Artificial lighting

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a view at incandescent lamp

a view at incandescent lamp

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  • 1. ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING for ARTGALLERY ANTONY KUMAR BOITY ROLL NO – 01,
  • 2. •O U R L I V E S A R E E N R I C H E D B YART THROUGH ART WEE X PAN D O U R H O R I Z O N S AN DENTER NEW WORLDS.•I N A N A R T G A L L E R Y S P A C E ,D AY L I G H T AND ARTIFICI ALL I G H T AR E O F F U N D AM E N TALI M P O R TA N C E .•T H E A R C H I T E C T U R E A N D T Y P EOF LIGHTING USED IN THESES PA C E S H AV E A F A R - R E A C H I N GI N F L U E N C E O N T H E I R I D E N T I T Y.•T H E LIGHTING M AKES ITP O S S I B L E T O I L L U M I N AT E A L LTH E FAC E TS O F TH E AR TW O R K .•L I G H T F U N D A M E N TA L LYA F F E C T S M AT E R I A L S T H R O U G HPHOTO-CHEMIC AL ACTION ANDRADI ANT H E AT I N G EFFECTSF R O M U V & I R R AY S .• PROLONGED EXPOSURE OFSENSITIVE M AT E R I A L S TOL I G H T, E S P E C I A L L Y D AY L I G H T,IS D E T R I M E N TA L TO THEL O N G E V I T Y A N D P R E S E R V AT I O NOF THOSE ARTWORKS ORAR T E FA C TS .
  • 3. •THOUGH THE DAYLIGHT IS THEMOST DESIREABLE SOURCE OFLIGHT, DUE TO UNCONTROLABLENATURE AND HEATING EFFECT OFIT THE ROLE OF ARTIFICIALLIGHTING BECOMES LARGER INART GALLERIES.•CONTROLLABLE QUALITIES OFARTIFICIAL LIGHTING ARE1.AVAILABLILITY2.ANGLE3.INTENSITY4.DISTRIBUTION5.COLOR6.MOVEMENT
  • 4. THE ANNUAL LIGHT EXPOSURE IS THE CUMULATIVE AMOUNT OF VISIBLE LIGHTINCIDENT AT A POINT, WITHIN THE BUILDING, OVER A 1-YEAR PERIOD (ANNUALLY).IN AN ART GALLERY THE MAXIMUM ANNUAL LIGHT EXPOSURE FOR VERY LIGHTSENSITIVE OBJECTS SUCH AS WATER COLOURS IS 150,000 LUX HOURS, WHEREASMORE LIGHT FAST PIGMENTS SUCH AS OIL HAVE A HIGHER VALUE OF 600,000 LUXHOURS. INTELLIGENT LIGHTING SOLUTIONS STRIKE A PERFECT BALANCE BETWEENLIGHTING QUALITY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY. MAXXI – NATIONAL MUSEUM OF XXI CENTURY ARTS, ROME, ARCHITECTURE: ZAHA HADID AND PATRIK SCHUMACHER, LONDON / GB
  • 5. CITÉ DE L’ARCHITECTURE ET DU PATRIMOINE(Paris)USE OF DAYLIGHT FROM NORTH GIVES ACONSTANT SOURCE OF LIGHT WHICH HAS BESTCRI AND THE LIGHT LUX LEVEL REMAINS AFTER ITS COMPREHENSIVE RENOVATION,CONSTANT MOST OF THE DAYS. THE WILHELM HACK MUSEUM IN LUDWIGSHAFEN HAS TURNED INTO A PARAGON OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY. THE MUSEUM’S ENERGY COSTS HAVE BEEN SLASHED BY AS MUCH AS 70 %. DEPENDING ON LIGHTING CONDITIONS AND REQUIREMENTS, THE LIGHTING CAN NOW BE CONTROLLED USING SCENARIOS; EACH LUMINAIRE CAN ALSO BE DIMMED INDIVIDUALLY. THIS ENSURES OPTIMAL ILLUMINATION OF EXHIBITS AND ALSO ENSURES THAT EXTREMELY OLD,
