Greenbook 2001                         Landscapes Sustaining Agricultural L andscapes                 !"#$%& (") *+,-(."(/...
Introduction to the Greenbook 2001     I         am pleased to introduce the 12th edition of the Greenbook. An annual publ...
Table of Contents   Essays     Altieri, M.A., !"#$%&()#$&*+$,(*-./*$/0$1./+.2#)3.4$.*$56).-(7()# ............................
Table of Contents    Midwest Food Connection, 8.+E#3$,//+$A/**#-./*R$A".7+)#*$8/*./)$/*$,&);3 ...............................
Essay • Altieri            —— 5                 FunctionThe Nature and Function ofBiodiversity in Agriculture           Au...
6 ——         Essay • Altieriassociated with higher biodiversity than highly simplified,         67#0."8/#-9##"(%$4/.4).:#$...
Essay • Altieri          —— 7 parasitiZe or prey upon pest populations (Altieri, 1994).          communities which continu...
8 ——        Essay • AltieriBristol, Ub.Gliessman, S.R. 1998. :65*$;*.*61H%%4;*.*6-;7.%,5*;$99-#%9"927-#70.$%765-;".2"5$E A...
Essay • USDA              —— 9             Functions          Far                                 armsThe Multiple Functio...
10 —— Essay • USDAfarm children do not return to farming because of theirdesire for more financially secure careers, a gen...
Sustainable Grant Program • Description —— 11Sustainable Agriculture Grant Program                      Program Purpose   ...
Alternative Crops • Buchholz —— 13           RedIncreasing Red Clover Seed Production                 Pollinatorsby Satura...
14 —— Alternative Crops • Buchholzspacing of the beehives in clusters onthe field perimeter. He will continue to      Tabl...
Alternative Crops • Buckwheat Growers —— 15      Corn        AlternativeFlour Corn as an Alternative Crop -               ...
16 —— Alternative Crops • Buckwheat GrowersResults                                                          whiter corn fl...
Alternative Crops • Dease —— 17Development and Continuation of a Community Based                    Grower’s              ...
18 —— Alternative Crops • Deasecreative and detailed marketing plan. Patty hopes that         Patty anticipates similar re...
Alternative Crops • Dease —— 19 Project Location                                         Other Resources Take Hwy 55 west ...
20 —— Alternative Crops • PetrichPhosphorus Mobilization and WeedPhosphorus                  WeedSuppression by Buckwheat ...
Alternative Crops • Petrich —— 21 Results                                                 Table 1. Comparison of Practices...
22 —— Alternative Crops • Petrichconsistent trend for improved weed control following             The dry weights of soybe...
Alternative Crops • Petrich —— 23 3. Sorghum-sudangrass can either be disked under when            A$0*573%:..7#B Universi...
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
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Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
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Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
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Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
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Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
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Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
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Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility
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  1. 1. Greenbook 2001 Landscapes Sustaining Agricultural L andscapes !"#$%& (") *+,-(."(/0#1%$.2+0-+$# 3$4%$(5 Minnesota Department of Agriculture 90 West Plato Boulevard St. Paul, Minnesota 55107 651-296-7673 !"#$%&( s )*+,-.$/%01%23$%4#$561%7#/%8"927-#70.$%:65-;".2"5$%<5*657+%827==>#%7;;*5/7#;$%?-23%23$%:+$5-;7#9%@-23%A-970-.-2-$9%:;2B%7#%7.2$5#72-C$%=*5+%*=%;*++"#-;72-*#%-9%7C7-.70.$%",*#%5$D"$92E FFGH% (IJIK&LIMN&O F3$%P-##$9*27%A$,752+$#2%*=%:65-;".2"5$%-9%7#%$D"7.%*,,*52"#-21%$+,.*1$5E
  2. 2. Introduction to the Greenbook 2001 I am pleased to introduce the 12th edition of the Greenbook. An annual publication of the Minnesota Department of AgricultureJs Energy and Sustainable Agriculture Program (ESAP), the Greenbook highlights the results of creative and innovative farmers and researchers involved with our Sustainable Agriculture On-Farm Demonstration Grant Program. These people are dedicated to helping make Minnesota agriculture more profitable and environmentally friendly. Greenbook 2001 can be very helpful as you consider making changes on your farm. The articles highlight results of the projects and provide practical and technical information. Each article includes observations and management tips from the people already trying the practices. Of course, these participants are also willing to talk about their experiences with you directly. Give them a call and visit with them about their projects. This yearJs Greenbook also includes two essays on what agriculture provides to the natural environment and our communities. Often, we think that agriculture provides only food and fiber on a global scale and we overlook what agriculture provides at the local level. Minnesota farmers are protecting the environment, spending money in their communities, and providing healthy food right here for Minnesota residents. The Greenbook also includes updates on other ESAP projects such as low-interest loans, soil quality research, monitoring at the Big Woods Dairy at the Nerstrand-Big Woods State Park, integrated pest management (IPM), organic farming, and animal mortality composting. I hope you find this issue of the Greenbook interesting and full of new ideas. Gene Hugoson, Commissioner Minnesota Department of AgricultureGREENBOOK 2001 • ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE PROGRAM • MINNESOTA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
  3. 3. Table of Contents Essays Altieri, M.A., !"#$%&()#$&*+$,(*-./*$/0$1./+.2#)3.4$.*$56).-(7()# ........................................................ 5 USDA, !"#$8(7.97#$,(*-./*3$/0$:;&77 ,&);3 ............................................................................................. 9 Sustainable Agriculture Grant Program <)&*$=)/6)&;$>#3-).9./* ............................................................................................................................ 11 Alternative Crops BuchholZ, Leland, ?*-)#&3.*6$@#+$A7/2#)$:##+$=)/+(-./*$B4$:&()&./*$/0$=/77.*&/)3 .......................... 13 Buckwheat Growers,$,7/()$A/)*$&3$&*$57#)*&.2#$A)/9$C$!"#$1#*#0.3$/0$D3.*6$A/)*$,7/E#) ............ 15 Dease, Patty, >#2#7/9;#*$&*+$A/*.*(&./*$/0$&$A/;;(*.4$1&3#+$:(3&.*&B7#$F)6&*.- <)/E#)G3$A//9#)&.2#$H$8&)I#.*6$:43#; ............................................................................................. 17 Petrich, Curt, ="/39"/)(3$8/B.7.J&./*$&*+$K##+$:(99)#33./*$B4$1(-IE"#& ......................................... 20 Runck, Willis, 8&*&6#+$=)/+(-./*$/0$K//+3L6)/E*$&*+$:.;(7&#+$K.7+$<.*3#*6 ................................. 24 Streed, Erik, M3&B7.3".*6$56)/0/)#3)4$>#;/*3)&./*$:.#3$.*$8.**#3/& ................................................ 27 ^eithamer, Joshua, =)/9&6&./*$/0$%&.2#$<)&33#3$&*+$K.7+07/E#)3$0/)$:##+$=)/+(-./* ........................ 30 Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility Becket, Tim & Geske, Jeremy, 59974.*6$8&*()#$/$A/)*$&$56)/*/;.-$@&#3 ........................................... 33 Cuomo, Greg, A#)#&7$@4#$0/)$@#+(-#+$?*9($=&3()#$M3&B7.3";#*$H$M&)74$<)&J.*6 ............................ 36 FernholZ, Carmen, !#-"*.N(#3$0/)$8/)#$M00.-.#*$D.7.J&./*$/0$$&$O#-" A/2#)$A)/9$0/)$A/)*$=)/+(-./* ................................................................................................................ 40 Hansen, Mike, P.2.*6$:*/E$,#*-#3$0/)$?;9)/2#+$=&3()#$=)/+(-./* ....................................................... 42 Hansen, Neil, P&*+$5997.-&./*$/0$8/)&7.4$A/;9/3$/$?;9)/2#$:/.7$H$K&#)$Q(&7.4 ........................ 45 Hart, Andy, :/.7$A/*3#)2&./*$/0$A&**.*6$A)/9$,.#7+3 ................................................................................ 48 Heimpel, George, 1./7/6.-&7$A/*)/7$/0$570&70&$17/-"$P#&0;.*#) ............................................................... 50 boehler, Jeff, !()I#4$P.#)R$$8/)#$.3$%/$57E&43$1##) .............................................................................. 52 Muller, Mark, D3.*6$%().#*$1&7&*-#3$/$1#*#0.$,&);#)3$&*+$"#$M*2.)/*;#* .................................... 54 Persons, Daniel, =)/6)&;;&.-$599)/&-"$/$=&3()#$@#*/2&./*$0/)$A#77$<)&J.*6 ................................... 57 Rauenhorst, Raymond, 5#).&7$:##+.*6$K.*#)$@4#$.*/$%/L.77$A/)*$H$:/4B#&*3 ....................................... 59 Rosen, Dr. Carl,$56).-(7()&7$D3#$/0$@/-I$,.*#3$&3$&$:(3&.*&B7#$:/.7$5;#*+;#* .................................. 62 Scaife, James, M3&B7.3".*6$&$@/&./*&7$<)&J.*6$:43#;$.*$&$:#;.LE//+#+$M-/343#;R ,)/3$:##+.*6$23S$?;9&-./*$:##+.*6$/*$A@=$P&*+$&*+$K//+#+$T.773.+#3$D3.*6$:"##9 ..................... 65 Sovell, James, ?*-)#&3#+$,/)&6#$=)/+(-./*$!")/(6"$A/*)/7$/0$K&#)$@(*/00$&*+ %().#*$@#-4-7.*6 ........................................................................................................................................ 69 Thompson, Tony, 5$$P/EL-/3$8#-"&*.3;$0/)$?*#)L3##+.*6$A/2#)$A)/93$.*$A/)* ................................... 72 colkmann, Norman & Sallie, 8&*&6.*6$>&.)4$8&*()#$%().#*3$.*$&$@#-4-7.*6$A/;9/3$=)/6)&; ........ 74 Wheeler, Donald, @#+(-.*6$A"#;.-&7$D3&6#$B4$D3.*6$:/4$F.7$/*$A/)*$H$:/4B#&*3 ................................ 78 Fruits and Vegetables AbaZs, David & Lise, ?*#6)&.*6$P.2#3/-I$=)/0.&B74$?*/$&$,)(.$&*+$O#6#&B7#$F9#)&./* ................ 83 Adelmann, Jeffrey & Mary, O&7(#$5++.*6$/$:;&77$,&);3$!")/(6"$=)/-#33.*6$MU-#33$=)/+(-./* ......... 86 Bailey, Pat, M2&7(&.*6$"#$1#*#0.3$/0$A/;9/3$!#&3$/$"#$:;&77$8&)I#$<)/E#) ................................. 89 Friend, Catherine & Peteler, Melissa, :(3&.*&B7#$K##+$A/*)/7$.*$&$A/;;#)-.&7$O.*#4&)+ ..................... 92 Hoover, Dr. Emily, 1./LB&3#+$K##+$A/*)/7$.*$:)&EB#)).#3$D3.*6$:"##9$K//7$8(7-"V A&*/7&$8(7-"$H$A&*/7&$<)##*$8&*()# .................................................................................................... 94GREENBOOK 2001 • ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE PROGRAM • MINNESOTA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
