Neruda 2

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topología de pablo Neruda

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Neruda 2

  1. 1. Neruda: Lecture 2 <ul><li>Overview: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neruda’s poetry of “existential crisis” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neruda as a surrealist? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pure and impure poetry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence of the Spanish Civil War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Poetry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neruda’s Stalinism. </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Neruda: After Veinte poemas <ul><li>1920s: Consul in Burma and other diplomatic roles in Far East </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship with Josie Bliss </li></ul><ul><li>Poetry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tentativa del hombre infinito (1926) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Residencia en la tierra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poetry of existential crisis and hermeticism (de Costa 1979: x) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Neruda: Residencia en la tierra I and II <ul><li>Shift from “yo-loved one” relationship to “yo-mundo” or “yo-Naturaleza” </li></ul><ul><li>Poetry of solitude and crisis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Galope muerto (1926) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unordered similes, unconnected elements, incomplete images; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free verse, lengthy sentences and enjambment; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poetry of contradiction and alienation. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Neruda: Residencia en la tierra I and II <ul><li>“ Tango del viudo” (1929/1933) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After relationship with Josie Bliss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Love as violence and jealousy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Tango solitario” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Existential crisis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Walking around” (1935) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: English title </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irregular form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Striking images of desire and violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncanny images from the everyday </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poeticising of the unpoetic? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Neruda: Surrealism <ul><li>Origins of the term and movement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apollinaire describing Cocteau’s play Parade (1917) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sur-realism: “The truth beyond realism” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tristan Tzara: Dada – art as rebellion against established order post WW I </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Andre Breton: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manifestos of surrealism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surrealism as avant-garde group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal struggles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expulsion of Desnos, Artaud, Bataille </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Politics: links to French Communist Party. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Neruda: Surrealism <ul><li>Key characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free up the unconscious that is repressed and chained by the modern world; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigation of dreams, the unconscious and desire; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of sexual desire – Influence of Freud; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literary techniques: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>automatic writing; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>group writing: “exquisite corpse”; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>freeing up the unconscious. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Art that aims to reconnect with the praxis of everyday life: scandal and provocation. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Neruda: Surrealism <ul><li>Picasso: Three Dancers (1925) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Neruda: Surrealism <ul><li>Dali: The Temptation of St Anthony </li></ul>
  9. 9. Neruda: Surrealism <ul><li>Surrealism in Latin America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aldo Pellegrini in Buenos Aires: translations of French works; publication of local surrealist works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of Maria Luisa Bombal: La amortajada (1938) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exploration of subconscious and dreams (life after death) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation of female desire. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Neruda: Surrealism <ul><li>Roberto Matta (Chi): Untitled watercolour (1937) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Neruda: Surrealism <ul><li>Neruda as a surrealist? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salvador (2004): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Residencia puede considerarse un texto surrealista no porque sea automatismo irracional o simple ejercicio creacionista*, sino porque es la persecuci ó n de una articulaci ó n ‘arraigada’ que busca sus fundamentos en la estructura misma de lo que llamamos inconsciente.” (225) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>* Nb: “creacionismo”: term coined by Vicente Huidobro to describe his own poetry. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ El poeta chileno ser á , sin duda, uno de los primeros cultivadores de lo que m á s tarde la cr í tica denomin ó ‘surrealismo hisp á nico’” (231) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence within any surrealist groups? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political role of his activities in late 1920s and early 30s in contrast to surrealist groups? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contrast between French and Lat Am surrealism: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>literary and political surrealism? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Neruda: The avant-garde <ul><li>Neruda in Spain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain’s Generation of 1927 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rediscovery of Gongora by Lorca, Alberti, Hernandez and others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lorca’s surrealist poetry ( Poeta en Nueva York ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominant contemporary styles: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modernismo / simbolismo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antonio Machado; Juan Ram ó n Jim é nez </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gesamtkunstwerk (Wagner: all arts together) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of French poets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mallarm é (pure poetry) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Baudelaire (symbolism) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ruben Dario as key modernista </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Neruda: The avant-garde <ul><li>Neruda in Spain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Editor of Caballo verde para la poesia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Title: suggests surrealist agenda </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Publication of manifestos </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sobre una poes í a sin pureza (1935); Los temas (1935) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rebellion against “pure” poetry: poesia sin pureza; poesia impura. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basis for poetry with social themes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possibility of poetic “commitment” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vs. “art for art’s sake” (arte por el arte; art pour l’art) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poetry associated with the world of work and technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poetry not strictly limited to the aesthetic (Salvador 2004: 235) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manifesto attacked by Juan Ram ó n Jim é nez </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Neruda: 1936 and beyond <ul><li>Neruda as “Picasso of poetry” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Links with avant-garde groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant changes and development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of Spanish Civil War </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1936: Franco and the Nationalist uprising </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil War until 1939 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End of the Second Republic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Murder of poets and artists including Federico Garc í a Lorca </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neruda resigns consular post: France and then Chile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raises funds to help Republican cause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organises boat, Winnipeg, to ship Republicans from danger </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Neruda: 1936 and beyond
  16. 16. Neruda: 1936 and beyond <ul><li>Poetry post-1936 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Los poetas del mundo defienden Espa ña (1936) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poetry to raise consciousness of Spanish situation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poets involved in pro-Republican fundraising </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tercera residencia: Espa ña en el corazón. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Explico algunas cosas” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poem announces change in aesthetic and theme </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attack on Nationalists </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Breakdown of certain poetic models </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Canto sobre unas ruinas” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ruins as ruins of Spain and of certain poetic models </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>End of “uncommitted poetry”, “pure artistic realms”? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Existential solitude  poetic solidarity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need for poetic communication </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Neruda: 1936 and beyond <ul><li>Picasso: Guernica </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surrealist techniques with communicative/political aims? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Art of denunciation </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Neruda: 1936 and beyond <ul><li>Poetry post-1936 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Sanjurjo en los infiernos” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polemic poetry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attack on Spanish Nationalists and conservative establishment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Violent and shocking imagery: portrayal of shock of war? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risks of poetry as propaganda? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benedetti Los poetas comunicantes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poesia comprometida/committed poetry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sacrifice of artistic concerns </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poetry to communicate needs of the worker </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poetry of “emergency” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Neruda: 1936 and beyond <ul><li>Poetry post-1936 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work becomes “hondamente americana” (Rodriguez Monegal 1977: 25) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salvador 2004: 226 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Comienza a adquirir una conciencia social radical y a cambiar sustancialmente sus presupuestos esteticos” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment to Stalinism from 1940 (member of CP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Role of Socialist Writers Conference </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment to progress, technology, and other communist goals. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1942 “Canto a Stalingrado” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poetry in support of defence of Stalingrad </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Published as poster on the streets of Mexico </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poetry increasingly in support of Soviet system </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Neruda: Lecture 2 Summary <ul><li>Neruda’s poetry of “existential crisis” </li></ul><ul><li>Neruda as a surrealist? </li></ul><ul><li>Pure and impure poetry </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of the Spanish Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Neruda’s Stalinism? </li></ul><ul><li>Any questions? </li></ul>

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