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Lassance 20120920 comparative-presidential-studies-slides

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  • Comparative Presidential Studies:
    the presidency in historical perspective
    Antonio Lassance
    Brazilian Institute for Applied Economic
    Research & Political Science Institute, University
    of Brasilia
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  • 1. Comparative Presidential Studies: the presidency in historical perspective Antonio Lassance Brazilian Institute for Applied Economic Research & Political Science Institute, University of Brasilia antonio.lassance@ipea.gov.br Brasilia, Brazil, September 2012Carving of Abraham Lincoln at Mount Rushmore, ca. 1934 10th Annual RedGob Meeting and I International Conference on Comparative Presidential Studies and Presidentialism
  • 2. Comparative Presidential Studies: the presidency in historical perspective 1. Presidential Studies are always comparative studies 2. Presidents matter 3. Testing APD’s framework in Brazilian presidencies: it works 10th Annual RedGob Meeting and I International Conference on Comparative Presidential Studies and Presidentialism
  • 3. Comparative Presidential Studies: the presidency in historical perspective1. Presidential Studies are always comparative studies • Presidents are sequentially tied to the legacy of their predecessors. • People always compare the incumbent president with the others. They have to do that as voters, at each election. • Parties also highlight the differences among their presidents to be associated to some political labels. Presidents are the most familiar face of parties. 10th Annual RedGob Meeting and I International Conference on Comparative Presidential Studies and Presidentialism
  • 4. Comparative Presidential Studies: the presidency in historical perspective President Barack Obama portrayed as (side by side with) Jimmy Carter, Franklin D. Roosevelt, George Washington; Ronald Reagan, and Abraham Lincoln, by magazines Collected by The New York Times, May 14, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/15/weekinreview/15president.html?pagewanted=all 10th Annual RedGob Meeting and I International Conference on Comparative Presidential Studies and Presidentialism
  • 5. Comparative Presidential Studies: the presidency in historical perspective1. Presidential Studies are always comparative studiesScholars compare presidents all the time: • What kind of presidents have they been (in comparison to the others)? • Could they govern (in comparison to the others)? • How effective were they (in comparison to the others)? • Why did they succeed or why did they fail (in comparison to the others)? 10th Annual RedGob Meeting and I International Conference on Comparative Presidential Studies and Presidentialism
  • 6. Comparative Presidential Studies: the presidency in historical perspective1. Presidential Studies are always comparative studies • Some studies put presidents on scale • Others rather work in framing categories 10th Annual RedGob Meeting and I International Conference on Comparative Presidential Studies and Presidentialism
  • 7. Comparative Presidential Studies: the presidency in historical perspective1. Presidential Studies are always comparative studiesOn scale, presidencies go up and down from: • Ineffective to effective ones (NEUSTADT, 1960), • Less to more politicized and centralized (MOE, 1985, LEWIS, 2008, RUDALEVIGE, 2002) • Less to more presidential bargaining (MAYHEW, 1991) • Low to high veto rates (CAMERON, 2000; McCARTY, 2000) • Less to more unilateral action (HOWELL, 2003; COPPER) • Less to more involvement in influencing public opinion (CANES-WRONE, 2006). 10th Annual RedGob Meeting and I International Conference on Comparative Presidential Studies and Presidentialism
  • 8. Comparative Presidential Studies: the presidency in historical perspective1. Presidential Studies are always comparative studiesCategories: presidents are arranged in distinct quadrants that varyaccording to the characteristics of their behavior or their role (e.g.): • Active or passive, positive or negative Presidential decisions usually cannot be (BARBER, 1972) completely reduced to a matter of presidential temperament, behavioral and • Self-sufficient, strategic or minimalist psychological character (QUIRK, 2010) 10th Annual RedGob Meeting and I International Conference on Comparative Presidential Studies and Presidentialism
  • 9. Comparative Presidential Studies: the presidency in historical perspective2. Presidents matterHistorical institutionalist approach: • Macro-political analysis • Comprehensive framework • Theoretically-driven approach • Returned to the scene: the rise and fall of political regimes; state building and state capacity; developmental vision; Institutional innovation, institutional conversion and incremental change (politics and policy) 10th Annual RedGob Meeting and I International Conference on Comparative Presidential Studies and Presidentialism
  • 10. Comparative Presidential Studies: the presidency in historical perspective2. Presidents matter APD’s frameworkRecurrent structures of presidential authorityPreviously Presidents political identityestablishedcommitments Opposed Affiliated Politics ofVulnerable Politics of disjunction reconstructionResilient Politics of preemption Politics of articulationSource: SKOWRONEK, 1983, p.36. 10th Annual RedGob Meeting and I International Conference on Comparative Presidential Studies and Presidentialism
