Pgdib hw devices
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Pgdib hw devices Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Introduction With Hardware Devices Yogesh Tomar [email_address] , 9811521782 Copyright 2002 Prentice Hall, Inc.
  • 2. Storing & Retrieving Information
  • 3. Mass Storage and Files
    • Programs and information (text, image, audio, video) are stored:
      • Temporarily in RAM
      • Permanently in Mass Storage (disk and tape)
  • 4. Computer Files
    • ASCII file
    • Data file
    • Document file
    • Spreadsheet file
    • Web page file
    • Source program file
    • Executable program file
    • Graphics file
    • Audio file
    • Video file
    .txt .mdb .vdp .xls .htm .gif .bmp .jpg .exe .tif .wav .mov
  • 5. File Name Conventions 2001 Resume.doc separated by a period file extension (1 - 3 characters, optional) filename (up to 255 chars)
  • 6. What do we do with files?
    • Create, name, save
    • Copy, move, delete
    • Retrieve, update
    • Display, play, print
    • Execute
    • Download, upload
    • Export, import
    • Compress (zip/unzip)
    • Protect
  • 7. Drive Designator Possibilities E: CD-ROM drive A: Floppy drive D: Zip drive System Unit C: Hard drive Courtesy of Imation Corporation
  • 8. Physical Storage Process Storage medium Storage device
      • Sequential and/or Random
      • Write/Save
      • Read/Open
    Storage process
  • 9. Magnetic Disks Offline and Online Magnetic Disk Interchangeable Disks Hard/Fixed Disks Online only
  • 10. Diskette Care
    • Do store in protected spot, away from sun and magnets
    • Do remove before turning off computer
    • Do clean them periodically
    • Don’t expose to extreme temperatures
    • Don’t touch surface
    • Don’t remove if drive light is on
    • Don’t force it in/out of the drive
  • 11. Hard Disks
    • Anatomy:
      • Recording surface
      • Multiple platters
      • Read/write head
      • Access arms
    Courtesy of Seagate Technology
  • 12. Fixed Hard Disk
  • 13. Magnetic Disk Organization
    • Disk Address
      • Tracks/Sectors/Clusters
      • Cylinders
    • Write data
      • Magnetize disk’s thin coated surface
    • Read data
      • Sense absence or presence of a bit
  • 14. Magnetic Disk Organization
    • VFAT: Virtual File Allocation Table
    • ScanDisk for lost clusters
    • Defragmentation
    • Formatting
    • Disk Speed
      • Access time
      • Data transfer rate
      • Disk caching
  • 15. Backing Up Files
    • Magnetic Tape used for:
      • Backup or protection
  • 16. Computer Viruses
    • Via Internet when downloading files
    • Via e-mail as attachments
    • Via diskette
    • Via computer networks
    • Use anti-viral program for your hard disks and UPDATE IT often
  • 17. Backing Up Files
    • Backup methods:
      • Full
      • Selective
      • Modified files only
    • Other backup options:
      • Server computer
      • Notebook/desktop PC
      • CD-R or CD-RW
      • Interchangeable external hard disk
  • 18. Backing Up Files
    • Internet and network servers
      • Must be made fault-tolerant
      • Use RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) for backup
  • 19. Optical Laser Devices Less sensitive to environment Cheaper than magnetic disks Large data capacity Optical Storage Spiraling Track Detector Pit Land Sector
  • 20. Optical Disks: Write-Only
    • CD-ROM
      • Compact Disk: read only memory
      • Cannot be altered
      • Speeds: 32X, 40X or 75X (spin rate)
      • Jukeboxes
      • Capacity: 650 MB
    • DVD-ROM
      • Capacity: 4.7 GB to 17 GB
      • Backward compatible with CD-ROM
  • 21. Optical Disks: Read/Write
    • CD-R
      • Compact disk-recordable
    • CD-RW
      • Compact disk-rewritable
      • Will not work with older CD-ROM drives
    • DVD-R
    • DVD-RAM
      • Rewritable
    • FMD-ROM
      • Capacity up to 140 GB and backward compatible
  • 22. The End