  • 6. THE IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD LIGHTINGS ARE: •COLOR RENDERING INDEX(CRI) OF LIGHTING FIXTURE. •LUX LEVEL REQUIRED. •DIMMING TO GREATLY EXTEND LAMP LIFE.WEISHAUPT ART GALLERY BUILDING MARKED THESUCCESSFUL USE OF MIXTURE OF DAYLIGHT ANDARTIFICIAL LIGHTING. DAYLIGHT ISPREDOMINANTLY SCREENED OUT SO THAT THEAMOUNT OF INCIDENT NATURAL LIGHT CAN BE
  • 7. CRI OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF LIGHTS•INCANDESCENTS BRING OUT THE WARM COLORSWITHIN THE COLOR SPECTRUM SUCH AS THE RED,BROWN, ORANGE, AND YELLOW TONES.•BUT ITS BAD THE COOLER COLORS SUCH ASVIOLET, BLUE AND GREENS.•THE BLUES, GREENS, AND VIOLETS WITHIN THEART WORKS OF ART WILL BE FLATTENED OUT BY ROSE GALLERY AT THE SMITHSONIANINCANDESCENT LIGHTS. AMERICAN ART MUSEUM ILLUMINATED WITH INCANDESCENT FIXTURES.•THESE LIGHTS ARE BETTER THAN FLUORESCENCEBUT ARE NOT THE ENTIRE SOLUTION TO THELIGHTING PROBLEM.•FLUORESCENT LIGHTS ARENT USED AS ACOMMON PRACTICE BECAUSE THEY GIVE OFF AHIGH AMOUNT OF UV RAYS WHICH ARE HARMFUL.•IN ADDITION, FLUORESCENT LIGHTS DO NOT EMIT COLOR TEMPERATURE AT 3000K &LIGHT ACROSS THE ENTIRE SPECTRUM OF COLORS 2800KAND THIS IS PROBLEMATIC.•HALOGEN :•A STRONG WHITE LIGHT.•A VERY GOOD CRI VALUE.•BUT EMITS A LOT OF HEAT.•HENCE SOLUTION FOR THE HALOGEN MAY BE
  • 8. •A FEW DATA REGARDING THE LUMENS OUTPUT FOR THE DIFFERENTTYPES OF LIGHTS AND LIFE SPAN FOR THE SAME.
  • 9. LUX LEVEL REQUIRED:LIMITING ILLUMINANCES AND ANNUAL EXPOSURES FOR MATERIAL SENSITIVITYCLASSIFICATIONS (CIE DIV. 3 TC3-22, MUSEUM LIGHTING AND PROTECTION AGAINSTRADIATION DAMAGE)
  • 10. TYPES OF LIGHTING SYSTEMS :THE MOST IMPORTANT LIGHTING SYSTEMS USED INEXHIBITION ROOMS ARE:• LUMINOUS CEILINGS WITH OPAL GLASS ENCLOSURE(DIFFUSE LIGHT) OR SATINISED AND TEXTURED GLASS (DIFFUSE/DIRECTIONAL),• INDIRECT LUMINAIRES (DIFFUSE),• COVE LUMINAIRES (DIFFUSE),• WALLWASHERS (DIRECTIONAL OR DIFFUSE/DIRECTIONAL),• SPOT LAMPS.
  • 11. LUMINOUS CEILINGS:•THE IDEA IS TO EMULATE THE SKY FOR THIS KIND OF LIGHTING SYSTEM.•LUMINOUS CEILINGSDELIVER LIGHT WHICH ISPARTICULARLY SUITABLEFOR PAINTING GALLERIESPREDOMINANTLY DIFFUSEWITH AN OPALENCLOSURE,•THE LIGHT SOURCES OFCHOICE ARE TUBULARFLUORESCENT LAMPSARRANGED ACCORDING TOTHE STRUCTURAL GRID OFTHE LUMINOUS CEILING.•FOR GOOD UNIFORMITYTHEYSHOULD BE SPACED NOFURTHER APART THANTHE DISTANCE TO THECEILING ENCLOSURE.
