Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
New seven qc tools
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

New seven qc tools

8,037

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
3 Comments
7 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
8,037
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
599
Comments
3
Likes
7
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Today, QC is still undergoing a major transformation. Through the evolution of TQM, all people in every dept and at every level have been and are being involved. Initially, QC was thought to be the responsibility solely of production dept through the inspection process. TQM now has become everyone’s business from Planning to Engineering to Marketing, and to direct Customer Service. (Nayatini 1) To assist in meeting the demands of this transformation,the Seven New QC Tools have been created. These have also been referred to as the N7’s or Seven Mgt. Tools for QC.
  • Affinity Diagrams Relations Diagrams Tree Diagrams Matrix Diagrams Arrow Diagrams Process Decision Program Charts Matrix data analysis We will spending most of our time on the first 6. Before we actually get started, we need to look at the:
  • A committee for developing QC tools affiliated with JUSE was set up in April 1972. Their aim was to develop QC techniques for use by managerial level and staff. This committee was headed by Yoshinobu Nayatani and they met regularly. In January 1977 the committee announced the results of its research in the form of a new set of methods called 'The Seven New QC Tools’. (http://www.iqd.com/pfttools.htm)
  • Their intent was to develop tools that would provide methods of organizing verbal data. They wanted to create a complete “Design Approach”. The established Basic 7 tools were very effective, however they were primarily focused on numerical data. For example, if a washing machine is redesigned. The customers don’t like the new control panel, style, and color. These statements are not expressed in numerically , but verbally. These statements are expressions of data, but only in a verbal form. (Nayatini 3) So in conjunction in with the B7, the N7 can dramatically increase the the effectiveness of many TQM activities. The two sets of tools can greatly assist the promotion of Total Quality.
  • Flow Charts - pictorial representation showing all of the steps of a process Run Charts - used to analyze processes according to time or order Histograms - bar graphs with frequency intervals Pareto Diagrams - 80/20 histograms for identifying and prioritizing problems Cause and Effect Diagrams - fishbone diagrams Scatter Diagrams - Identifies the possible relationship between the changes observed in two different sets of variables . Control Charts - used to determine whether a process will produce a product or service with consistent measurable properties
  • This shows how the N7 and the B7 complement each other in solving quality-related problems. Facts -> to Data! Do people provide data in numerical form or verbally? (How do you?) Information - This is the most IMPORTANT GOAL!!! Without the info, there will be no KNOWLEDGE gained which is required for achieving our goal! (Nayatini 4)
  • The N7 are used for promoting Total Quality. The goals for TQM are: Ensuring company fulfills obligations, Securing profits, Developing people (Nayatini 9) The N7 enhance the capabilities of every employee. It has a direct impact on developing the workforce. At the same time, the effectiveness and efficiency is greatly enhanced which results directly on the bottom-line.
  • The N7 will lead to Organizational Reform system-wide. These keys lead to a greater set of skills. The most important being, the ability to be proactive in anticipating future problems. (Nayatini 10)
  • The Organizational Reform establishes a system wide Culture that should result in stimulating people to think for themselves. This culture should result in a workforce that is constantly “Thinking TQM” and being “Creative with TQM”. (Nayatini 10)
  • The N7 are techniques for untangling the intricate relationships among the different variables of a problem. Using the N7 makes it easy to clarify the situation, establish a plan, and get to the root cause of the the problem. It also makes it easier to explain the situation and get “buy-in” with their cooperation. (Nayatini 6)
  • Affinity diagram is a tool/method that gathers large amounts of intertwined verbal data. It organizes the verbal data into groups based on natural relationship. Such formation of distinct groups help a meaningful picture to emerge, thereby making it feasible for further analysis and to find a solution to the problem. (http://www.iqd.com/pfttools.htm)
  • Review each bullet point!
  • Review each bullet point!