  4. 4. Table of Contents Midwest Food Connection, 8.+E#3$,//+$A/**#-./*R$A".7+)#*$8/*./)$/*$,&);3 ................................ 98 Reding, Donald, O.&B.7.4$/0$K.*#$Q(&7.4$<)&9#3$&3$&*$57#)*&.2#$A)/9$0/)$"#$,&;.74$,&); ........... 101 Riehle, Joe,$A/2#)$A)/93$&*+$P.2.*6$8(7-"$0/)$:)&EB#))4$M3&B7.3";#* ............................................ 104 Seim, Peter & Bacon, Bruce, :/.7$M-/7/64$&*+$8&*&6#+$:/.7$:()0&-#3 ...................................................... 108 Wildung, Dr. David, ,7&;#$1()*.*6$0/)$K##+$A/*)/7$&*+$@#*/2&./*$E."$:)&EB#)).#3 .................... 111 Livestock Arndt, John & Leila, K/)I.*6$=)&.).#$L$@//3$/0$"#$=&3$:(3&.*.*6$"#$,(()#...................................... 117 Carlton County Extension, =&3()#$5#)&./*$&*+$.3$M00#-3$/*$=)/+(-.2.4$D3.*6$&$O&).#4$/0$?*9(3 . 120 Dingels, Stephen & Patricia, O.&B.7.4$/0$:).9$<)&J.*6$A/)*$?*#)L3##+#+$E."$& <)&33WP#6(;#$8.U()# .............................................................................................................................. 122 Harmon, Michael, ?*-)#&3.*6$Q(&7.4$&*+$Q(&*.4$/0$=&3()#$,/)&6#$E."$8&*&6#;#* ?*#*3.2#$<)&J.*6$&3$&*$57#)*&.2#$/$"#$<)&J.*6$/0$K//+#+$P&*+ .................................................. 128 Miller, Dan & Cara, P/E$?*9($A/*2#)3./*$/0$A@=$P&*+$/$&$T.6"$=)/0.&B.7.4$8&*&6#;#* ?*#*3.2#$<)&J.*6$&*+$T&4.*6$:43#; ..................................................................................................... 131 Northwest Minnesota GraZing Group, :(997#;#*$,##+.*6$>&.)4$A&7#$/*$=&3()#$E." 5(/;&#+$A/*-#*)&#$,##+#) ................................................................................................................ 135 Rabe, Dennis, K"/7#$:43#;$8&*&6#;#*$23S$M*#)9).3#$8&*&6#;#* .................................................. 138 Rathke, Doug & barstens, Connie, @#2.2.*6$&*+$M*"&*-.*6$:/.73$0/)$8&U.;.J.*6 =#)0/);&*-#$/0$=&3()#3$&*+$P.2#3/-I .................................................................................................. 142 Rolling, Joseph, 5**(&7$8#+.-$&3$&$=)/#.*$:/()-#$.*$<)&J.*6$A/)* ........................................................ 145 Schiefelbein, Frank, <)&J.*6$1##0$A&7#$&3$&$:(3&.*&B7#$56).-(7()#$=)/+(-$.*$@.9&).&*$5)#&3 ........ 148 Schilling, Peter, 5++.*6$O&7(#$0/)$"#$:;&77$=)/+(-#)$2.&$%&()&7$=)/+(-./*$8#"/+3 &*+$>.)#-$8&)I#.*6 ................................................................................................................................. 150 Stassen, Steve, ,&))/E.*6$A)&#3$23S$=#*3$23S$%#3$1/U#3 ......................................................................... 151 Stelling, Ralph, ,/)&6#$=)/+(-./*$/$8&.*&.*$F*#$8&()#$5*.;&7$=#)$5-)#$0/)$XY$8/*"3 ............... 153 Struxness, Don & Dan, ,.)3$&*+$:#-/*+$Z#&)$<)&J#)3$.*$&$Z#&)$@/(*+$=&3()#$:#.*6 :#)2#+$B4$&$,)/3$,)##$K&#)$:43#; ...................................................................................................... 155 Wright County Extension, ?;9)/2#;#*$/0$=&3()#3$0/)$T/)3#3$!")/(6"$8&*&6#;#*$=)&-.-#3 ......... 158 New Demonstration Grant Projects ..................................................................... 161 Completed Grant Projects .................................................................................... 163 Sustainable Agriculture Loan Program ................................................................ 166 Animal Mortality Composting ............................................................................ 167 Big Woods Dairy at Nerstrand — Big Woods State Park ....................................... 169 Soil Quality and Rainfall Simulation .................................................................... 173 The Organic Industry in Minnesota ..................................................................... 174 Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Program ....................................................... 176 About the Staff..... ............................................................................................... 178GREENBOOK 2001 • ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE PROGRAM • MINNESOTA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
  5. 5. Essay • Altieri —— 5 FunctionThe Nature and Function ofBiodiversity in Agriculture Author T oday, scientists worldwide are increasingly starting to recogniZe the role and significance of biodiversity in the functioning agroecosystems deprived of basic regulating functional components lack the capacity to sponsor their own soil fertility and pest M. A. Altieri of agricultural systems (Swift et al., 1996). regulation. As functional biodiversity decreases, Department of Research suggests that whereas in natural the requirement for higher management intensity Environmental ecosystems the internal regulation of function increases, thus monocultures must be subsidiZed Science Policy and is substantially a product of plant biodiversity with external inputs. Often, the costs involve a Management through flows of energy and nutrients and reduction in the quality of the food produced University of California - through biological synergisms, this form of and of rural life in general due to decreased soil, Berkeley control is progressively lost under agricultural water, and food quality when erosion and intensification and simplification, so that pesticide and/or nitrate contamination occurs Essay monocultures, in order to function, must be (Altieri, 1995). predominantly subsidiZed by chemical inputs Information (Swift et. al. 1996). Commercial seed-bed Biodiversity refers to all species of plants, Excerpted from preparation and mechaniZed planting replace animals and microorganisms existing and P".2-="#;2-*#7. natural methods of seed dispersald chemical interacting within an ecosystem. In A-+$#9-*#9%*= pesticides replace natural controls on populations agroecosystems, pollinators, natural enemies, 4;*.*6-;7..1I079$/ of weeds, insects, and pathogensd and genetic earthworms, and soil microorganisms are all key:65-;".2"5$%-#%Q72-# manipulation replaces natural processes of plant biodiversity components that play important :+$5-;7 evolution and selection. Even decomposition is ecological roles thus mediating processes suchwww.cnr.berkeley.edu/ altered since plant growth is harvested and soil as genetic introgression, natural control, nutrient fagroeco3/ fertility maintained, not through nutrient cycling, decomposition, etc. The type and multifunctional recycling, but with fertiliZers. abundance of biodiversity in agriculture will gdimensions.html differ across agroecosystems which differ in RS#*2$% 23$ One of the most important reasons for age, diversity, structure, and management. In "#/$59;*5$%-#%23$ maintaining and/or encouraging natural fact, there is great variability in basic ecological70*C$%?$0%7//5$99T biodiversity is that it performs a variety of and agronomic patterns among the various ecological services (Altieri, 1991). In natural dominant agroecosystems. In general, the ecosystems, the vegetative cover of a forest or degree of biodiversity in agroecosystems grassland prevents soil erosion, replenishes depends on four main characteristics of the ground water, and controls flooding by agroecosystems (Southwood and Way, 1970): enhancing infiltration and reducing water runoff. In agricultural systems, biodiversity performs 1. The diversity of vegetation within and around ecosystem services beyond production of food, the agroecosystem. fiber, fuel, and income. Examples include, recycling of nutrients, control of local 2. The permanence of the various crops within microclimate, regulation of local hydrological the agroecosystem. processes, regulation of the abundance of undesirable organisms, and detoxification of 3. The intensity of management. noxious chemicals. These renewal processes and ecosystem services are largely biological, 4. The extent of the isolation of the therefore their persistence depends upon agroecosystem from natural vegetation. maintenance of biological diversity. When these natural services are lost due to biological In general, agroecosystems that are more simplification, the economic and environmental diverse, more permanent, isolated, and managed costs can be quite significant. Economically in with low input technology (i.e. agroforestry agriculture, the burdens include the need to systems, traditional polycultures) take fuller supply crops with costly external inputs, since advantage of work done by ecological processes GREENBOOK 2001 • ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE PROGRAM • MINNESOTA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