  • 12. INDIRECT LIGHTING:•INDIRECT LIGHTING ADDS BRIGHTNESS TO THE ARTS WITHOUT CREATING ANYDIRECT OR INDIRECT GLARE.•AN IMPACT SIMILAR TO THAT OF ALUMINOUS CEILING IS ACHIEVED WITHINDIRECT LIGHT BOUNCED OFF THECEILING AND UPPER WALL SURFACESINTO THE ROOM.•THIS DIFFUSE, UNIFORM LIGHT ISPREDOMINANTLY USED IN ROOMSWHERE NO DAYLIGHT ENTERS.•IT IS PRODUCED BY SUSPENDEDLUMINAIRES RADIATING LIGHTUPWARDS.•IN EXHIBITION ROOMS, LUMINAIRESFOR SUSPENDED POWER TRACKSYSTEMS ARE AN OPTION: THEY AREINSERTED IN THE TRACK FROM ABOVEWHILE SPOTS FOR DIRECTIONALLIGHTING ARE ACCOMMODATED IN THELOWER CHANNEL.
  • 13. COVE LIGHTING:THE DIFFUSE LIGHT OF LUMINARIES INSTALLED IN THE CURVING TRANSITIONBETWEEN WALL AND CEILING – THE COVE OR COVING – IS ANOTHER INDIRECTLIGHTING SOLUTION.•THE DIFFUSE LIGHT OFLUMINARIES INSTALLED IN THECURVING TRANSITION BETWEENWALL AND CEILING – THE COVEOR COVING IS ANOTHER INDIRECTLIGHTING SOLUTION.•THE MAIN DIRECTION OF LIGHTWITH COVE LIGHTING IS CLOSERTO THE HORIZONTAL THAN WITHA LUMINOUS CEILING.•THE LIGHT IS LARGELYSHADOW-FREE.•LINEAR LAMPS – GENERALLYTUBULAR FLUORESCENT LAMPSARE THE MOST WIDELY USEDLIGHT SOURCE.•EXCESSIVE LUMINANCE AT THECEILING AND ON THE UPPER PARTOF WALLS CAUSES GLARE ANDINTERFERES WITH SPATIAL
  • 14. WALL WASHERS:•WALL WASHERS BRING ATTENTION TO THE WALL THAT CONTAIN THE ARTS ANDARTEFACT,WHICH IS CALLED ACCENT LIGHTING. TEHY BRING DRAMA & FOCUS TO THE OBJECT.•LED WALL WASHERS ARE DESIGNED FOR LARGER INDOOR/OUTDOOR ACCENTLIGHTING APPLICATIONS.•WITH A NUMBER OF COLOR, ANGLE AND CONTROL OPTIONS, THE LED WALLWASHERS ALLOWS USERS TO INTERFACE THE APPROPRIATE COLOR, SCENE ANDINTENSITY SCHEMES NECESSARY TO COMPLETE LARGE INTERIOR LIGHTING TASK.•WALL WASHINGPROVIDES AN EVENSPREAD OFILLUMINATION.•FOR VERTICALSURFACES SUCH ASWALLS, LARGEPAINTINGS, WALLHANGINGS,BOOKCASES ANDSHELVING, CABINETFRONTS, ORSTAIRWELLS. THEDIFFUSE NATURE OFWALL-WASH
  • 15. SPOT LIGHTS:THE DIFFUSE LIGHT OF LUMINARIES INSTALLED IN THE CURVING TRANSITIONBETWEEN WALL AND CEILING – THE COVE OR COVING – IS ANOTHER INDIRECTLIGHTING SOLUTION. AN EFFECTIVE TECHNIQUE FOR ACCENTUATING THE THREE-•"KEY AND FILL" ISDIMENSIONAL CHARACTER OF AN OBJECT.•THIS TECHNIQUE ENTAILS THE USE OF KEY AND FILL LIGHTING FROM TWO SIDESOF THE OBJECT.• KEY LIGHTING IS A HARD-ACCENT LIGHT USED TO CREATE SHADOWS AND TOHIGHLIGHT AN OBJECTS FORM AND TEXTURE.•FILL LIGHT IS A SOFTER LIGHT THROWN FROM THE OPPOSITE SIDE OF THE•MAKINGOBJECT TOTHE OBJECT SHADOWS. SOFTEN THE APPEARMORE NATURAL. OTHERTECHNIQUES CAN ALSO BEAPPLIED TO FURTHERACCENTUATE THE UNIQUECHARACTER OF AN OBJECT, SUCHAS SILHOUETTING.
