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Neruda y su obra

Neruda y su obra

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  • 1. Neruda:
    • Overview:
      • Neruda’s poetry of “existential crisis”
      • Neruda as a surrealist?
      • Pure and impure poetry
      • Influence of the Spanish Civil War
      • Social Poetry
      • Neruda’s Stalinism.
  • 2.  
  • 3. Neruda: After Veinte poemas
    • 1920s: Consul in Burma and other diplomatic roles in Far East
    • Relationship with Josie Bliss
    • Poetry
      • Tentativa del hombre infinito (1926)
      • Residencia en la tierra
      • Poetry of existential crisis and hermeticism (de Costa 1979: x)
  • 4. Neruda: Residencia en la tierra I and II
    • Shift from “yo-loved one” relationship to “yo-mundo” or “yo-Naturaleza”
    • Poetry of solitude and crisis
      • Galope muerto (1926)
        • Unordered similes, unconnected elements, incomplete images;
        • Free verse, lengthy sentences and enjambment;
        • Poetry of contradiction and alienation.
  • 5. Neruda: Residencia en la tierra I and II
    • “ Tango del viudo” (1929/1933)
      • After relationship with Josie Bliss
      • Love as violence and jealousy
      • “ Tango solitario”
      • Existential crisis
    • “ Walking around” (1935)
      • Note: English title
      • Irregular form
      • Striking images of desire and violence
      • Uncanny images from the everyday
      • Poeticising of the unpoetic?
  • 6. Neruda: Surrealism
    • Origins of the term and movement:
      • Apollinaire describing Cocteau’s play Parade (1917)
      • Sur-realism: “The truth beyond realism”
      • Tristan Tzara: Dada – art as rebellion against established order post WW I
    • Andre Breton:
      • Manifestos of surrealism
      • Surrealism as avant-garde group
      • Internal struggles
        • Expulsion of Desnos, Artaud, Bataille
      • Politics: links to French Communist Party.
  • 7. Neruda: Surrealism
    • Key characteristics:
      • Free up the unconscious that is repressed and chained by the modern world;
      • Investigation of dreams, the unconscious and desire;
      • Importance of sexual desire – Influence of Freud;
      • Literary techniques:
        • automatic writing;
        • group writing: “exquisite corpse”;
        • freeing up the unconscious.
      • Art that aims to reconnect with the praxis of everyday life: scandal and provocation.
  • 8. Neruda: Surrealism
    • Picasso: Three Dancers (1925)
  • 9. Neruda: Surrealism
    • Dali: The Temptation of St Anthony
  • 10. Neruda: Surrealism
    • Surrealism in Latin America
      • Aldo Pellegrini in Buenos Aires: translations of French works; publication of local surrealist works
      • Importance of Maria Luisa Bombal: La amortajada (1938)
        • Exploration of subconscious and dreams (life after death)
        • Presentation of female desire.
  • 11. Neruda: Surrealism
    • Roberto Matta (Chi): Untitled watercolour (1937)
  • 12. Neruda: Surrealism
    • Neruda as a surrealist?
      • Salvador (2004):
        • “ Residencia puede considerarse un texto surrealista no porque sea automatismo irracional o simple ejercicio creacionista*, sino porque es la persecuci ó n de una articulaci ó n ‘arraigada’ que busca sus fundamentos en la estructura misma de lo que llamamos inconsciente.” (225)
          • * Nb: “creacionismo”: term coined by Vicente Huidobro to describe his own poetry.
        • “ El poeta chileno ser á , sin duda, uno de los primeros cultivadores de lo que m á s tarde la cr í tica denomin ó ‘surrealismo hisp á nico’” (231)
      • Presence within any surrealist groups?
      • Political role of his activities in late 1920s and early 30s in contrast to surrealist groups?
      • Contrast between French and Lat Am surrealism:
        • literary and political surrealism?
  • 13. Neruda: The avant-garde
    • Neruda in Spain
      • Spain’s Generation of 1927
        • Rediscovery of Gongora by Lorca, Alberti, Hernandez and others
        • Lorca’s surrealist poetry ( Poeta en Nueva York )
      • Dominant contemporary styles:
        • Modernismo / simbolismo
        • Antonio Machado; Juan Ram ó n Jim é nez
          • Gesamtkunstwerk (Wagner: all arts together)
        • Importance of French poets
          • Mallarm é (pure poetry)
          • Baudelaire (symbolism)
        • Ruben Dario as key modernista
  • 14. Neruda: The avant-garde
    • Neruda in Spain
      • Editor of Caballo verde para la poesia
        • Title: suggests surrealist agenda
        • Publication of manifestos
          • Sobre una poes í a sin pureza (1935); Los temas (1935)
        • Rebellion against “pure” poetry: poesia sin pureza; poesia impura.
      • Basis for poetry with social themes
      • Possibility of poetic “commitment”
        • Vs. “art for art’s sake” (arte por el arte; art pour l’art)
      • Poetry associated with the world of work and technology
      • Poetry not strictly limited to the aesthetic (Salvador 2004: 235)
      • Manifesto attacked by Juan Ram ó n Jim é nez
  • 15. Neruda: 1936 and beyond
    • Neruda as “Picasso of poetry”
      • Links with avant-garde groups
      • Constant changes and development
      • Importance of Spanish Civil War
    • 1936: Franco and the Nationalist uprising
      • Civil War until 1939
      • End of the Second Republic
      • Murder of poets and artists including Federico Garc í a Lorca
    • Neruda resigns consular post: France and then Chile
      • Raises funds to help Republican cause
      • Organises boat, Winnipeg, to ship Republicans from danger
  • 16. Neruda: 1936 and beyond
  • 17. Neruda: 1936 and beyond
    • Poetry post-1936
      • Los poetas del mundo defienden Espa ña (1936)
        • Poetry to raise consciousness of Spanish situation
        • Poets involved in pro-Republican fundraising
      • Tercera residencia: Espa ña en el corazón.
        • “ Explico algunas cosas”
          • Poem announces change in aesthetic and theme
          • Attack on Nationalists
          • Breakdown of certain poetic models
        • “ Canto sobre unas ruinas”
          • Ruins as ruins of Spain and of certain poetic models
            • End of “uncommitted poetry”, “pure artistic realms”?
          • Existential solitude  poetic solidarity
          • Need for poetic communication
  • 18. Neruda: 1936 and beyond
    • Picasso: Guernica
      • Surrealist techniques with communicative/political aims?
      • Art of denunciation
  • 19. Neruda: 1936 and beyond
    • Poetry post-1936
      • “ Sanjurjo en los infiernos”
        • Polemic poetry
        • Attack on Spanish Nationalists and conservative establishment
        • Violent and shocking imagery: portrayal of shock of war?
        • Risks of poetry as propaganda?
      • Benedetti Los poetas comunicantes
        • Poesia comprometida/committed poetry
          • Sacrifice of artistic concerns
          • Poetry to communicate needs of the worker
          • Poetry of “emergency”
  • 20. Neruda: 1936 and beyond
    • Poetry post-1936
      • Work becomes “hondamente americana” (Rodriguez Monegal 1977: 25)
      • Salvador 2004: 226
        • “ Comienza a adquirir una conciencia social radical y a cambiar sustancialmente sus presupuestos esteticos”
      • Commitment to Stalinism from 1940 (member of CP)
        • Role of Socialist Writers Conference
        • Commitment to progress, technology, and other communist goals.
      • 1942 “Canto a Stalingrado”
        • Poetry in support of defence of Stalingrad
        • Published as poster on the streets of Mexico
      • Poetry increasingly in support of Soviet system