  6. 6. 6 —— Essay • Altieriassociated with higher biodiversity than highly simplified, 67#0."8/#-9##"(%$4/.4).:#$,.-&(")5+0-.;+"2-.4"(0.-&<input-driven and disturbed systems (i.e. modern row crops When agricultural development takes place in a naturaland vegetable monocultures and fruit orchards) (Altieri, environment, it tends to result in a heterogeneous mosaic1995). of varying types of habitat patches spread across the landscape. The bulk of the land may be intensely managedAll agroecosystems are dynamic and subject to different and frequently disturbed for the purposes of agriculturallevels of management so that the crop arrangements in production, but certain parts (wetlands, riparian corridors,time and space are continually changing in the face of hillsides) may be left in a relatively natural condition, andbiological, cultural, socio-economic, and environmental other parts (borders and strips between fields, roadsides,factors. Such landscape variations determine the degree and adjacent natural areas) may occasionally be disturbedof spatial and temporal heterogeneity characteristic of but not intensely managed. In addition, natural ecosystemsagricultural regions, which in turn conditions the type of may surround or border areas in which agriculturalbiodiversity present. production dominates (Gliessman, 1998).According to candermeer and Perfecto (1995), two distinct The heterogeneity of the agricultural landscape variescomponents of biodiversity can be recogniZed in greatly by region. In some parts of Latin America, whereagroecosystems. The first component, planned commercial, export agriculture predominates, the heavybiodiversity, is the biodiversity associated with the crops use of agricultural chemicals, mechanical technology,and livestock purposely included in the agroecosystem by narrow genetic lines, and irrigation over large areas havethe farmer, and which will vary depending on management made the landscape relatively homogenous. In such areas,inputs and crops spatial/temporal arrangements. The the agricultural landscape is made up mostly of large areassecond component, associated biodiversity, includes all of single crop agricultural production. The expansion ofsoil flora and fauna, herbivores, carnivores, decomposers, such agricultural landscapes disrupts natural areas in threeetc., that coloniZe the agroecosystem from surrounding important ways. First, natural ecosystems becomeenvironments and that will thrive in the agroecosystem fragmented and important ecological linkages may bedepending on its management and structure. Planned changed or uncoupled. For example, the conversion ofbiodiversity has a direct function. Associated biodiversity uplands from native grasslands or deciduous forest toalso has a function, but it is mediated through planned cotton will profoundly affect the nutrient and pesticidebiodiversity. Thus, planned biodiversity also has an indirect inputs into any adjacent wetlands. Second, thefunction, which is realiZed through its influence on the fragmentation increases boundary phenomena by increasingassociated biodiversity. For example, the trees in an the proportion of area that is near a boundary. This resultsagroforestry system create shade, which makes it possible in an exacerbation of the impacts from adjacent agriculture.to grow only sun-tolerant crops. So the direct function of Third, the absolute loss of natural areas generally meansthis second species (the trees) is to create shade. iet that the remaining patches are increasingly more distantalong with the trees might come small wasps that seek out from each other. Thus each remnant takes on more andthe nectar in the treeJs flowers. These wasps may in turn more the properties of oceanic islands in the sense thatbe the natural parasitoids of pests that normally attack the source areas for recoloniZation are often very distant. Thus,crops. The wasps are part of the associated biodiversity. local extinction events for both species and genes areThe trees, then, create shade (direct function) and attract unlikely to be balanced by recoloniZation or gene flow.wasps (indirect function) (candermeer and Perfecto, Unlike real islands, remnant patches of natural ecosystems1995). are highly vulnerable to invasion by weedy plants and animals from surrounding agricultural lands and areThe key is to identify the type of biodiversity that is desirable vulnerable as well to perturbations created by agriculturalto maintain and/or enhance in order to carry out ecological production practices (Fry, 1995).services, and then to determine the best practices that willencourage the desired biodiversity components. There In peasant dominated areas, the use of traditional farmingare many agricultural practices that have the potential to practices with minimal industrial inputs has resulted in aenhance functional biodiversity, and others that negatively varied, highly heterogeneous landscape-possibly even moreaffect it. The idea is to apply the best management practices heterogeneous than would exist naturally. In suchin order to enhance and/or regenerate the kind of heterogeneous environments, natural and semi-naturalbiodiversity that can subsidiZe the sustainability of ecosystem patches included in the landscape can becomeagroecosystems by providing ecological services such as a resource for agroecosystems. An area of non-crop habitatbiological pest control, nutrient cycling, water and soil adjacent to a crop field, for example, can harbor populationsconservation, etc. of natural enemies which can move into the field andGREENBOOK 2001 • ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE PROGRAM • MINNESOTA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
  7. 7. Essay • Altieri —— 7 parasitiZe or prey upon pest populations (Altieri, 1994). communities which continued the use of slash and burn, A riparian corridor vegetated by native plant species can were severely affected by El Niko phenomena, which left filter out dissolved fertiliZer nutrients leaching from crop a legacy of human misery and destruction of vitally fields, promote a presence of beneficial species, and allow important watersheds. the movement of native animal species into and through the agricultural components of the landscape. Such agroforestry programs which reduce deforestation and burning of plant biomass can provide a sink for On the other hand, agroecosystems can begin to assume a atmospheric carbon dioxide and also considerably reduce positive rather than a negative role in preserving the integrity emissions of nitrous oxide. Recent research shows that of natural ecosystems. Many small scale-diversified promoting techniques already familiar to thousands of small agroecosystems have been designed and managed in ways farmers in Latin America such as, crop rotation and cutting that make them more friendly to native species. For back on chemical fertiliZers through the use of composting example, by encouraging hedgerows, vertebrates can be can act as important sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide provided with large habitats, better food sources, and storing it below the soil surface. corridors for movement. Native plants can have more suitable habitats and find fewer barriers to dispersal. The benefits of agrobiodiversity in enhancing the Smaller organisms, such as below ground microbes and multifunctional agriculture extend beyond the above insects, can flourish in organically managed soils and thus described effects as shown by the impacts of shaded coffee benefit other species since they are such important elements farms in Latin America. Farmers typically integrate into in ecosystem structure and function (Gliessman, 1998). their coffee farms many different leguminous trees, fruit trees, and types of fuel wood and fodder. These trees By managing agricultural landscapes from the point of view provide shade, a habitat for birds and animals that benefit of biodiversity conservation as well as sustainable the farming system. In Mexico, shade coffee plantations production, the multiple use capacity of agriculture can be support up to 180 species of birds, including migrating enhanced providing several benefits simultaneously species, some of which play key roles in pest control and (Thrupp, 1998): seed dispersal. j increase agricultural productivityd Learning how to manage an agriculture that promotes both j build stability, robustness, and sustainability of farming environmental as well as productive functions will require systemsd inputs from disciplines not previously exploited by j contribute to sound pest and disease managementd scientists, including agroecology, ethnoscience, j conserve soil and increase natural soil fertility and soil conservation biology, and landscape ecology. The bottom healthd line, however, is that agriculture must adopt ecologically j diversify products and income opportunities from farmsd sound management practices, including diversified j add economic value and increase net returns to farmsd cropping systems, biological control and organic soil j reduce or spread risks to individuals, communities, and management as replacements for synthetic pesticides, nationsd fertiliZers, and other chemicals. Only with such foundation j increase efficiency of resource use and restore can we attain the goal of a multifunctional agriculture. ecological healthd j reduce pressure of agriculture on fragile areas, forests, References and endangered speciesd j reduce dependency on external inputsd and, Altieri, M.A. 1991. F57/-2-*#7.%=75+-#6%-#%Q72-#%:+$5-;7E j increase nutritional values and provide sources of The Ecologist 21:93-96. medicines and vitamins. Altieri, M.A. 1994. U-*/-C$59-21%7#/%,$92%+7#76$+$#2%-# The effects of agrobiodiversity in mitigating extreme 765*$;*9192$+9E Haworth Press, New iork. climatic effects, such as the drought promoted by El NikoJs were recently evident in northern Honduras. An Altieri, M.A. 1995. :65*$;*.*61H% 23$% 9;-$#;$% *= agroforestry project reviving the lueZungal method, an 9"927-#70.$%765-;".2"5$E Westview Press, Boulder. ancient agricultural system, spared about 84 farming communities from destruction. Farmers using the method Fry, G. 1995. Q7#/9;7,$%$;*.*61%*=%-#9$;2%+*C$+$#2%-# lost only 10m of their crops in 1998Js severe drought, and 7570.$%$;*9192$+9E In: Ecology and integrated farming actually obtained a grain surplus of 5-6 million pounds in systems. D.M. Glen et al. (eds). John Wiley and Sons, the wake of Hurricane Mitch. On the other hand, nearbyGREENBOOK 2001 • ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE PROGRAM • MINNESOTA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
