Learning Theories


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Learning Theories

  1. 1. LEARNING KinestheticAural/Auditory Visual Read/Write BY, ANTONY JOSEPH.T
  2. 2. The acquisition of knowledge or skills through experience, practice, study, or by being taught. e a r n i n g Relatively permanent change in behaviour due to experience
  3. 3. DEFINITIONS  Learning refers to a more or less permanent change in behavior which occurs as a result of practice. (G.A.Kimale, 1961)  Consumer learning is the process by which individuals acquire the purchase and consumption knowledge and experience they apply to future related behaviour. (Schiffman and Kanuk)
  4. 4. CONSUMERS LEARNING ACTIVITY Motivation Stimuli and Cues Response Reinforcement
  5. 5. CLASSIFICATION OF LEARNING THEORIES LEARNING Behavioral Cognitiv e Classical Conditionin g Operant Conditioning
  6. 6. WHAT IS LEARNING?  Behavioral Perspective  A relatively permanent change in behaviour that arises from practice or experience  Cognitive Perspective  Mental change that may or may not be associated with changes in behaviour
  7. 7. TYPES OF BEHAVIORAL LEARNING Classical conditioning: learning to link two stimuli in a way that helps us anticipate an event to which we have a reaction Operant conditioning: changing behavior choices in response to consequences
  8. 8. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Ivan pavlow 1849-1936 Russian physiologist Proponent of classical conditioning
  9. 9. LEARNING TO MAKE AN INVOLUNTARY (REFLEX) RESPONSE TO A STIMULUS OTHER THAN THE ORIGINAL, NATURAL STIMULUS THAT NORMALLY PRODUCES THE REFLEX. A Reflex is an unlearned, involuntary response that occur under personal control or choice The food causes a particular reaction, the SALIVATION. A STIMULUS can be defined as any object, event or experience that causes a response, the reaction of an organism. DEFINITION
  10. 10. PAVLOV AND THE SALIVATING DOGS Pavlov discovered that his dogs began salivating when they weren't supposed to be salivating. Switching his focus, Pavlov spent the rest of his career studying on what he termed Classical Conditioning, learning to elicit an involuntary reflex response to a stimulus other than the original stimulus that produces reflex.Elements of Classical Conditioning: Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS). Unconditioned Response (UCR) Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Conditioned Response (CR)
  11. 11. UNCONDITION ED STIMULUS  The original naturally occurring stimulus. This is the stimulus that ordinarily leads to the reflex response. In the case of Pavlov dogs, the food is the unconditioned stimulus. UNCONDITION ED RESPONSE  The reflex response to the unconditioned stimulus. It is unlearned and occurs because of genetic ‘wiring’ in the nervous system. In Pavlov’s experiment, the salivation to the food is the UCR. CONDITIONED STIMULUS  Pavlov determined that almost any kind of stimulus could become associated with UCS. The sight of the food dish itself became a stimulus for salivation before the food was given. At this point, the dish was called NEUTRAL STIMULUS. CONDITIONED RESPONSE  Comes as a response to the conditioned stimulus.
  12. 12. PUTTING IT TOGETHER Neutral Stimulus No Response Unconditioned Stimulus Unconditioned Response Conditioned Response Conditioned Stimulus
  13. 13. OPERANT CONDITIONING B.F.Skinner (1904 – 1990) Psychologist Proponent of operant conditioning
  14. 14. The kind of learning that applies to voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences or responses. OPERANT CONDITIONING
  15. 15. •The rat is learning to press the bar in the wall of the cage in order to get food . B.F. SKINNER: THE BEHAVIORIST Skinner box Studied observable, measurable behavior. • learning depends on consequences Recording deviceBar or lever that an animal presses, randomly at first, later for reward Food/water dispenser to provide the reward
  16. 16. COGNITIVE LEARNING THEORY Learning is a function of exerting the mind. DEFINITION
  17. 17. KEYPOINTS OF THIS THEORY  Thinking, memory, knowing, as well as problem-solving need to be explored.  We can view knowledge as a schema (symbolic mental construction).  Learning: change in a learner’s schemata.  People need active participation, that is how we learn, and our actions are a consequence of thinking.
  19. 19. CONCLUSION It is very important for the marketers to know how consumers learn about their role as consumers and about various products.
  20. 20. REFERENCES  S.A.Chunwalla, Commentary on Consumer Behaviour, Millenium publishing house,2000.  Schiffman and kanuk, Consumer Behaviour, 8th edition, Prentice hall of india, NewDelhi,2004.  www.scribd.com  www.slideshare.net