Some morphologic sentence elements are commonly
.The Noun Cluster
.The Verb Cluster
2. The noun cluster divides into two categories
"Adjective" is the sentence element used to
qualify/determine a noun or a noun-equivalent
• It is used to clarify nouns.
• It can be one word or a group of words.
• It can also be used with certain verbs (such as the verb
• It is used to clarify the subject that is doing the action.
• It is used to describe color, material, shape, size,
amount, price, quality, origin, personality, weight,
temperature, age, direction, etc.
4. CATEGORIES OF ADJECTIVES
First of all, adjectives are:
qualifying adjectives are
(generally) employed as:
The group of determining adjectives
is a bit more complex; it includes:
5. POSITIONING QUALIFYING ADJECTIVES WITHIN THE SENTENCE
Before or after the noun they
Syntactically, they are Attributes
The new house welcomes us.
After particular verbs
The man was alive.
Syntactically, these are Predicative
Note: although they are position near
the verb, these adjectives still qualify
the noun, only.
In this case "alive" refers to the noun
"man" although it is positioned near
the copulative verb "was" .
The house aflame was a terrible loss.
6. COMPARING ADJECTIVES
Only Qualifying adjectives may be compared.
The comparison is performed for:
The points A and C above take three "Degrees of Comparison", as follows:
no comparison is performed
The tall man went into the restaurant.
The word tall is an adjective. It describes the noun, man.
It is very common to use adjectives with nouns.
Adjectives are used to describe the noun.
What are comparative adjectives?
Comparative adjectives are used to clarify the difference between 2 objects/nouns.
Comparative adjectives are used to compare 2 nouns.
To state that one noun has more of something then the 2nd noun.
The black dog is older than the white dog.
My house is bigger than my sister's house.
The yellow hat is more expensive than the green hat.
qualities related to others
The summer is the hottest time of the year.
Your family is the nicest that I have ever met.
qualities of all
10. How to Use Comparative Adjectives and Superlative Adjectives
A - Comparison with -er/-est
We use -er/-est with the following adjectives:
1- adjectives with one syllable
2- adjectives with two syllables and the following endings:
2 a- adjectives with two syllables, ending in -y
2 b- adjectives with two syllables, ending in –er
2 c- adjectives with two syllables, ending in -le
11. 2 d- adjectives with two syllables, ending in -ow
B - Comparison with more/less – most/least
used for words that :
•have 2 syllables, if the word
doesn't end in -y.
*have 3 or more syllables
•difficult- more/less difficult
•honest – more/less honest
•modern – more/less modern
•difficult- most/least difficult
•honest – most/least honest
•modern – most/least modern
•expensive – more/less
•comfortable - more /less
•expensive – most/least
•comfortable – most/least
12. C -Irregular adjectives
D - Special adjectives
Some adjectives have two possible forms of comparison.
commoner / more common
commonest / most common
likelier / more likely
likeliest / most likely
pleasanter / more pleasant
pleasantest / most pleasant
politer / more polite
politest / most polite
simpler / more simple
simplest / most simple
stupider / more stupid
stupidest / most stupid
subtler / more subtle
surer / more sure
surest / most sure
13. Difference in meaning with adjectives:
people and things
Eng 142 / grammar (2)
Prepared and presented by:
The instructor : Dr. Shadia Banjar