  8. 8. 8 —— Essay • AltieriBristol, Ub.Gliessman, S.R. 1998. :65*$;*.*61H%%4;*.*6-;7.%,5*;$99-#%9"927-#70.$%765-;".2"5$E Ann Arbor Press, Michigan.Swift, M.S., J. candermeer, P.S. Ramakrishnan, J.M.Anderson, C.b. Ong and B.A. Hawkins. 1996.U-*/-C$59-21%7#/%765*$;*9192$+%="#;2-*#E In: H.A. Mooneyet al. (eds.). Functional roles of biodiversity: A globalperspective. J. Wiley and Sons, N.i., pp. 261-298.Thrupp, L.A. 1998. )".2-C72-#6% /-C$59-21H:65*0-*/-C$59-21% 7#/% =**/% 9$;"5-21E World ResourcesInstitute, Washington, DC.candermeer, J. and I. Perfecto. 1995. U5$7V=792% *=0-*/-C$59-21H%F3$%25"23%70*"2%57-#=*5$92%/$925";2-*#E FoodFirst Books, Oakland, CA.GREENBOOK 2001 • ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE PROGRAM • MINNESOTA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
  9. 9. Essay • USDA —— 9 Functions Far armsThe Multiple Functions of Small Far ms Essay 8 +7..% =75+9% ;7##*2% $W-92% -#% 7% C7;""+ 79% 5$.-;9% *=% /719% 6*#$% 01% ,5$9$5C$/% =*5 23$% 2*"5-929% *5% #*927.6-7% =*5% 3*?% +*92 open space, particularly appreciated by urban people as well as rural neighbors. Connection to the land has always been central to the spiritual Information $C$51*#$X9%65$72%657#/,75$#29%.-C$/E%%8+7.. and cultural values of our countryJs indigenous Excerpted from the =75+9% 75$% 7% C-27.% ="#;2-*#-#6% ,752% *=% 7 people. Additionally, widespread ownership of USDA, :%F-+$%2* ?*5V-#6%.7#/9;7,$%2372%-#;."/$9%!$==$59*#-7# land is an essential principle of our NationJs:;2. A Report of the $#25$,5$#$"59% *=% 7..% V-#/9% Y% .*;7..1% *?#$/ earliest public policies. And land ownership and USDA National 65*;$51% 92*5$9B% 67576$9B% +7;3-#$51 farming provided a foundation for community Commission on /$7.$593-,9% 7#/% *23$5% 0"9-#$99$9% *,$572-#6 and tradition for the new settlers and pioneers Small Farms, *#%7%9-+-.75%9;7.$%79%23$%=75+$59%23$1%0*23 who often fled from oppressive regimes to seek January 1998. The 9$5C$%7#/%/$,$#/%*#E greater opportunity in America. complete report is available at n Clark Hinsdale, cermont Farmer www.reeusda.gov/ j Environmental benefits: Approximately 60m agsys/smallfarm/ The USDA National Commission on Small of all farms are less than 180 acres in siZe, ncosf.htm Farms describes small farms as farms with less indicating that the majority of farmland is than o250,000 gross receipts annually, on which managed by a large number of small farm day-to-day labor and management are provided operators. Responsible management of the by the farmer and/or the farm family that owns natural resources of soil, water, and wildlife the production or owns, or leases, the productive encompassed by these operations produces assets. This description of small farms includes significant environmental benefits for society to approximately 94m of all U. S. farms. These enjoy. Therefore, investment in the viability of farms own 75m of the total productive assets in these operations will yield dividends in the agriculture, mostly land, and receive 41m of all stewardship of the NationJs natural resources. agricultural receipts. This description includes 41m of all farmers who consider farming their j Self-empowerment and community primary occupation and an equal percentage of responsibility: DecentraliZed land ownership farmers that work part-time on the farm and rely produces more equitable economic opportunity on non-farm jobs as their primary source of for people in rural communities, as well as income. greater social capital. Owner-operated farm structures offer individual self-employment and Economic statistics speak only to the “product business management opportunities. This can output” of farms by measures of crop and provide a greater sense of personal responsibility livestock sales and they likely underestimate the and feeling of control over oneJs life, economic contributions of small farms. These characteristics that are not as readily available numbers do not reflect the social and to factory line workers. Landowners who rely environmental goods produced by a large on local businesses and services for their needs number of small farms. Some of the functions are more likely to have a stake in the well-being performed by small farms and thus the public of the community and the well-being of its values generated by small farms include: citiZens. In turn, local landowners are more likely to be held accountable for any negative actions j Diversity: Small farms embody a diversity that harm the community. of ownership, of cropping systems, of landscapes, of biological organiZation, culture j Places for families: Farms, particularly and traditions. A varied farm structure family farms, can be nurturing places for children contributes to a diversity of cropping systems to grow up and acquire the values of and, therefore, to biological diversity. A large responsibility and hard work. The skills of number of smaller farms contributes to a diverse farming are passed from one generation to and esthetically pleasing rural landscape and another under family ownership structures. WhenGREENBOOK 2001 • ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE PROGRAM • MINNESOTA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
  10. 10. 10 —— Essay • USDAfarm children do not return to farming because of theirdesire for more financially secure careers, a generation offarming knowledge, skills and experience is lost.j Personal connection to food: With less than 2m of theNationJs population engaged in farming, most consumershave little connection to agriculture and food production.As a consequence, they have little connections with nature,except as a place for recreation, and lack an appreciationfor farming as cultivation of the earth for the production offood that sustains us. Through farmers markets, CommunitySupported Agriculture, and direct marketing strategies ofsmall farmers, people are beginning to connect with thepeople growing their food. Consumers are developingmeaningful, direct relationships with farmers and aconnection with food as a product of a farmerJs cooperationwith nature.j Economic foundations: In some states and regions ofthe country, dispersed farm operations are key to economicvitality. Historically, decline in U. S. farm numbers weremore than offset by increases in productivity and output.However, this does not appear to be the case in places likeWisconsin, a state whose farm economy has beencharacteriZed by a large number of moderate-siZed family-operated dairy farms. Since 1988, total volume of milkproduced in the state has dropped and the real value ofgross sales has also decreased. The loss of dairy farms inthis case has meant a loss to the stateJs economic output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• ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE PROGRAM • MINNESOTA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
  11. 11. Sustainable Grant Program • Description —— 11Sustainable Agriculture Grant Program Program Purpose accomplished in their demonstrations. Typically, 2001 Grant there are approximately 40 field days each year The Grant Program provides a unique with funding from ESAP. Many of these projects Technical opportunity for farmers, non-profit groups, were sponsored in cooperation with county Review Panel agricultural researchers, and educators across extension services, Sustainable Farming Steve Dingels, the state to work together and explore ways of Association, Land Stewardship Project, State Farmer, enhancing the sustainability of farming systems. Technical Colleges, the University of Minnesota, Redwood Falls, local units of government, private colleges, and Minnesota Program Description agribusinesses. bendall Dykhuis, The Department has received over 900 grant Agronomist, applications and has approved over o2 million Unfortunately, the number of field days in 2001 St. Louis County in funding for 208 projects since the program will be greatly reduced. With the threat of Foot- Extension began in 1989. Sixteen new demonstration grant and-Mouth Disease, the ESAP staff decided it projects proposed by farmers, educators, and was wise to cancel field days on farms with Richard Handeen, researchers were funded in 2001. Project cloven hoofed animals. This will help prevent Farmer, categories include: Alternative Crops, Fruits and the accidental spread of the disease should it Montevideo, cegetables, Cropping Systems and Soil Fertility, occur in Minnesota. As an alternative to field Minnesota and Livestock. This year there are 49 active days, grantees will be asked to share information grant projects throughout the state