  • Review each bullet point! Topic: How will we spread the N7 through out the company? Ask for actual examples!!! Brainstorming in a group - Set up rules: No criticism, anything goes, More is best, Combine and improve ideas (Nayatini 39) When collecting data: - review circumstances surrounding the problem -examine the facts from a broad perspective -summarize statements in concise sentences When reviewing verbal data: - rewrite statements in specific terms
  • Review each bullet point! Topic: How will we spread the N7 through out the company? Combine actual examples!!! When grouping data cards: - do not group based on logic. Do so according to tendency of a natural result of mutual affinity. -do not rely on the superficial literal meaning -avoid classifying by keywords When writing Affinity cards: - capture the essence in a single statement - avoid general, abstract statements
  • Review each bullet point! Topic: How will we spread the N7 through out the company? When constructing and laying out diagram: - place the most important group of cards in the center
  • Review the Diagram
  • Relations Diagram also known as Interrelationship diagram is a tool for finding solution to problems that have complex causal relationship. This helps to untangle and find the logical relations among the intertwined causes and effects. It is a creative process which allows for 'Multi-directional' rather than 'linear' thinking to be used. (http://www.iqd.com/pfttools.htm)
  • Review each bullet point!
  • Review each bullet point!
  • Review each bullet point! Topic: Why do accidents due to falling objects happen in the workplace? (Nayatini 21) Ask for actual examples!!! When collecting causes: -start by defining any preconditions When reviewing verbal data: -discuss the problem thoroughly for clarity before writing card When writing cards: -ensure that the statement has only one possible meaning -express each statement in a complete sentence
  • Review each bullet point! Topic: Why do accidents due to falling objects happen in the workplace? (Nayatini 21) Ask for actual examples!!! When writing cards: -one concise idea per card When reviewing cause-effect relationships: -keep asking why -break down problem into components -look at situation from vary angles
  • Review each bullet point! Topic: Why do accidents due to falling objects happen in the workplace? (Nayatini 21) Ask for actual examples!!! When reviewing relationships: -when linking cause-effect, keep pair close together -break any continual loops -look at situation from vary angles
  • Review the Diagram
  • Tree Diagram is a technique for mapping out full range of paths and tasks that need to be done in order to achieve a primary goal and related sub goals. Such a diagram reveals in a simple way with clarity not only the magnitude of the problem but also helps to arrive at methods which are to be pursued to achieve the results. In other words, it serves the purpose of developing the essential means to achieve an objective or goal. (http://www.iqd.com/pfttools.htm)
  • Review each bullet point!
  • Review each bullet point! Topic: What kind of support must managers and technical staff provide in order to keep QC circles active? (Nayatini 24) Ask for actual examples!!! General: -have a group of diverse backgrounds and experience. Ideas are more readily generated -use brainstorming to creative more ideas and objectives When setting objectives: -make sure basic objectives are compatible with the next higher objective -make sure necessary means of achieving the objective have been included
  • Review each bullet point! Topic: What kind of support must managers and technical staff provide in order to keep QC circles active? (Nayatini 24) Ask for actual examples!!! When setting objectives: -make sure to scrutinize as you go to eliminate blind spots and omissions -make sure the develop the means for achieving the the objective at the level which it has to be implemented at necessary means of achieving the objective have been included When completing the diagram: -start at lowest level means and work back through the diagram. Verify each mean is capable of achieving objective
  • Review the Diagram
  • A Matrix Diagram consists of a number of columns and rows whose intersections are checked up, to find out the nature and strength of the problem . This will help us to arrive at key ideas and analyzing the relationship or its absence at the intersection and finding an effective way of pursuing the problem solving method. This enables conception of ideas on two dimensional relationship basis. The intersection points are also called "idea conception points". (http://www.iqd.com/pfttools.htm)
  • Review each bullet point!
  • Review each bullet point!
