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  • Organizational behavior can be examined at 3 levels: organizational, group, and individual. OB is particularly important to managers.
  • Ob[1]

    1. 1. Introduction to Organizational Behavior
    2. 2. <ul><li>Provide an overview of the major challenges and the paradigm shift facing management now and in the next economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Outline an organizational behavior perspective for today’s management. </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize the Hawthorne studies as the starting point of modern organizational behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the methodology that is used to accumulate knowledge and facilitate understanding of organizational behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Relate the various theoretical frameworks that serve as a foundation for a model of organizational behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Present the social cognitive model of organizational behavior that serves as the conceptual framework for the text. </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>What is Organizational Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of Organizational Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Why study Organizational Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Human Equation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenges in Managing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The New Paradigm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hawthorne Studies and Research in O.B. </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Sumerians- Record Keeping </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptians- Need for Planning and Control </li></ul><ul><li>Moses- Shared Leadership, Delegation </li></ul><ul><li>Hamurabi- First ______? </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander the Great- Use of Staff </li></ul><ul><li>Niccolo Machivelli- The ends _____ the ______. </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Groups of people who work interdependently toward some purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured patterns of interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinated tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work toward some purpose </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>The study of individual behavior and group dynamics in organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Understand </li></ul><ul><li>Predict </li></ul><ul><li>Manage </li></ul>
    7. 7. (Continued)
    8. 8. e.g., Selection Systems e.g., Groupthink e.g., Personality Group Level Individual Level Organizational Level
    9. 14. <ul><li>Cognitive Framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfaction, Commitment and Absenteeism Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attraction- Selection-Attrition Model </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavioristic Framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pavlov’s Dogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Contingencies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Cognitive Framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for more complexities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More accepted framework </li></ul></ul>
    10. 16. <ul><li>What is Organizational Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of Organizational Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Why study Organizational Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Human Equation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenges in Managing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The New Paradigm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hawthorne Studies and Research in O.B. </li></ul>
    11. 17. Contingency Variables x y
    12. 18. Outputs : Products Services Inputs: Material Capital Human Task environment: Competitors Unions Regulatory agencies Clients Structure Task Technology People (Actors) Organizational Boundary
    13. 19. <ul><li>What is Organizational Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of Organizational Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Why study Organizational Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Human Equation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenges in Managing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The New Paradigm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hawthorne Studies and Research in O.B. </li></ul>
    14. 20. <ul><li>Competitive advantage of an organization today is represented by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human resource of an organization and how they are managed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widely recognized as human capital, social capital and positive psychological capital. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 21. <ul><li>The academic field of organizational behavior has been around for at least the past thirty years. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems facing managers of human organization have been around since the beginning of civilization. </li></ul>
    16. 22. <ul><li>Although the problems with human organizations and the solutions over the ages have not really changed that much, the emphasis and surrounding environmental context certainly have. </li></ul><ul><li>This new environment is disruptive, discontinuous change. It represents a new paradigm, a new way of thinking about the workplace. </li></ul>
    17. 23. <ul><li>A paradigm simply establishes the rules (written or unwritten), defines the boundaries, and tells one how to behave within the boundaries to be successful. </li></ul><ul><li>For today’s and tomorrow’s organizations and management, there are new rules with different boundaries requiring new and different behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>There is considerable resistance to change and why it is very difficult to move from the old management paradigm to the new. </li></ul>
    18. 24. <ul><li>Management has three major dimensions—technical, conceptual, and human. </li></ul><ul><li>“ One-eighth” situation—about one-eighth of today’s organizations believe it, do it, stick with it. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Knowing-Doing Gap”—most managers know the value of the human factor and how to implement the approach to improve organizational performance, but still are not doing it. </li></ul>
    19. 25. <ul><li>What is Organizational Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of Organizational Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Why study Organizational Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Human Equation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenges in Managing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The New Paradigm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hawthorne Studies and Research in O.B. </li></ul>
    20. 26. <ul><li>Formal Organization - the official, legitimate, and most visible part of the system </li></ul><ul><li>Informal Organization - the unofficial and less visible part of the system </li></ul>Hawthorne Studies: studies conducted during the 1920’s and 1930’s that discovered the existence of the informal organization
    21. 27. <ul><li>The Illumination Studies: A Serendipitous Discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Subsequent Phases of the Hawthorne Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Implications of the Hawthorne Studies </li></ul><ul><li>THE HAWTHORNE EFFECT </li></ul>
    22. 28. <ul><li>The Overall Scientific Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Starting with Theory </li></ul><ul><li>The Use of Research Designs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Validity of Studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External </li></ul></ul>
    23. 29. ? Questions
    24. 30. <ul><li>What is a paradigm? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some areas than have influenced the study of Org Behavior? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some concepts studied in Org Behavior? </li></ul><ul><li>Why should a manager know about this domain of knowledge? </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast formal versus informal organization </li></ul>
    25. 31. <ul><li>What happened in the Hawthorne Studies? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are they so important and what did we learn from them? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe 3 challenges facing managers today; why are they considered “challenges”? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the 1/8 th rule or the “Knowing-Doing Gap” </li></ul>
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