of Minnesota. on their projects during farmer discussion forums Linda Noble, throughout the coming months. Farmer, Grants provide up to o25,000 for on-farmbenyon, Minnesota demonstrations that last up to three years. The Grant Summaries projects demonstrate farming methods or Paul Peterson, systems that increase energy efficiency, reduce The project summaries that follow are brief Forage Specialist, agricultural chemical usage and show descriptions of objectives, methods, and findings University of environmental and economic benefits. A of individual grant projects funded over the last Minnesota Technical Review Panel, made up of farmers, three years. To find out more details about these university agricultural researchers, extension projects, contact the principal investigators Greg Reynolds, Farmer, agents, and educators, evaluate the applications directly through the listed telephone numbers andDelano, Minnesota on a competitive basis. The panel, with addresses. assistance from the staff of the Energy Summary of Grant Funding (1989-2001) Carl Rosen, Soil Scientist, and Sustainable Number of Average Grant University of A g r i c u l t u r e Year Grants Funded Total Funding Size Range Minnesota Program, will make 1989 17 $280,000 $16,500 $3,000—25,000 recommendations to 1990 14 $189,000 $13,500 $4,000—25,000 Bruce condracek, the Commissioner of 1991 4 $46,000 $11,500 $4,000—23,000 Minnesota Agriculture for 1992 16 $177,000 $11,000 $2,000—25,000Cooperative Fish & 1993 13 $85,000 $6,000 $2,000—11,000 approval. Wildlife Research 1994 14 $60,825 $4,000 $2,000—10,000 Unit 1995 19 $205,600 $11,000 $2,000—25,000 Field Days 1996 16 $205,500 $12,900 $4,000—25,000 1997 20 $221,591 $11,700 $1,000—25,000 The grant project 1998 19 $210,000 $11,100 $1,000—24,560 participants hold public field tours 1999 23 $234,500 $10,200 $3,000—21,000 2000 17 $150,000 $8,800 $4,600—15,000 every year to share $190,000 $11,875 $5,000—25,000 2001 16 what they have learned and )*)+, !"# $!%!&&%"(GREENBOOK 2001 • ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE PROGRAM • MINNESOTA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
  12. 12. Alternative Crops • Buchholz —— 13 RedIncreasing Red Clover Seed Production Pollinatorsby Saturation of Pollinators Project Summary field on the east perimeter. He also had a control Principal field of 17 acres with no beehives. The hives Leland BuchholZ has a 60 dairy cow and 300 were placed in the field on June 26 and removed Investigator plus tillable acreage operation. He raises all in late September. Leland BuchholZ feed stuffs for his dairy operation with a rotation RR 1, Box 62A of corn, oats, and red clover. The soil is a Grey Eagle, MN sandy loam and the topography is slightly hilly. Results 56336 All labor is provided by family members. In 1999, both fields were harvested on September 320-285-5401 Leland is certified for seed production in oats 28. Seeds were weighed on the farm and testing Todd County and red clover. His farm is located in an area for dockage was done by La Crosse Seeds. noted for production of some of the best quality There was a five pound net gain in the “Bee Test Project red clover seed in the U.S. He would like to Field” that was insignificant and did not reflect Duration evaluate the effect of placing high levels of bees the increased number of bees visiting the test directly in a field of red clover on seed yield. field (Table 1). Leland was hoping for a gain of 1999 to 2001 In addition, using red clover as an alternative 100r lb seed/A because the profit margin is low. crop in a rotation has environmental benefits. Leland was able to sell the seed for between ESAP Contact Some of these benefits include reduced o.40/lb and o.45/lb. He needed a 65 to 70 lb Jean Ciborowski pesticide use and reduced use of nitrogen for seed/A increase to pay for the hive rental. 651-297-3217 the next crop. Red clover solid seeding also provides excellent soil erosion control, while In 2000, both fields were harvested in late providing producer flexibility for use in a graZing September. Seeds were again weighed and Keywords program and harvest of hay or seed. tested for dockage. In 2000 there was a 50 lb bees, beehives, net gain in the “Bee Test Field” which was pollinators, red Project Description significant. Leland received o.45/lb for his seed. clover, seed In 1999, Leland placed 32 honey beehives on The “Bee Test Field” had a net gain of o22.50/A production a 30 acre red clover field. The hives were over the “Control” as a result of the increased randomly placed on June 28 and removed on seed production (Table 1). This is still o7.50 September 27. He also had a control field of short of the cost of placing a beehive in the field. 20 acres with no beehives. He sat in each field Leland would like to see a net gain of at least and counted bee visits as recommended by a o33.00 thereby giving him a minimum 10m profit consultant and found he had more bee visits to margin. Leland believes that the improved seed red clover flowers in the field supplemented with production in 2000 may be attributed to the hives. In 2000, Leland modified the procedure he used in 1999. He placed 32 honey beehives on a 32 acre red clover field. Rather than placing the hives in a random fashion, Leland placed the 32 hives in clusters of eight with each of the four clusters placed approximately 1,760J apart covering the entire Beehives in the field one-half mile length of theGREENBOOK 2001 • ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE PROGRAM • MINNESOTA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
  13. 13. 14 —— Alternative Crops • Buchholzspacing of the beehives in clusters onthe field perimeter. He will continue to Table 1. Yield of Red Clover Seed with and withoutspace the hives in the above fashion to Saturation with Pollinators, 1999 and 2000see if the spacing does indeed contribute !""". /012341 ---. /012341to increased seed production. Control Field “Bee Test Field” Control Field “Bee Test Field” Number of beehives 0 32 0 32Management Tip Cost of beehives 0 $30/hive 0 $30/hiveSpacing of beehives, evenly and in Number of visits by Avg = 3 to 4 Avg = 5 to 6 bees in a 20 minute NA NAclusters, on the perimeter of the field bees/sq yd bees/sq yd periodaids in improved pollination. Number of acres 17 32 20 30 lbs of seed/A 155.30 211.1 ~201.6 211.33Cooperators % DockageQ$5*1%@-..-7+9, Todd County Extension (=light immature seeds, 10 10 21 22 weed, dirt or trash)Q7//-$%4..-#6B Retired Red Clover lbs pure seed/A 139.8 190.0 159.24 164.83 Specialist, University of MinnesotaA7C$%U57"V+7#B La Crosse Seeds Net gain/loss (lbs pure seed/A) ___ +50.2 ___ +5.59 Seed appearance Similar in both fields Similar in both fieldsProject LocationFrom Grey Eagle take Hwy 287 north 4 miles to Todd Cty McGregor, S.E. (Originally published in 1976). >#9$;2Rd 8 and go west 1 mile. Turn north onto Oakhaven Rd <*..-#72-*#% *=% )".2-C72$/% )5*,% <.7#29E Updated(gravel) and go s mile then turn west on Elder Rd (gravel) continuously and available at:and go t mile. http://bee.airoot.com/beeculture/book/Other Resources F3$%Q7#/E Monthly periodical devoted to agriculture. PO Box 3169, Mankato, MN 56002, 507-345-4523.U$$%)".2"5$H%F3$%P767]-#$%*=%:+$5-;7#%U$$V$$,-#6E email: thelanduthe-land.com800-289-7668. Information is also available on the webat: http://bee.airoot.com/beeculture/GREENBOOK 2001 • ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE PROGRAM • MINNESOTA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
  14. 14. Alternative Crops • Buckwheat Growers —— 15 Corn AlternativeFlour Corn as an Alternative Crop - Cornthe Benefits of Using Corn Flour Project Summary are not in soil), the mulch is turned under and Principal edible beans are planted the third year. After Flour corn has potential as an alternative crop the beans are harvested, the plants are plowed Investigator in Minnesota and as an alternative flour for in and the rotation starts again. This rotation Lynda Converse people with gluten allergies. Crop rotation, gives the farmer an opportunity for income from c/o Buckwheat harvesting, and processing strategies, as well as a variety of crops while restoring the nutrientsGrowers Association marketability and profitability of growing flour to the soil.20415 County Rd. 2 corn, are being studied on farms in severalAldrich, MN 56434 counties. bathy also wanted to look at the possibility of 218-445-5475 or planting and harvesting on a larger scale using 320-594-2456 Project Description machinery. She had been planting, weeding, Wadena County bathy Connell, a former Master Gardener near harvesting and grinding by hand for several years Sebeka, has been growing and selecting seed but this would not be feasible on a larger scale. Project for Painted Mountain flour corn. Painted There are a number of problems with using Duration machine harvesting. Even after dry down, flour Mountain seed had been selected for hardiness 2000 to 2002 and early maturity in Northern Montana and corn has a soft cob. In some soils, plants tend she continued that selection at her site that gets to have short stalks with ears forming fairly close ESAP Contact one of the earliest frosts in the fall and continues to the ground. These characteristics make to have damaging frosts into the very late spring. machine combining a challenge. A corn picker Mary Hanks might be the best option but the project will She has been hand harvesting and grinding corn 651-296-1277 explore other possibilities. As bathy selected flour for use in her home for over five