  • Review each bullet point! Topic: Evaluating Strategies and Allocating Responsibilities (Nayatini 48) General: -obtain problem-solving ideas by studying relationships between vertical and horizontal subjects -solve problems effectively by using the intersections on the matrix as starting points -be objective when assessing the strength of relationships -obtain reliable data from experience supported by actual observations -obtain a consensus among a group with real experience on the topic
  • Review each bullet point! Topic: Evaluating Strategies and Allocating Responsibilities (Nayatini 48) General: -obtain problem-solving ideas by studying relationships between vertical and horizontal subjects -solve problems effectively by using the intersections on the matrix as starting points -be objective when assessing the strength of relationships -obtain reliable data from experience supported by actual observations -obtain a consensus among a group with real experience on the topic
  • Review each bullet point! Topic: Evaluating Strategies and Allocating Responsibilities (Nayatini 48) General: -obtain problem-solving ideas by studying relationships between vertical and horizontal subjects -solve problems effectively by using the intersections on the matrix as starting points -be objective when assessing the strength of relationships -obtain reliable data from experience supported by actual observations -obtain a consensus among a group with real experience on the topic
  • Review the Diagram
  • Arrow diagrams are a network technique using nodes for events and arrows for activities for project planning, scheduling and monitoring. This is a very useful tool when we want to plan the activities of a known but a complex task or project. With the help of this tool we can workout an ideal project plan and also daily plan for not only to the main task but also for the other allied tasks and monitor their progress in an effective manner. (http://www.iqd.com/pfttools.htm)
  • Review each bullet point!
  • Review each bullet point!
  • Review each bullet point! Topic: Holding an In-House Training Seminar on the New Seven QC Tools? (Nayatini 30) Ask for actual examples!!! General: -be specific on exact constraints of the objective When listing activities: -express each task by a unique pair -find all tasks that can be performed in parallel time frame
  • Review each bullet point! Topic: Holding an In-House Training Seminar on the New Seven QC Tools? (Nayatini 30) Ask for actual examples!!! When reviewing activities: -use positive integers in the actual sequence (1 goes to 2, 2 cannot go to 1) -find all tasks that can be performed in parallel time frame
  • Review each bullet point! Topic: Holding an In-House Training Seminar on the New Seven QC Tools? (Nayatini 30) Ask for actual examples!!! When examining path: -use positive integers in the actual path -work from the farthest left side, then move to the next section and mark all activities before moving to next section -ensure that the diagram shows the exact correct sequence
  • Review the Diagram
  • The Process Decision Program Chart (PDPC) is a very useful and powerful method to overcome a problem or a goal to be achieved which are not familiar. With the help of PDPC we can map out all the conceivable events or contingencies that can occur in the implementation stage and also find out feasible counter measures to overcome these problems. (http://www.iqd.com/pfttools.htm)
  • Review each bullet point!
  • Review each bullet point!
  • Review each bullet point! Topic: Holding an In-House Training Seminar on the New Seven QC Tools? (Nayatini 35) Ask for actual examples!!! General: -continue updating the PDPC as it unfolds -consider that contingency plans are the objective. We are looking for the possible things that can go wrong. When listing activities: -start by constructing a diagram from the initial situation to its single outcome -find all tasks that can be performed in parallel time frame
  • Review each bullet point! Topic: Holding an In-House Training Seminar on the New Seven QC Tools? (Nayatini 35) When reviewing activities: -if it is unclear if an item is an action or a result from that action, treat it as an action -if a sequence of actions starts heading towards an undesirable result, introduce a countermeasure to break path and divert action in another direction -you may have to loop back and start at the beginning
  • Review each bullet point! Topic: Holding an In-House Training Seminar on the New Seven QC Tools? (Nayatini 35) When completing the diagram: -ensure that not too many arrows cross each other -highlight the most desirable path so that it stands out for the others
  • Review the Chart
  • Matrix Data Analysis is a multivariate analysis technique called 'Principal Component Analysis'. This technique quantifies and arranges data presented in a Matrix Diagram, to find more general indicators that would differentiate and give clarity to large amount of complexly intertwined information. This will help us to visualize properly and get an insight into the situations. (http://www.iqd.com/pfttools.htm)
  • Review each bullet point!
  • Review each bullet point! This is an exact example. (Foster 305) Go over step by step.
  • Review each bullet point! This is an exact example. Go over step by step.
  • Review each bullet point! This is an exact example. Go over step by step.
  • Review the Chart Explain that this is a very complex process, but should be used as primarily a prioritizing chart/grid.