  • 16. SPOTLIGHT WITH A PROTECTIVE UV FILTER HAS BEEN USED. THE SPOTLIGHTS CAN ALSO BE DIMMED INDIVIDUALLY BECAUSE THE PAINTINGS MUST NOT BE EXPOSED TO BRIGHTNESS IN EXCESS OF 50 LUX. THE GLASS SLOPES AT JUST THE RIGHT ANGLE TO PREVENT DISTRACTING REFLECTIONS ON DISPLAY CABINETS; THIS SLOPE ANGLE WAS DETERMINED ESPECIALLY FOR THIS PARTICULAR EXHIBITION. MUSEUM BOIJMANS VAN BEUNINGEN BOIJMANS VANAN ARTIFICIALLY RECLAIMED ISLAND SOME 60 M FROM THESEASIDE PROMENADE IN DOHA WITH A PALM-FRINGEDAPPROACH ROAD EMPHASISES THE EXTRAORDINARY STATUSOF THE UNIQUE DISPALY OF ISLAMIC ART. THE RATHERRESERVED AND SELF-CONTAINED EXTERIOR SURPRISES THEVISITOR WITH AN AMAZING OPENNESS INSIDE. PERFECTILLUMINATION OF THE TREASURES OF ISLAMIC ART IN THESPACIOUS HALLS AND GALLERIES IS ACHIEVED USING ACUSTOMISED SOLUTION DEVELOPED BY THE LIGHTINGDESIGNERS IN CONJUNCTION WITH ZUMTOBEL. THE TALL,SLENDER GLASS DISPLAY CABINETS AND THEIR PRECIOUSEXHIBITS ARE PRECISELY ACCENT LIT BY OPTICAL FIBRES ANDSPECIAL LIGHT OUTLETS. UV-FREE LIGHT PROVIDED BY
  • 17. FOR DELICATE EXHIBITS. THE SMALL SPOTLIGHTS WHICHSUPPLEMENT THE DISPLAY CABINET LIGHTING AS REQUIREDAND ALSO SHOW THE WAY AROUND ARE NOT TIED TO THEDISPLAY CABINETS AND ARE THEREFORE AS FLEXIBLE ASPOSSIBLE. THE DECISION WAS MADE TO DISPENSE WITHADDITIONAL AMBIENT LIGHTING IN ORDER TO RETAIN ANATMOSPHERE WHICH IS AS EXCITING AS POSSIBLE. THE LOW-VOLTAGE SPOTLIGHTS HERE ARE SPECIAL MOTORDRIVENVERSIONS, WHICH CAN BE ALIGNED VIA A TOUCH PANEL ANDDIMMED USING DMX CONTROL.BELOW IS AN EXAMPLE OF EFFECTIVE GENTLE LIGHTING.
  • 18. A SOPHISTICATEDLYDRAMATIC CHIAROSCUROCONCEPT WITH PRECISELYSET CONTRASTS USING HIGH-POWER FRAMINGSPOTLIGHTS PRODUCES ANEXTRAORDINARY EXHIBITIONEXPERIENCE. ROOMS WITHACCENT LIGHTING RANGINGFROM GREEN AND SLATEBLUE TO RED – GLARE-FREEAND SURROUNDED BY ASUBTLE AURA – ALSO HELPCONVEY ASENSE OF SPACE PERFECTLYAND LIT BY ARCOS FRAMINGSPOTLIGHTS TO MINIMISETHE ILLUMINATED WALLSURFACE AREA AND TURNEACH INDIVIDUAL WORK OFART INTO A GLEAMINGISLAND IN ITS OWN RIGHT. SHARP OUTLINES – EVEN IN HIGH-CEILINGEDTHE ACCENT SPOTLIGHTS ROOMSARE DALI DIMMABLE; THIS LANDESGALERIE AT THE UPPER AUSTRIANALLOWS FAST SETTING OF MUSEUM IN LINZAND STRICT COMPLIANCEWITH SPECIFIEDILLUMINANCE LEVELS TO