years. Corn flour has an excellent flavor and flour- within the Painted Mountain plant population, like texture and can be substituted in recipes stalk and ear height were taken into consideration Keywords to help alleviate these problems along with for pancakes, cookies, and quick breads without corn flour, flour sacrificing quality or flavor. selecting for uniform early maturity. corn, gluten-free flour, Painted bathy and several members of the Sustainable Mountain corn Farming Association and the Buckwheat Growers Association designed some trial sites with the objective of determining if Painted Mountain could be grown and harvested as a profitable alternative, value added product and seed crop without the use of chemicals. Their original marketing ideas were gluten-free flour for people with gluten allergies and a flour that would appeal to ethnic populations. bathy, Floyd Hardy in Crow Wing County and Marvin Duhn in Douglas County agreed to be cooperators for the project. bathy recommended a three-year rotation. The flour corn is planted following fall-seeded buckwheat that is turned under for weed control. The corn is inter-seeded with hairy vetch. After harvesting the corn, the stalks are cut and left in the plot to be used with additional hay to mulch Kathy Connell discusses flour plant potatoes the second year. When the corn agronomics potatoes are picked (they are not dug since they GREENBOOK 2001 • ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE PROGRAM • MINNESOTA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
  15. 15. 16 —— Alternative Crops • Buckwheat GrowersResults whiter corn flour for this market. In addition, one farmer will also pursue seed selection for blue corn flour.In 2000, two of the research sites were one-half acre each andthe third was one acre. Though bathy recommended planting There also appears to be a market for the flour corn asinto fall-seeded buckwheat that had been plowed down for decorative corn. Painted Mountain is more colorful thanweed control, none of the sites were able to do this. some other decorative corn and, even though it is more expensive than some other decorative corns, indicationsOnly one of the one-half acre sites was inter-seeded with are its bright colors make it more desirable. This markethairy vetch. Unfortunately, this created a great hiding place will also be explored and developed more in the next year.for striped gophers who enjoy flour corn when itJs almostready to be harvested. The cooperators still believe inter- Farmers in Wilkin, Wadena and Todd Counties haveseeding with hairy vetch is valuable but have determined expressed an interest in growing flour corn next year asthat it might be better to inter-seed later when the flour part of the project.corn reaches a certain height so there is less competition.The other two sites attempted to cultivate for weed control. Management TipsOne farmer fertiliZed with manure before planting. Although 1. Plant flour corn no later than May 15. The plants needthis seemed like a good idea, it contributed to the weed to get an early start to produce strong stalks and, hopefully,problem at this site. This led the farmer to seek information more height for easier harvesting.about flame weeding. He is continuing to do research onflame weeding with the hope of building his own flamer 2. Be aggressive with weed management.and using this technique next year. The second site receivedtoo much rain and the flour corn was planted in an area 3. Flour corn kernels are soft and the cobs have a smallthat had not been planted for several years. Weed control diameter. Field dry down has been somewhat successfulwas difficult from the beginning and it only worsened as but, because flour corn tends to mold easily, early harvestthe season progressed. This plot was lost. The project then dry down in a rodent proof crib is recommended forwill focus on weed management research including flame rainy falls.weeding and the use of minimal pre-plant herbicide nextyear. They are also considering other rotations because 4. Watch for striped gophers and take appropriate action.there is not a great deal of interest in growing the potatoesin mulch, especially for larger sites. CooperatorsThe results from the first year indicate that you need to P75C-#%A"3#B Farmer, Carlos, MNplant flour corn seeds early, no later than May 15. The .*1/%^75/1B%Farmer, Brainerd, MNseed is very hardy and needs to get started early in order 82$C$%7#/%_7231%)*##$..B Farmers, Sebeka, MNto produce a strong stalk and, hopefully, grow taller. The `.$#% U*56$5/-#6B Agriculture Resources Consulting,Sebeka site had three killing frosts after the corn started to Freeport, MNgrow but the plants survived and produced the anticipated F*+%U-.$VB%Buckwheat Growers Association. Aldrich, MNearly maturing crop. The farmers recommend plantingthe flour corn in rows not less than 2J apart with plant Project Locationspacing of 8 - 10” to improve growth, weed suppression,dry down and harvesting. The farmers also observed that Contact Lynda Converse for locations of cooperatorsJPainted Mountain flour corn pollinates early making it less farms.susceptible to cross-pollination from neighboring varietiesof corn. Other ResourcesMembers of the Hispanic community attended a project 57#V%_"2V7B 2323 County Road 6, Barnum, MN 55707,field day and are very interested in the corn flour. They 218-389-3220. Frank has done quite a bit of research onhave not been able to grow the native flour corn of their flour corn and has information about machine harvestinghomeland in Minnesota and they were very interested in of flour corn being done in Canada.this variety. However, they would like to have a cornflour that is lighter in color. Corn flour tends to be gray-blue in color because of the multi-colored kernels. Theproject will focus on seed selection and development forGREENBOOK 2001 • ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE PROGRAM • MINNESOTA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
  16. 16. Alternative Crops • Dease —— 17Development and Continuation of a Community Based Grower’s MarketingSustainable Organic Grower ’s Cooperative & Marketing System Project Summary sustainable farms, such as her own, lies in Principal working with the local community and being Patty Dease is interested in assessing local more creative in marketing farm products. With Investigator interest in purchasing organic fruits and the farmersJ market project, she hopes to Patty Dease vegetables and in providing small farmers with ascertain the level of local interest in organic 15832 Cty. Road 7 a viable income source. Working with three fruits and vegetables. South Haven, MN other farms, she is starting a farmersJ market 55382 located on her farm. The challenges addressed in forming a farmersJ 320-236-7852 market are: Stearns County Project Description Patty Dease wants to work with other local 1. Farmers receiving a just wage for the labor Project intensive efforts of growing organic foods. organic farmers to market their produce in a Duration joint effort and start a farmersJ market at her Farmers are working harder only to receive less farm. She has been growing organic produce payment for their produce. This is most evident 2000 to 2001 at Earthway Farm for the past 12 years and her on the small family farms in Minnesota. This farm has been a community supported project has the potential to benefit small family ESAP Contact farms because it will achieve an economically agriculture (CSA) farm for three years. Draft Mary Hanks horses do most of the work and also give sleigh viable income for locally produced organic farm 651-296-1277 rides in the winter. She gives school tours of products. the farm and last year had about 3,500 visitors. Keywords She converted one of her barns into the Country 2. Supplying the local community with healthy, Gift Store that sells handcrafted and farm-related organic foods. Promoting organic food in the farmersJ markets, community requires marketing skills even though marketing and products made by 32 local artisans and farmers. Patty hopes to move away from crafts to selling interest in organic food has been increasing. promotion, organic produce, small farm more farm-related products such as goat milk soap, beeswax candles, and wool mittens. She The goal of this project is to establish a reliable cooperatives and her family find satisfaction in the and sustainable marketing system for locally and environmental rewards of organic farming. The organically grown products. Some of the soil seems healthier with each year as the fields products to be sold at the farmersJ market are go through rotation and rest periods. already being produced by area farmers. The farmers were not realiZing financial success Patty is joining forces with because of low farm prices and the lack of a other local organic farmers to form a farmersJ market to sell produce at her farm. Working together allows them to share ideas and resources. Each farmer can concentrate on growing produce that best suites their soil and available labor, rather than a wide variety of crops. Marketing as a group also saves time and money. Patty believes that the Vegetables for sale on market day future for small, GREENBOOK 2001 • ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE PROGRAM • MINNESOTA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