  • Transcript

    • 1. The New Seven Q.C. ToolsA Training Presentation on the N7 By Christopher Diaz
    • 2. What are the New Seven Q.C. Tools‚ Affinity Diagramsƒ Relations Diagrams„ Tree Diagrams… Matrix Diagrams† Arrow Diagrams‡ Process Decision Program Chartsˆ Matrix Data Analysis
    • 3. History of the New Seven Q.C. Tools Slide 1 0f 2· Committee of J.U.S.E. - 1972· Aim was to develop more QC techniques with design approach· Work in conjunction with original Basic Seven Tools· New set of methods (N7) - 1977
    • 4. History of the New Seven Q.C. Tools Slide 2 0f 2· Developed to organize verbal data diagrammatically.· Basic 7 tools effective for data analysis, process control, and quality improvement (numerical data)· Used together increases TQM effectiveness
    • 5. What are the Basic Seven Q.C. Tools?‚ Flow Chartsƒ Run Charts„ Histograms… Pareto Diagrams† Cause and Effect Diagrams‡ Scatter Diagramsˆ Control Charts
    • 6. Relation Between New SevenQ.C. Tools and Basic SevenTools FACTS Data Numerical Data Verbal DataDefine problem after Define problem beforecollecting numerical data collecting numerical data The Basic Seven Tools The Seven New Tools•Analytical approach •Generate Ideas Organize •Formulate plans Information S o u rc e : N ayatan i , Y., T h e S e ve n N e w Q C T o o ls (T o k yo , Jap an , 3A C o rp o rati o n , 1 984)
    • 7. Benefits of Incorporating New Seven Q.C. Tools Slide 1 0f 4Enhanced Capabilities‚ Organize verbal dataƒ Generate ideas„ Improve planning… Eliminate errors and omissions† Explain problems intelligibly‡ Secure full cooperationˆ Persuade powerfully
    • 8. Benefits of Incorporating New Seven Q.C. ToolsEnhanced Keys to Organizational Reform‚ Assess situations from various anglesƒ Clarify the desired situation„ Prioritize tasks effectively… Proceed systematically† Anticipate future events‡ Change proactivelyˆ Get things right the first time
    • 9. Benefits of Incorporating New Seven Q.C. Tools Slide 3 0f 4Five Objectives of Organizational Reformwhich will establish a Culture that:‚ Identifies problemsƒ Gives importance to planning„ Stresses the importance of the process… Prioritizes tasks† Encourages everyone to think systematically
    • 10. Benefits of Incorporating New Seven Q.C. Tools Slide 4 0f 4 Unstructured Problem [must be put into solvable form] The Seven New Tools Problem is mappedProblem becomes Thoughts are Plans are Problem becomes obvious to all easily organized easily laid obvious to allPeople understand Problem can be Nothing is Nub of problem problem clearly articulated omitted is identified Cooperation is Countermeasures Things go well obtained are on target Problem is in solvable form S o u rc e : N ayatan i , Y., T h e S e ve n N e w Q C T o o ls (T o k yo , Jap an , 3A C o rp o rati o n , 1 984)
    • 11. New Seven Q.C. Tools Affinity Diagrams Slide 1 0f 7For Pinpointing the Problem in a ChaoticSituation and Generating Solution Strategies· Gathers large amounts of intertwined verbal data (ideas, opinions, issues)· Organizes the data into groups based on natural relationship· Makes it feasible for further analysis and to find a solution to the problem.
