OntologiesOntologiesAntonio VillavicencioCOMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS MANAGEMENTTECHNOLOGIESSession 4
OutlineOutlineSharing KnowledgeNetwork Management ModelsWhat is the purpose of an ontology?What is an ontology in Netw...
Sharing KnowledgeSharing Knowledge Knowledge sharing is the transfer of knowledgefrom one person to another, or from any ...
Sharing KnowledgeSharing KnowledgeA message, with a sender and a receiver, whichcontains structure data, is information....
Network Management ModelsNetwork Management ModelsCritical Problem“How are data analysed andturned into knowledge, so tha...
Different Languages for differentDifferent Languages for differentintegrated modelsintegrated models Each integrated mode...
Integrated view of the wholeIntegrated view of the wholemanagement systemmanagement system When different technologies co...
What is the purpose of anWhat is the purpose of anontology?ontology? An ontology is a network mangament tool tointegrate ...
What is the purpose of anWhat is the purpose of anontology?ontology? “An ontology is the definition of a set ofconcepts, ...
The Ontological CommitmentsThe Ontological CommitmentsThe ontological commitments are agreements touse a particular vocab...
What is an ontology in NetworkWhat is an ontology in NetworkManagement?Management? An ontology is a network managament to...
Applying ontologies to NetworkApplying ontologies to Networkmanagment integrationmanagment integrationFor example, with C...
Applying ontologies to NetworkApplying ontologies to Networkmanagment integrationmanagment integrationThis can be achieve...
Structure of a Mapping ontologyStructure of a Mapping ontology
Structure of a Mapping ontologyStructure of a Mapping ontologyThe structure of a very simple mappingontology is depicted ...
Translating elementsTranslating elementsA manager based on both, the global ontologyand the mapping ontology would work, ...
ReferencesReferences[1] Jorge E. López de Vergara and Others,Ontologies: Giving Semantics to NetworkManagement Modelshttp:...
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Ontologies

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  • Ontologies can potentially solve the problem of not using the same language by facilitating knowledge sharing and reuse through formal and real-world semantics. Ontologies, through formal semantics, are machine-understandable. A computer can process data, annotated with references to ontologies, and through the knowledge encapsulated in the ontology, deduce facts from the original data. A computer can, for example, deduce from the fact that Peter is a Man, the fact that Peter is a Person, given that the ontology states that every Man is a Person. If the ontology furthermore states that every Person has a Hart, it can be deduced that Peter must have a heart
  • The expressiveness of the ontology is limited by the ontology language, which is used for the specification of the ontology. Many ontology languages have been developed, both with limited and with high expressivity Shared ontologies ensure that different components and applications communicate about different aspects of the same entity in a standard way
  • Other technologies for resources management are SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
  • Interoperability between different network management domains, heterogeneous devices, and various management systems is one of the main requirements for managing complex enterprise services.
  • Ontologies offer a formal mechanism for defining an understanding of data Ontologies are as a information models
  • The expressiveness of the ontology is limited by the ontology language, which is used for the specification of the ontology. Many ontology languages have been developed, both with limited and with high expressivity
  • “ An ontology is a formal explicit specification of a shared conceptualization.”
  • The idea of an ontological commitment is important, as this enables applications to communicate about a domain of discourse (or parts of it) without having to operate on that domain as if it was a globally shared theory
  • One feature of this interoperability is the mapping between the information models that each domains specifies.
  • One feature of this interoperability is the mapping between the information models that each domain specifies.
  • One feature of this interoperability is the mapping between the information models that each domain specifies.
  • One feature of this interoperability is the mapping between the information models that each domain specifies.
  • Ontologies