  17. 17. 18 —— Alternative Crops • Deasecreative and detailed marketing plan. Patty hopes that Patty anticipates similar results. Also, marketing effortshaving a marketing plan and selling directly to consumers will focus more on the summer months and less on thewill help. The project fits well into PattyJs long term goal winter/spring months. Patty plans on holding the marketof growing organic produce, which is at the core of Earthway on Saturdays rather than Fridays next year, as the weekendFarm. may be more convenient for the customers.Results Finally, Patty noticed a difference in what people wanted to purchase each week. One week, greens sold out early,The seven initial families began by dividing up labor. They the next week greens were not a valued item. This madedecided who would grow what produce, who would set up it difficult to plan on what produce to bring to the market.the market, who would work the market and other details. Despite the lack of desired community response, at theBy the end of the summer, three families had dropped out end of the season, regular customers expressedof the project. Other job responsibilities proved to be too appreciation for the market.overwhelming for them. Most of the growers felt that, despite the challenges, thePatty concentrated a lot of her efforts in advertising. season went well for the first year. Most plan on continuingAdvertising was heaviest in late winter and early spring, their involvement with the market. One farmer said thatand continued throughout the summer. Ads were placed in she found it satisfying to interact with the customers andlocal newspapers, specifically the 82E% ).*"/% F-+$9, see where her produce was going. On the other hand, she:##7#/7.$% :/C*;72$B and the F5-I)*"#21% Z$?9. To missed the grocery storeJs steady demand for her products.promote the market, Patty distributed flyers about themarket to the farmJs visitors, which numbered over 3,500 Management Tipspeople. Flyers were posted in nearby small townsJbusinesses and the Stearns County Extension Office helped 1. When committing to a project with a group of organicto spread word of the market through its office staff. A farmers, make sure that everyone is clear about their levelgreat deal of advertising was also done in the western of commitment and involvement. Some people may besuburbs - Plymouth, Maple Grove, Brooklyn Park and Eden enthused about the project in the beginning but may notPrairie. Two short articles written about the market and see the project through to the end.PattyJs farm were published in a local paper. 2. There is a great deal of physical labor involved in thisThe market was held every Friday with any surplus sold project. DonJt overextend yourself or your family. Makeon Saturday. Some of the products at the farmerJs market sure that your growing area and commitments are no largerinclude organic vegetables and fruit, herbs and dried than you or your family can handle.flowers, poultry and eggs, cheese, soy products, honeyand beeswax, creams made from beeswax, and farm 3. Marketing skills need to be developed in order torelated products such as goat milk shampoo and soap, promote the fruits of your labor.and lip balm made from beeswax. 4. Consult local farmers. Talk with farmers who haveThough meat was not sold at the market, fliers for local successfully marketed their produce and find out whatfarms that produce sustainably raised meat were worked for them in the past. Also, retired farmers are adistributed. wealth of valuable information on sustainable agriculture.Unfortunately, this summer was particularly dry and Cooperatorsproduce did not grow as well as in past years. The varietyand quantity of products to sell at the market was _-+%7#/%a71%`5$6*-5$B Growers, South Haven, MNdisappointing because of it. )75.%^*==+7#B Stearns County Extension, St. Cloud, MN `$*56$%P752-#%7#/%P751%^$-#], Growers,Community response was another challenge. The market Annandale, MNdid not receive the response Patty and the other farmers )7#/1%P"..$#, Grower, South Haven, MNhad hoped for. Patty decided that next year she will focus :.7#7%7#/%^75*./%<57+7##%b%=7+-.1B Growers. ,more of her marketing time and money on a broader area, South Haven, MNparticularly in St. Cloud. Focusing on the St. Cloud areahas provided a good response for other local farmers andGREENBOOK 2001 • ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE PROGRAM • MINNESOTA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
  18. 18. Alternative Crops • Dease —— 19 Project Location Other Resources Take Hwy 55 west of Minneapolis. Turn right (north) on Ebodaghe, Denis. 1998. 8+7..%=75+%5$9*"5;$%6"-/$E The Cty Rd 2 in South Haven. The farm is 4 miles down the Small Farm Program, USDA-CREES, Stop 2220, 1400 road. Independence Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20250-2220, 201-401-4385. Available at: www.reeusda.gov/smallfarm F3$% 8+7..% 75+$5X9% !*"5#7.E P.O. Box 1627, Sisters, Oregon 97759.GREENBOOK 2001 • ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE PROGRAM • MINNESOTA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
  19. 19. 20 —— Alternative Crops • PetrichPhosphorus Mobilization and WeedPhosphorus WeedSuppression by Buckwheat Project Summary Robin Brekken drilled his cover crops on June Principal 16, 1999 into soil that had been cultivated three This project involved two farmers in the flat, times in the previous month with a field cultivator Investigator fertile Red River calley area of northwestern and chisel plow. He controlled weeds in the Curt Petrich Minnesota who are transitioning their land into fallow plot with several diskings, and disked Route 3, Box 95 organic production. They were concerned about down the buckwheat, oats/peas and sorghum Crookston, MN controlling weeds during the transition and between July 28-30, 1999 (Table 1). 56716 evaluated different cover/smother crops for their 218-281-1293 ability to suppress weeds and release Curt Petrich planted his oats/peas mix in late Polk County phosphorus. The three cover/smother crops June and his buckwheat and sorghum on July 7, compared in this trial were buckwheat, a mixture 1999. The buckwheat had to be replanted on Project of oats/peas, and sorghum-sudangrass. These July 22, 1999 because of soil crusting and sealing Duration crops were summer seeded, incorporated in the following heavy rains. Curt didnJt disk his fallow fall, and then followed by a fall-seeded rye crop 1999 to 2000 plot and so it grew weeds. Curt disked down that was plowed under the following spring prior the cover crops in late August. to planting soybeans. The greatest interest was ESAP Contact in buckwheat because it has been shown to Both farmers seeded their rye in September, and Jean Ciborowski scavenge phosphorus from low phosphorus soils. plowed it down to plant soybeans in May 2000. 651-297-3217 It is not known, however, if this translates into increased phosphorus availability to the next Just before the cover crops were plowed down, crop. Buckwheat is also a highly competitive weeds growing in them were counted and Keywords smother crop, but it is unknown how much of sampled for dry matter yield. The cover crop this effect carries over to the following year. buckwheat, stands were also counted and sampled for dry Indicators of the success of this project included phosphorus, matter yield and P content. In November 1999, crop and weed biomass counts, soil tests, and sorghum- soil samples were collected for analysis of P tissue tests of the following yearJs rye crop. sudangrass, weed content and aggregate stability, an indicator of suppression soil tilth. In May 2000, weeds growing in the Project Description rye were counted and the rye was sampled for The farmers in this project each planted four, dry matter yield and P content. In July 2000, on one acre plots which were replicated six times the Brekken farm only, weeds in the soybeans on each farm, for a total of 24 acres on each were counted and sampled for dry matter yieldd farm. Sorghum-sudangrass, an oat/pea mixture soybeans were sampled for analysis of P uptake. and fallow were the three treatments compared with buckwheat. Sorghum- sudangrass and oats were chosen because they have similar smother crop effects to buckwheat, although they are not known to mobiliZe phosphorus. Oats was chosen based on its reputation as a soil conditioner. The peas and oat combination could improve the soil nitrogen Buckwheat in test plot levels.GREENBOOK 2001 • ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE PROGRAM • MINNESOTA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