    • 12. New Seven Q.C. Tools Affinity Diagrams Slide 2 0f 7 Advantages of Affinity Diagrams· Facilitates breakthrough thinking and stimulate fresh ideas· Permits the problem to be pinned down accurately· Ensures everyone clearly recognizes the problem· Incorporates opinions of entire group
    • 13. New Seven Q.C. Tools Affinity Diagrams Slide 3 0f 7 Advantages of Affinity Diagrams (cont.)· Fosters team spirit· Raises everyone’s level of awareness· Spurs to the group into action Topic Affinity Statement Affinity Statement Affinity Statement Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Affinity Statement Data Card Data Card Data Card
    • 14. New Seven Q.C. Tools Affinity Diagrams Slide 4 0f 7 Constructing an Affinity Diagram Group Method Approach‚ Select a topicƒ Collect verbal data by brainstorming„ Discuss info collected until everyone understands it thoroughly… Write each item on separate data card† Spread out all cards on table
    • 15. New Seven Q.C. Tools Affinity Diagrams Slide 5 0f 7 Constructing an Affinity Diagram Group Method Approach (cont.)‡ Move data cards into groups of similar themes (natural affinity for each other)ˆ Combine statements on data cards to new Affinity statement‰ Make new card with Affinity statementŠ Continue to combine until less than 5 groups
    • 16. New Seven Q.C. Tools Affinity Diagrams Slide 6 0f 7 Constructing an Affinity Diagram Group Method Approach (cont.)‹Lay the groups outs, keeping the affinity clusters togetherNext, complete the diagram
    • 17. New Seven Q.C. Tools Affinity Diagrams Slide 7 0f 7 Completing an Affinity Diagram Topic Affinity Statement Affinity Statement Affinity Statement Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Affinity Statement Data Card Data Card Data Card S o u rc e : N ayatan i , Y., T h e S e ve n N e w Q C T o o ls (T o k yo , Jap an , 3A C o rp o rati o n , 1 984)
    • 18. New Seven Q.C. Tools Relations Diagrams Slide 1 0f 7For Finding Solutions Strategies by ClarifyingRelationships with Complex Interrelated Causes· Resolves tangled issues by unraveling the logical connection· Allows for “Multi-directional” thinking rather than linear· Also known as Interrelationship diagrams
    • 19. New Seven Q.C. Tools Relations Diagrams Slide 2 0f 7 Advantages of Relations Diagrams· Useful at planning stage for obtaining perspective on overall situation· Facilitates consensus among team· Assists to develop and change people’s thinking· Enables priorities to be identified accurately
    • 20. New Seven Q.C. Tools Relations Diagrams Slide 3 0f 7 Advantages of Relations Diagrams (cont.)· Makes the problem recognizable by clarifying the relationships among causesTertiary Tertiary Cause Secondary Cause Primary Cause Cause Primary Cause Tertiary Secondary Cause Why doesn’t Cause Secondary X happen? Cause Primary Cause Primary Cause Secondary 6th level Cause Tertiary Cause Secondary Tertiary Cause Cause4th level Cause 4th level 5th level Cause Cause Cause
    • 21. New Seven Q.C. Tools Relations Diagrams Slide 4 0f 7 Constructing a Relations Diagram Group Method Approach‚ Express the problem in form of “Why isn’t something happening?”ƒ Each member lists 5 causes affecting problem„ Write each item on a card… Discuss info collected until everyone understands it thoroughly
    • 22. New Seven Q.C. Tools Relations Diagrams Slide 5 0f 7 Constructing a Relations Diagram Group Method Approach (cont.)† Move cards into similar groups‡ Asking why, explore the cause-effect relationships, and divide the cards into primary, secondary and tertiary causesˆ Connect all cards by these relationships‰ Further discuss until all possible causes have been identified
    • 23. New Seven Q.C. Tools Relations Diagrams Slide 6 0f 7 Constructing a Relations Diagram Group Method Approach (cont.)Š Review whole diagram looking for relationships among causes‹ Connect all related groupsNext, complete the diagram