    1. 1. OntologiesOntologiesAntonio VillavicencioCOMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS MANAGEMENTTECHNOLOGIESSession 4
    2. 2. OutlineOutlineSharing KnowledgeNetwork Management ModelsWhat is the purpose of an ontology?What is an ontology in NetworkManagement?Applying ontologies to Networkmanagment integration
    3. 3. Sharing KnowledgeSharing Knowledge Knowledge sharing is the transfer of knowledgefrom one person to another, or from any groupto any other group or from one person to anygroup or from any group to one person When the sender and the recipient can bearbitrary entities that might not, and in mostcases do not, use the same language or thesame terminology, extra care must be taken inthe messages that are sent from one party to theother.
    4. 4. Sharing KnowledgeSharing KnowledgeA message, with a sender and a receiver, whichcontains structure data, is information.The information must be structured in such away that the receiver is able to understand theinformation, and indeed able to gain knowledgefrom the information, even though the receiver isusing a different language and a differentterminology.
    5. 5. Network Management ModelsNetwork Management ModelsCritical Problem“How are data analysed andturned into knowledge, so that this knowledgemay be shared and reused?” There is a multiplicity of network managementmodels, which use different technologies forresource management, such as WBEM (WebBased Entreprised Management) or DMI(Desktop Management Interface). Every model need a language to define theresources to be managed and ensure thecomunication among these resources.
    6. 6. Different Languages for differentDifferent Languages for differentintegrated modelsintegrated models Each integrated model has its own managementinformation language:oSMI (Structure of Management Information) forSNMPoGDMO (Guidelines for the Definition ofManaged Objects) for CMIPoMIF (Management Information Format) for DMIoCIM (Common Information Model) for WBEM
    7. 7. Integrated view of the wholeIntegrated view of the wholemanagement systemmanagement system When different technologies coexist in the samemanaged system interoperability among all thedevices is mandatory to provide a integratedview of the whole managed system. A resource can be described with two differentmanagement languages, in this case atranslation it is applied between the definedstructures of their descriptions, but not betweentheir meenings
    8. 8. What is the purpose of anWhat is the purpose of anontology?ontology? An ontology is a network mangament tool tointegrate heterogenous definitions in order toachive semantic interoperability of differentmanagement models and languagesShared ontologies ensure that different devicesand applications communicate about differentaspects of the same entity in a standard way
    9. 9. What is the purpose of anWhat is the purpose of anontology?ontology? “An ontology is the definition of a set ofconcepts, its taxonomy and the rules thatgovern such concepts” Ontology describes a domain, while a knowledgebase (based on an ontology) describes particularstate of affairs. Each knowledge based systemor agent has its own knowledge base, and onlywhat can be expressed using an ontology can bestored and used in the knowledge base. Whenan agent wants to communicate to anotheragent, it uses the constructs from someontology. In order to understand incommunication, ontologies must be sharedbetween agents.
    10. 10. The Ontological CommitmentsThe Ontological CommitmentsThe ontological commitments are agreements touse a particular vocabulary in a consistent way.This means that users of the ontology do nothave to share a common knowledge base;rather, each user is free to know and reasonindependently as long as when it asks forinformation contained in the ontology, thoseactions are consistent. Hence, a commitment to acommon ontology is a guarantee of consistency,but not completeness, with respect to queriesand assertions using the vocabulary defined inthe ontology.
    11. 11. What is an ontology in NetworkWhat is an ontology in NetworkManagement?Management? An ontology is a network managament tool tointegrate heterogenous definition to achivesemantic interoperability of differentmanagement models and languages In a basic concept, an ontology defines the termsused to define and represent a particular domain
    12. 12. Applying ontologies to NetworkApplying ontologies to Networkmanagment integrationmanagment integrationFor example, with CIM, semanticinteroperability is not completely achieved;therefore it should be extendedA method to extend the interoperabilitywould be to create a network managementmodel based on ontologies
    13. 13. Applying ontologies to NetworkApplying ontologies to Networkmanagment integrationmanagment integrationThis can be achieved by merging everymodel with CIM, including all necessarymapping rules.A set of steps can be definedTranslate all management informationmodels to work with a single representationlanguageMerge the models in a global ontology,defining at the same time mapping rulesbetween the global ontology and each modelAdd a set of formulas or axioms to theontology to make it heavyweight
    14. 14. Structure of a Mapping ontologyStructure of a Mapping ontology
    15. 15. Structure of a Mapping ontologyStructure of a Mapping ontologyThe structure of a very simple mappingontology is depicted in the figure: Eachpossible element of the ontology (concepts,attributtes, relations) has a translationformula.Other attributes can be added to thatelement, such a reference to its definition.At the same time, each formula has a set ofthe source and target that can take part onit, and a set of expression used to translatefrom the set of source elements to the set oftarget element.
    16. 16. Translating elementsTranslating elementsA manager based on both, the global ontologyand the mapping ontology would work, forexample in the following way . If it needs toobtain all the instances of a certain element ofthe global ontology, it would search in themapping ontology, finding also related formulaand the corresponding elements of the mergedmodels.The expression contained in the formula wouldthen be applied to translate elements of themerged models to fit in the global ontology, andthe desired instances would be obtained
    17. 17. ReferencesReferences[1] Jorge E. López de Vergara and Others,Ontologies: Giving Semantics to NetworkManagement Modelshttp://citeseerx.ist.psu.ed[2]http://www.obitko.com/tutorials/ontologies-semantic-web/expressing-ontology.html[3] Jos de Bruijn,http://www.deri.org/fileadmin/documents/DERI-TR-2003-10-29.pdf

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