbendazim cypermethrin 10 EC or 1.5 g/l; OR benomyl 1.5 g/l; decamethrin 2.8 EC @ 600 - OR Mancozeb 3g/l 700 ml/ha is also effective. C O: C. Gossypii C O:X. axonopodis Cercospora leaf spot Helminthosporium leaf spot Foliar spray of thiobendazole or copper oxychloride @ 0.2 Spray mancozeb 2.5 g/l or per cent controls the disease. copper oxychloride 3g/ litre However, a number of other 4-5 times at 15 days fungicides such as zineb, interval. ziram and captan are effective in controlling the secondary spread of this diseaseC O: Cercospora gossypina C O:H. spiciferum 37 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|
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    • Contact Anubhaw Kumar Shandilya Contact No: +91- 8238006418 Email Id: anubhawshandilya09@gmail.com Thank You 39 Knowledge| Innovation| Success|