    • 24. New Seven Q.C. Tools Relations Diagrams Slide 7 0f 7 Completing a Relations DiagramTertiary Tertiary Cause Secondary Cause Primary Cause Cause Primary Cause Tertiary Secondary Cause Cause Why doesn’t X happen? Secondary Cause Primary Cause Primary Cause 6th level Secondary Cause Tertiary Cause Cause Tertiary Secondary Cause Cause 4th level4th level 5th level Cause Cause Cause S o u rc e : N ayatan i , Y., T h e S e ve n N e w Q C T o o ls (T o k yo , Jap an , 3A C o rp o rati o n , 1 984)
    • 25. New Seven Q.C. Tools Tree Diagrams Slide 1 0f 5For Systematically Pursuing the Best Strategiesfor Attaining an Objective· Develops a succession of strategies for achieving objectives· Reveals methods to achieve the results.· Also known as Systematic diagrams or Dendrograms
    • 26. New Seven Q.C. Tools Tree Diagrams Slide 2 0f 5 Advantages of Tree Diagrams· Systematic and logical approach is less likely that items are omitted· Facilitates agreement among team· Are extremely convincing with strategies 4th means Secondary means 3rd means 4th means 3rd means 4th means Primary means 3rd means 4th means 4th means To Secondary means 3rd means 4th meansAccomplish 4th meansConstraints
    • 27. New Seven Q.C. Tools Tree Diagrams Slide 3 0f 5 Constructing a Tree Diagram Group Method Approach‚ Write Relations Diagram topic (Objective card)ƒ Identify constraints on how objective can be achieved„ Discuss means of achieving objective (primary means, first level strategy)… Take each primary mean, write ob- jective for achieving it (secondary means)
    • 28. New Seven Q.C. Tools Tree Diagrams Slide 4 0f 5 Constructing an Tree Diagram Group Method Approach (cont.)† Continue to expand to the fourth level‡ Review each system of means in both directions (from objective to means and means to objective)ˆ Add more cards if needed‰ Connect all levelsNext, complete the diagram
    • 29. New Seven Q.C. Tools Tree Diagrams Slide 5 0f 5 Completing a Tree Diagram 4th means 3rd means 4th means Secondary means 3rd means 4th means Primary means 4th means 3rd means 4th means 3rd means Secondary means To 4th means Accomplish 4th means 3rd means 4th means Secondary means 3rd means 4th means 4th means Primary means 3rd means 4th means Constraints Secondary means 3rd means 4th meansS o u rc e : N ayatan i , Y., T h e S e ve n N e w Q C T o o ls (T o k yo , Jap an , 3A C o rp o rati o n , 1 984)
    • 30. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Diagrams Slide 1 0f 7For Clarifying Problems by “ThinkingMultidimensionally”· Consists of a two-dimensional array to determine location and nature of problem· Discovers key ideas by relationships represented by the cells in matrix.
    • 31. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Diagrams Slide 2 0f 7 Advantages of Matrix Diagrams· Enable data on ideas based on extensive experience· Clarifies relationships among different elements· Makes overall structure of problem immediately obvious· Combined from two to four types of diagrams, location of problem is clearer.
    • 32. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Diagrams Slide 3 0f 7 Advantages of Matrix Diagrams (cont.)· 5 types: L-shaped, T-shaped, Y-shaped, X-shaped, and C-shaped O O =1 O =4 Principa l QC circle supporter O =2 O X =5 O Subsidia ry =3 X =6 Site QC circle Section/Plant Section/Plant Practicability Eva lua tion Re sponsibilitie s Manager Member Efficacy Re ma rks Leader Rank 4th level meansfrom Tree diagram O O 1 O 4th level meansfrom Tree diagram O O 1 O Hold 4 times/month 4th level meansfrom Tree diagram O 3 O At every meeting 4th level meansfrom Tree diagram O 2 O 4th level meansfrom Tree diagram O X 5 O At least 3 times/year/person 4th level meansfrom Tree diagram O O 1 O O 4th level meansfrom Tree diagram 4 O
    • 33. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Diagrams Slide 4 0f 7 Constructing a Matrix Diagram‚ Write final-level means from Tree diagram forming vertical axisƒ Write in Evaluation categories (efficacy, practicability, and rank) on horizontal axis.„ Examine final-level means to identify whom will implement them… Write names along horizontal axis
