Adjectives ppt

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  • 1. Introduction Some morphologic sentence elements are commonly grouped into: .The Noun Cluster .The Verb Cluster
  • 2. The noun cluster divides into two categories Principal Nouns Secondary Articles Adjectives Pronouns Numerals
  • 3. ADJECTIVES "Adjective" is the sentence element used to qualify/determine a noun or a noun-equivalent construction. • It is used to clarify nouns. • It can be one word or a group of words. • It can also be used with certain verbs (such as the verb "to be"). • It is used to clarify the subject that is doing the action. • It is used to describe color, material, shape, size, amount, price, quality, origin, personality, weight, temperature, age, direction, etc.
  • 4. CATEGORIES OF ADJECTIVES First of all, adjectives are: Qualifying qualifying adjectives are (generally) employed as: Determining The group of determining adjectives is a bit more complex; it includes: Attributes Possessive Predicative Adjectives Demonstrative Interrogative Relative Indefinite
  • 5. POSITIONING QUALIFYING ADJECTIVES WITHIN THE SENTENCE STRUCTURE Position Examples Before or after the noun they qualify Syntactically, they are Attributes The new house welcomes us. After particular verbs The man was alive. Syntactically, these are Predicative Adjectives Note: although they are position near the verb, these adjectives still qualify the noun, only. In this case "alive" refers to the noun "man" although it is positioned near the copulative verb "was" . The house aflame was a terrible loss.
  • 6. COMPARING ADJECTIVES Only Qualifying adjectives may be compared. The comparison is performed for: A. Inferiority B. Equality C. Superiority The points A and C above take three "Degrees of Comparison", as follows: POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
  • 7. POSITIVE no comparison is performed Example: The tall man went into the restaurant. The word tall is an adjective. It describes the noun, man. It is very common to use adjectives with nouns. Adjectives are used to describe the noun.
  • 8. COMPARATIVE simple comparison What are comparative adjectives? Comparative adjectives are used to clarify the difference between 2 objects/nouns. Comparative adjectives are used to compare 2 nouns. To state that one noun has more of something then the 2nd noun. Examples: The black dog is older than the white dog. My house is bigger than my sister's house. The yellow hat is more expensive than the green hat.
  • 9. SUPERLATIVE Relative qualities related to others Examples: The summer is the hottest time of the year. Your family is the nicest that I have ever met. Absolute qualities of all
  • 10. How to Use Comparative Adjectives and Superlative Adjectives A - Comparison with -er/-est We use -er/-est with the following adjectives: 1- adjectives with one syllable clean cleaner cleanest new newer newest cheap cheaper cheapest 2- adjectives with two syllables and the following endings: 2 a- adjectives with two syllables, ending in -y dirty dirtier dirtiest easy easier easiest happy happier happiest pretty prettier prettiest 2 b- adjectives with two syllables, ending in –er clever cleverer cleverest 2 c- adjectives with two syllables, ending in -le simple simpler simplest
  • 11. 2 d- adjectives with two syllables, ending in -ow narrow narrower narrowest B - Comparison with more/less – most/least "more/less -most/least"is used for words that : •have 2 syllables, if the word doesn't end in -y. *have 3 or more syllables •difficult- more/less difficult •honest – more/less honest •modern – more/less modern •difficult- most/least difficult •honest – most/least honest •modern – most/least modern •expensive – more/less expensive •comfortable - more /less comfortable •expensive – most/least expensive •comfortable – most/least comfortable
  • 12. C -Irregular adjectives good better best bad worse worst much more most uncountable nouns many more most countable nouns little less least little smaller smallest D - Special adjectives Some adjectives have two possible forms of comparison. commoner / more common commonest / most common likely likelier / more likely likeliest / most likely pleasant pleasanter / more pleasant pleasantest / most pleasant polite politer / more polite politest / most polite simple simpler / more simple simplest / most simple stupid stupider / more stupid stupidest / most stupid subtle subtler / more subtle subtlest sure surer / more sure surest / most sure common
  • 13. Difference in meaning with adjectives: farther old near further furthest or distance time latest latter x x late distance later far farthest last older oldest people and things elder eldest )people (family nearer nearest distance x next order Eng 142 / grammar (2) Prepared and presented by: Samah Eid References : http://www.englisch-hilfen.de http://www.corollarytheorems.com/Grammar http://www.english-the-easy-way.com/Adjectives/Adjectives_Page.htm The instructor : Dr. Shadia Banjar