  • 11. Comparative Presidential Studies: the presidency in historical perspective3. Testing APD’s framework in Brazilian presidencies: it worksReconstruction the presidencies:Prudente de Moraes (1894-1898), Campos Salles (1898-1902), Getúlio Vargas (1930-1945;1951-1954), Castello Branco (1964-1967), Tancredo Neves/José Sarney (1985-1990), ItamarFranco (1992-1995), Fernando Henrique Cardoso (1995-2002), and Lula da Silva (2003-2010)Politics of articulation:Rodrigues Alves (1902-1906), Affonso Penna/Nilo Peçanha (1906-1910), Wenceslau Braz(1914-1918), Juscelino Kubitschek (1956-1961), Ernesto Geisel (1974-1979), and, up tonow, Dilma Rousseff (elected in 2010). 10th Annual RedGob Meeting and I International Conference on Comparative Presidential Studies and Presidentialism
  • 12. Comparative Presidential Studies: the presidency in historical perspectivePolitics of disjunction:Epitácio Pessoa (1918-1922), Arthur Bernardes (1922-1926), Washington Luís (1926-1930),João Goulart (1961-1964) and João Batista Figueiredo (1979-1985).Politics of preemption:Hermes da Fonseca (1910-1914), Gaspar Dutra (1946-1951), Jânio Quadros (1961) andFernando Collor (1990-1992).Special cases:Presidents of military regime and brief transitional moments: Deodoro da Fonseca e FlorianoPeixoto (1889-1993); Delfim Moreira (15.11.1918 a 28.07.1919); José Linhares (29.10.1945a 31.01.1946); Costa e Silva (1967 a 1969); Garrastazu Médici (1969 a 1974); Itamar Franco(02.10.1992 a 01.01.1995). 10th Annual RedGob Meeting and I International Conference on Comparative Presidential Studies and Presidentialism
  • 13. Comparative Presidential Studies: the presidency in historical perspectivePresidential action in detail:The institutional production of five paradigmatic presidents: • Campos Salles • Getúlio Vargas • José Sarney • Fernando Henrique Cardoso • Lula da Silva 10th Annual RedGob Meeting and I International Conference on Comparative Presidential Studies and Presidentialism
  • 14. Comparative Presidential Studies: the presidency in historical perspectiveFocus on unilateral institutional production: • Executive orders (in Brasil, regulatory decrees) • Law-Decrees and Provisional MeasuresTypes of action: • Institutional innovations • Incremental changes • Management orders • Acts of coordination • Decisions concerning foreign affairs. 10th Annual RedGob Meeting and I International Conference on Comparative Presidential Studies and Presidentialism
  • 15. Comparative Presidential Studies: the presidency in historical perspectiveThe politics presidents make in Brazil: • Regime builder presidents also begin trying “to fix the house” and concentrating institutional policy innovations • The great innovation is in polity (a new governing coalition) • Pressured (by crisis or his own coalition), presidents innovate and change policy incrementally. Then they unfold alternatives that confront the “status quo” • Confronting the “status quo” provoke opposition, unifying the affected groups to defend their interests against governmental action 10th Annual RedGob Meeting and I International Conference on Comparative Presidential Studies and Presidentialism
  • 16. Comparative Presidential Studies: the presidency in historical perspective • As a response, the government becomes more politically and ideologically aggressive, in terms of getting explicit their purposes on policy • More innovative presidents make use of more coordination acts to formulate policy • Coordination organisms help presidents to produce innovation • When presidents innovate, they also increase incremental changes and management. The greater the number and relevance of institutional innovation, the more it will require incremental changes and more management acts. 10th Annual RedGob Meeting and I International Conference on Comparative Presidential Studies and Presidentialism
  • 17. Comparative Presidential Studies: the presidency in historical perspective APD is a useful tool for comparative presidential studies It works to study Brazilian presidencies There’s still a lot of work to be done 10th Annual RedGob Meeting and I International Conference on Comparative Presidential Studies and Presidentialism
  • 18. Comparative Presidential Studies: the presidency in historical perspectiveReferences:BARBER, David James. [1972]. 2008. The Presidential Character. 4th edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.CANES-WRONE, B. 2006. Who Leads Whom? Presidents, Policy, and the Public. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.HOWELL, William G. 2003. Power without Persuasion: The Politics of Direct Presidential Action. Princeton, NJ:Princeton University Press. 2003.LEWIS, David E. 2008. The Politics of Presidential Appointments: Political Control and Bureaucratic Performance.Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.MOE, Terry M. 2003. “The presidency and the bureaucracy: the presidential advantage,” In: NELSON, Michael. ThePresidency and the Political System. 7th. edition. Washington: CQ Press,NEUSTADT, Richard. [1960]. 1990. Presidential power and the modern presidency: the politics of leadership fromRoosevelt to Reagan. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.QUIRK, Paul J. Quirk. 2003. “Presidential Competence”. In: NELSON, Michael. The Presidency and the Political System.7th. edition. Washington: CQ Press,RUDALEVIGE, Andrew. 2002. Managing the President’s Program: Presidential Leadership and Legislative PolicyFormulation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.SKOWRONEK, Stephen. 1983. The politics presidents make: leadership from John Adams to George Bush. Cambridge:Harvard University Press, 1983. 10th Annual RedGob Meeting and I International Conference on Comparative Presidential Studies and Presidentialism
  • 19. Comparative Presidential Studies: the presidency in historical perspective Thanks! 10th Annual RedGob Meeting and I International Conference on Comparative Presidential Studies and Presidentialism