    • 34. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Diagrams Slide 5 0f 7 Constructing a Matrix Diagram (cont.)† Label group of columns as “Responsibilities”‡ Label right-hand end of horizontal axis as “Remarks”ˆ Examine each cell and insert the appropriate symbol:Efficacy: O=good, E=satisfactory, X=nonePracticability: O=good,P=satisfactory, X=none
    • 35. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Diagrams Slide 6 0f 7 Constructing a Matrix Diagram (cont.)‰ Determine score for each combination of symbols, record in rank columnŠ Examine cells under Responsibility Columns, insert double-circle for Principal and single-circle for Subsidiary‹ Fill out remarks column and record meanings of symbolNext, complete the diagram
    • 36. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Diagrams Slide 7 0f 7Completing a Matrix Diagram O O =1 O =4 Principa l O =2 O X =5 O Subsidiary QC circle supporter =3 X =6 Site QC circle Eva luation Re sponsibilitie s Section/Plant Section/Plant Practicability Manager Member Efficacy Re ma rks Leader Rank 4th level meansfrom Tree diagram O O 1 O 4th level meansfrom Tree diagram O O 1 O Hold 4 times/month 4th level meansfrom Tree diagram O 3 O At every meeting 4th level meansfrom Tree diagram O 2 O 4th level meansfrom Tree diagram O X 5 O At least 3 times/year/person 4th level meansfrom Tree diagram O O 1 O O 4th level meansfrom Tree diagram 4 O 4th level meansfrom Tree diagram O 2 O 4th level meansfrom Tree diagram O O 1 O 4th level meansfrom Tree diagram O O 1 O S o u rc e : N ayatan i , Y., T h e S e ve n N e w Q C T o o ls (T o k yo , Jap an , 3A C o rp o rati o n , 1 984)
    • 37. New Seven Q.C. Tools Arrow Diagrams Slide 1 0f 7For Working Out Optimal Schedules andControlling Them Effectively· Shows relationships among tasks needed to implement a plan· Network technique using nodes for events and arrows for activities· Used in PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) and CPM (Critical Path Method)
    • 38. New Seven Q.C. Tools Arrow Diagrams Slide 2 0f 7 Advantages of Arrow Diagrams· Allows overall task to viewed and potential snags to be identified before work starts· Leads to discovery of possible improvements· Makes it easy to monitor progress of work· Deals promptly with changes to plan· Improves communication among team
    • 39. New Seven Q.C. Tools Arrow Diagrams Slide 3 0f 7 Advantages of Arrow Diagrams (cont.)· Promotes understanding and agreement among group Strategy Constraints 4 121 2 3 5 9 10 13 Activity 6 8 11 7
    • 40. New Seven Q.C. Tools Arrow Diagrams Slide 4 0f 7 Constructing an Arrow Diagram‚ From strategies on Tree diagram, select one (Objective of Arrow Diagram)ƒ Identify constraints to Objective„ List all activities necessary to achieving Objective… Write all essential activities on separate cards
    • 41. New Seven Q.C. Tools Arrow Diagrams Slide 5 0f 7 Constructing an Arrow Diagram (cont.)† Organize cards in sequential order of activities‡ Remove any duplicate activitiesˆ Review order of activities, find sequence with greatest amount of activities‰ Arrange parallel activities
    • 42. New Seven Q.C. Tools Arrow Diagrams Slide 6 0f 7 Constructing an Arrow Diagram (cont.)Š Examine path, number nodes in sequence from left to right‹ Record names and other necessary informationNext, complete the diagram
    • 43. New Seven Q.C. Tools Arrow Diagrams Slide 7 0f 7 Completing an Arrow Diagram Strategy Constraints 4 12 1 2 3 5 9 10 13 Activity 6 8 11 7S o u rc e : N ayatan i , Y., T h e S e ve n N e w Q C T o o ls (T o k yo , Jap an , 3A C o rp o rati o n , 1 984)
    • 44. New Seven Q.C. ToolsProcess Decisions ProgramCharts Slide 1 0f 7For Producing the Desired Result from ManyPossible Outcomes· Used to plan various contingencies· Used for getting activities back on track· Steers events in required direction if unanticipated problems occur· Finds feasible counter measures to overcome problems
    • 45. New Seven Q.C. ToolsProcess Decisions ProgramCharts Slide 2 0f 7 Advantages of Process Decisions Program Charts (PDPC’s)· Facilitates forecasting· Uses past to anticipate contingencies· Enables problems to pinpointed· Illustrates how events will be directed to successful conclusion· Enables those involved to understand decision-makers intentions