  20. 20. Alternative Crops • Petrich —— 21 Results Table 1. Comparison of Practices No data from any measurement at the B=0CC0; 904=>?@ Petrich farm in 2000 produced statistically significant differences. This 936;4>;A June 16, 1999 July 7, 1999 (replanted July 22 ) Buckwheat 60 lb/A 60 lb/A was probably due to the patchiness of Sorghum-Sudangrass 20 lb/A 20 lb/A the cover crop stands due to extremely 30 lb oats/90 lb peas/A 80 lb oats/50 lb peas/A wet conditions in that field in 1999. Oats/Peas Although he did take 1999 563378. (control) Disked once during season Not disked, weeds allowed to measurements from those areas where grow the cover crops were thick, in 2000, 9378:78; July 28, 1999 (7 weeks) Aug. 25, 1999 (5 weeks) he could not distinguish those areas Buckwheat Chopped July 28, 1999 Aug. 25, 1999 (5 weeks) from the areas where there had hardly Sorghum-Sudangrass Plow-down Aug. 5, 1999 been any cover crop. Thus, it seems Oats/Peas July 28, 1999 (7 weeks) Aug. 25, 1999 (5 weeks) that in 2000, the measurements did not /<0 accurately distinguish between Seeding Date Sept. 10, 1999 Sept. 29, 1999 Plowdown Date ~May 16-26, 2000 May 16, 2000 treatments. Thus, most of the results below are from the Brekken farm. D7<E06; planting May 28, 2000, 23" rows May 16, 2000, solid seeded =##) *+>>$#,,.4"<% The farmersJ Figure 1. Weed Populations in Soybeans, Brekken Farm conclusions at the end of last year did July 2000 not prepare them for what they observed this year. Last year they thought they had discovered two winners: buckwheat and sorghum-sudangrass, both of which were very thick and competitive with weeds. Weed counts taken in the standing cover crops at BrekkenJs in 1999 found 50m fewer weeds in the buckwheat and 37m fewer weeds in the sorghum-sudangrass than in the oats/ peas. If they assumed that the oats/peas had 10m fewer weeds than an uncultivated fallow would have (data Figure 2. Soybean and Weed Dry Matter, Brekken Farm July from PetrichJs), this would have been a 2000 55m weed reduction by buckwheat and a 43m reduction by sorghum- sudangrass. However, this project was designed to look at residual weed control the year following the cover crops. In May 2000, there were very few weeds in any of the rye plots, probably because the rye was effectively suppressing them, combined with it being early in the season. By early July, the soybean sorghum-sudangrass plots whereas it was almost completely plots showed visually distinct differences. absent from the buckwheat plots. Lambs quarters were also a problem in the sorghum-sudangrass at harvest. The truly surprising observation was that the weeds Clearly, any weed suppression they saw in the standing following sorghum were much higher. Weed numbers sorghum-sudangrass did not have a residual effect. Rather, (Figure 1) were almost five times higher following sorghum it suggests that sorghum-sudangrass residues may have a than following the next highest treatment (oats/peas)d stimulatory effect on weeds. pigweed numbers were 6.5 times higher. Weed dry matter (Figure 2) was 1.7 times higher. Robin Brekken observed The differences among the other three treatments were not that by harvest time pidgeon grass was thick in the great enough to be statistically significant, but there was aGREENBOOK 2001 • ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE PROGRAM • MINNESOTA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
  21. 21. 22 —— Alternative Crops • Petrichconsistent trend for improved weed control following The dry weights of soybeans following buckwheat andbuckwheat than following either oats/peas or fallow. Weed fallow were significantly lower than following sorghum-populations (Figure 1) following buckwheat were slightly sudangrass or oats/peas. However, since soybeans arelower than following fallow, which were slightly lower than known for their ability to grow out of early season stresses,following oats/peas. Weed dry matter (Figure 2) following there was not a concern about a possible reduction in grainbuckwheat was about a quarter of weed dry matter yield. This early suppression of growth does not correlatefollowing oats/peas or fallow, though this is not enough to well with the lower dry weight of weeds followingbe considered a significant difference. Still, considering buckwheat and fallow.that these are weeds that germinated almost 11 months afterthe cover crops were plowed under, this data suggests that 1%%$#%(-#*-(/.0.-&< Last fall, both growers appreciatedbuckwheat does have a weak residual weed control ability. the soil conditions left by both buckwheat and sorghum- sudangrass. The soil was especially “mellow” following374,>74$+, ?4/.0.@(-.4"<% In soil samples taken at buckwheat. Laboratory analysis of aggregate stability, aBrekkenJs in November 1999, three months after the cover measure of soil tilth, failed to show any significantcrops were plowed down, soil phosphorus did not differ differences among the treatments though there was a trendsignificantly among buckwheat, fallow, or oats/peas though for it to be best after buckwheat or sorghum and worstit was significantly lower following sorghum-sudangrass. after oats/peas. This was consistent with both farmersJThis was probably due to the phosphorus that was still observations that oats/peas left the soil in a soddy or stickytied up in the sorghum-sudangrass residues which were condition.still visible at the time of sampling. Buckwheat and oats/peas residues, though also still visible, were much more Management Tipsbroken down. The high phosphorus in the fallow plots isexplained by the repetitive tillage which would have broken 1. Cover crops need a thick stand to provide maximumdown soil organic matter, releasing phosphorus to the soil. benefit. Good seedbed preparation is very important,This may be beneficial in the short term but, in the long especially for the smaller-seeded buckwheat and sorghum-run, it depletes soil organic matter and ruins soil tilth. sudangrass. They need to be planted shallow (less than one inch) in a firm seedbed. A high seeding rate is alsoIn May 2000, the effect of residues on subsequent crop best. The rates used here (60 lb for buckwheat, 80/50 lbgrowth could be seen in the field. There was a visible for oats/peas, and 20 lb for sorghum-sudangrass) areyellowing of rye following sorghum. Rye dry weight was adequate if tillage, moisture and soil conditions are optimalsignificantly reduced, relative to the fallow plots, following for good germination, but not if conditions are poor.all of the cover crops, with greatest suppression followingsorghum-sudangrass, then buckwheat, then oats/peas. 2. It is important to plow down buckwheat before its seedsNitrogen uptake by rye was also reduced, in the same order mature or else it may itself become a weed problem theas dry weight was reduced. This strongly suggests nitrogen next year. The first flowers can set viable seeds beforetie-up by cover-crop residues. The greatest suppression full bloom so a farmer has to be watchful. It can flower asoccurred with sorghum which has the highest C:N ratio, early as five to six weeks after planting.and thus the highest potential to tie up N. Thesmallest suppression occurred with the oats/peas mixture which, because of N-fixation bypeas, has a more favorable C:N ratio. It is likelythat the cover crop residue tied up soil nitrogen.If nitrogen was limiting, this could affect theirattempt to study phosphorus uptake.The results for soybeans were confounded bya different unrelated nutrient deficiency: thesoybeans were all affected by iron-deficiencychlorosis. The distribution of the chlorosis wasrandom with no differences attributable to covercrop treatments. It seemed to be limiting to Puptake. Sorghum-sudangrass in test plotGREENBOOK 2001 • ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE PROGRAM • MINNESOTA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
  22. 22. Alternative Crops • Petrich —— 23 3. Sorghum-sudangrass can either be disked under when A$0*573%:..7#B University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN it is five to six feet tall or it can be shredded with a mower Q*-9%U57"#B%Agricultural Resources Consulting, and allowed to regrow. Advantages to letting it regrow are St. Paul, MN that it then covers the soil and smothers weeds for a longer period of time and it contributes more organic matter to Project Location the soil. Shredding it seems to stimulate more vigorous growth and also offers an opportunity to get rid of any From Crookston on Hwy 9, go 7 miles south from the competitive weeds, that might otherwise go to seed. junction with 102. Turn east onto a gravel road. Robin BrekkenJs plots are on the southeast quarter of the section 4. Plowing down cover crops with high production of high to the north, just west of the gravel road at 1s miles. C:N ratio residues, such as sorghum-sudangrass may Continue east another 2 miles to Hwy 48 (also gravel), temporarily tie up soil N, with the potential to suppress then south another 2 miles to Hwy 41. Curt PetrichJs plots growth of subsequent crops, especially those with high N are on the east side of Hwy 48, on the northwest quarter of requirements. This can be counteracted by planting them the section just south of Hwy 41. in mixtures with leguminous cover crops, such as peas. Other Resources 5. Aggregate stability is most enhanced by high C:N ratio >#2$5#72-*#7.% A$C$.*,+$#2% a$9$75;3% )$#25$E Ottawa, crops, such as sorghum-sudangrass. Adding a legume to a Canada. Cover Crops for Sustainable Agriculture. grain may enhance N fertility, but it will also decompose http://www.idrc.ca/covergcrop/ faster, with less benefit to soil organic matter. P7#76-#6% )*C$5% )5*,9% <5*=-270.1 (2nd Ed.). 1998. 6. Weeds can contribute organic matter to a soil, with Sustainable Agriculture Network. Available in book form, benefits to tilth and soil fertility, just like intentionally CD-ROM, or html or pdf versions. http://www.sare.org/ planted cover crops. However, you must plow them under before they set seed. )$#2$5% =*5% Z$?% )5*,9% b% <.7#2% <5*/";29E Purdue University. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/ Cooperators a*0-#%U5$VV$#B Farmer, Crookston, MN [#-C$59-21%*=%)7.-=*5#-7B%8"927-#70.$%:65-;".2"5$%a$9$75;3 4.-]70$23%A1;VB Southwest Research & Outreach Center, 7#/%4/";72-*#%<5*657+E%%Cover Crop Resource Page Lamberton, MN web site: http://www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/ccrop/GREENBOOK 2001 • ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE PROGRAM • MINNESOTA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

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