    • 46. New Seven Q.C. ToolsProcess Decisions ProgramCharts Slide 3 0f 7 Advantages of PDPC’s (cont.)· Fosters cooperation and communication in group· Easily modified and easily understood Start NO NO NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO GOAL
    • 47. New Seven Q.C. ToolsProcess Decisions ProgramCharts Slide 4 0f 7 Constructing a PDPC‚ Select a highly effective, but difficult strategy from the Tree diagramƒ Decide on a goal (most desirable outcome)„ Identify existing situation (Starting point)… Identify constraints of objective† List activities to reach goal and potential problems with each activity
    • 48. New Seven Q.C. ToolsProcess Decisions ProgramCharts Slide 5 0f 7 Constructing an PDPC (cont.)‡ Review list. Add extra activities or problems not thought of previouslyˆ Prepare contingency plan for each step and review what action is needed if step is not achieved‰ Examine carefully to check for inconsistencies and all important factors are included
    • 49. New Seven Q.C. ToolsProcess Decisions ProgramCharts Slide 6 0f 7 Constructing an PDPC (cont.)Š Examine to make sure all contingency plans are adequateNext, complete the diagram
    • 50. New Seven Q.C. ToolsProcess Decisions ProgramCharts Slide 7 0f 7Completing a PDPC Start NO NO NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO GOAL S o u rc e : N ayatan i , Y., T h e S e ve n N e w Q C T o o ls (T o k yo , Jap an , 3A C o rp o rati o n , 1 9 84)
    • 51. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Data Analysis Slide 1 0f 6 Principal Component Analysis· Technique quantifies and arranges data presented in Matrix· Based solely on numerical data· Finds indicators that differentiate and attempt to clarify large amount of information
    • 52. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Data Analysis Slide 2 0f 6Advantages of Principal Component Analysis· Can be used in various fields (market surveys, new product planning, process analysis)· Can be when used when Matrix diagram does not give sufficient information· Useful as Prioritization Grid
    • 53. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Data Analysis Slide 3 0f 6 Constructing a Prioritization Grid S o u rc e : F o s te r, S ., M an ag i n g Q u ali ty (U p p e r S ad d le R i ve r, N J: P re n ti c e H all, 2 001 )‚ Determine your goal, your alternatives, and criteria for decisionƒ Place selection in order of importance„ Apply percentage weight to each option (all weights should add up to 1)… Sum individual ratings to establish overall ranking (Divide by number of options for average ranking)
    • 54. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Data Analysis Slide 4 0f 6 Constructing a Prioritization Grid (cont.)† Rank order each option with respect to criterion (Average the rankings and apply a completed ranking)‡Multiply weight by associated rank in Matrix (in example, 4 is best, 1 is worst)ˆ Result is Importance Score‰ Add up Importance Scores for each option
    • 55. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Data Analysis Slide 5 0f 6 Constructing a Prioritization Grid (cont.)Š Rank order the alternatives according to importanceSee completed the diagram
    • 56. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Data Analysis Slide 6 0f 6 Completing a Prioritization Grid Criteria Customer Acceptance Strength Importance Option (most important) Cost Reliability (least important) Sum Score RankingOptionsDesign A Percentage weight .40 .30 .20 .10 Rank 4 3 3 1 Importance score 1.6 .90 .60 .10 3.2 1 (tie)Design B Percentage weight .30 .40 .10 .20 Rank 3 4 1 2 Importance score .90 1.6 .10 .40 3.0 2Design C Percentage weight .25 .25 .25 .25 Rank 1 2 4 3 Importance score .25 .50 1 .75 2.5 3Design D Percentage weight 0.3 .10 .20 .40 Rank 3 1 3 4 Importance score .90 .10 .60 1.6 3.2 1 (tie) Sum of weights 1.25 1.05 .75 .95 Average weight .31 .26 .19 .24 Criterion Ranking 1 2 4 3 S o u rc e : F o s te r, S ., M an ag i n g Q u ali ty (U p p e r S ad d le R i ve r, N J: P re n ti c e H all, 2 001 )

    ×