JOB SATISFACTION - DEFINITION <ul><li>Job satisfaction can be defined as a positive feeling about one’s job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job. </li></ul><ul><li>Job satisfaction has been defined as a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job; an affective reaction to one’s job; and an attitude towards one’s job </li></ul>
JOB SATISFACTION - DEFINITION <ul><li>Weiss (2002) has argued that job satisfaction is an attitude but points out that researchers should clearly distinguish the objects of cognitive evaluation which are affect (emotion), beliefs and behaviours. This definition suggests that we form attitudes towards our jobs by taking into account our feelings, our beliefs, and our behaviors. </li></ul>
JOB SATISFACTION <ul><li>A person with high level of job satisfaction holds positive feelings about the job. </li></ul><ul><li>The happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be </li></ul><ul><li>A person who is dissatisfied holds negative feelings about the job. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative feelings has a lot of consequences eg: Job stress </li></ul>
JOB SATISFACTION <ul><li>Job satisfaction is not the same as motivation, although it is clearly linked. </li></ul><ul><li>Job design aims to enhance job satisfaction and performance, methods include job rotation, job enlargement and job enrichment. </li></ul><ul><li>Other influences on satisfaction include the management style and culture, employee involvement, empowerment and autonomous work groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Job satisfaction is a very important attribute which is frequently measured by organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>The most common way of measurement is the use of rating scales where employees report their reactions to their jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Questions relate to rate of pay, work responsibilities, variety of tasks, promotional opportunities the work itself and co-workers. </li></ul><ul><li>Some questioners ask yes or no questions while others ask to rate satisfaction on 1-5 scale (where 1 represents "not at all satisfied" and 5 represents "extremely satisfied"). </li></ul>
Models of job satisfaction <ul><li>Affect Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Edwin A. Locke’s Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job satisfaction model. </li></ul><ul><li>The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. </li></ul><ul><li>Further, the theory states that how much one values a given facet of work (e.g. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/aren’t met. </li></ul><ul><li>When a person values a particular facet of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met), compared to one who doesn’t value that facet. </li></ul><ul><li>To illustrate, if Employee A values autonomy in the workplace and Employee B is indifferent about autonomy, then Employee A would be more satisfied in a position that offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a position with little or no autonomy compared to Employee B. This theory also states that too much of a particular facet will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet. </li></ul>
Models of job satisfaction <ul><li>Equity Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation is influenced by how fairly we feel we are treated at work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benevolent Workers: martyrs. Feel guilt when rewarded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equity Workers: Sensitive to fairness. Normal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entitled Workers </li></ul></ul>
Models of job satisfaction- Frederick Herzberg’s Two factor theory <ul><li>Frederick Herzberg’s Two factor theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene Theory) attempts to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. This theory states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by different factors – motivation and hygiene factors, respectively. </li></ul>
Models of job satisfaction- Frederick Herzberg’s Two factor theory <ul><li>Motivation can be seen as an inner force that drives individuals to attain personal and organization goals (Hoskinson, Porter, & Wrench, p.133). Motivating factors are those aspects of the job that make people want to perform, and provide people with satisfaction, for example achievement in work, recognition, promotion opportunities. These motivating factors are considered to be intrinsic to the job, or the work carried out. </li></ul><ul><li>Hygiene factors include aspects of the working environment such as pay, company policies, supervisory practices, and other working conditions. </li></ul>
Models of job satisfaction - Frederick Herzberg’s Two factor theory
Models of job satisfaction- Job Characteristics Model <ul><li>Hackman & Oldham proposed the Job Characteristics Model, which is widely used as a framework to study how particular job characteristics impact on job outcomes, including job satisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>The model states that there are five core job characteristics (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback) which impact three critical psychological states (experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility for outcomes, and knowledge of the actual results), in turn influencing work outcomes (job satisfaction, absenteeism, work motivation, etc.). </li></ul><ul><li>The five core job characteristics can be combined to form a motivating potential score (MPS) for a job, which can be used as an index of how likely a job is to affect an employee's attitudes and behaviors. </li></ul>
Models of job satisfaction – Job Characteristics Model
Measuring job satisfaction <ul><li>There are many methods for measuring job satisfaction. By far, the most common method for collecting data regarding job satisfaction is the Likert scale (named after Rensis Likert). Other less common methods of for gauging job satisfaction include: Yes/No questions, True/False questions, point systems, checklists, and forced choice answers. </li></ul>
Measuring job satisfaction Likert Scale <ul><li>A Likert item is simply a statement which the respondent is asked to evaluate according to any kind of subjective or objective criteria; generally the level of agreement or disagreement is measured. Often five ordered response levels are used, although many psychometricians. </li></ul><ul><li>Likert scaling is a bipolar scaling method, measuring either positive or negative response to a statement. Sometimes a four-point scale is used; this is a forced choice method since the middle option of "Neither agree nor disagree" is not available. </li></ul><ul><li>The final score for the respondent on the scale is the sum of their ratings for all of the items (this is why this is sometimes called a "summated" scale). On some scales, you will have items that are reversed in meaning from the overall direction of the scale. These are called reversal items . You will need to reverse the response value for each of these items before summing for the total. That is, if the respondent gave a 1, you make it a 5; if they gave a 2 you make it a 4; 3 = 3; 4 = 2; and, 5 = 1. </li></ul>
Measuring job satisfaction Likert Scale <ul><li>Likert scale is used for : </li></ul><ul><li>AGREEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>FREQUENCY </li></ul><ul><li>IMPORTANCE </li></ul><ul><li>QUALITY </li></ul><ul><li>LIKELIHOOD </li></ul><ul><li>Here we use a type of frequency: </li></ul>• Very Frequently • Frequently • Occasionally • Rarely • Very Rarely • Never • Always • Very Frequently • Occasionally • Rarely • Very Rarely • Never • Always • Usually • About Half the Time • Seldom • Never • Almost Always • To a Considerable Degree • Occasionally • Seldom • A Great Deal • Much • Somewhat • Little • Never • Often • Sometimes • Seldom • Never • Always • Very Often • Sometimes • Rarely • Never
The Job Descriptive Index (JDI) <ul><li>The Job Descriptive Index (JDI), created by Smith, Kendall, & Hulin (1969), is a specific questionnaire of job satisfaction that has been widely used. It measures one’s satisfaction in five facets: pay, promotions and promotion opportunities, coworkers, supervision, and the work itself. The scale is simple, participants answer either yes, no, or can’t decide (indicated by ‘?’) in response to whether given statements accurately describe one’s job. </li></ul>
The Job in General Index <ul><li>The Job in General Index is an overall measurement of job satisfaction. It is an improvement to the Job Descriptive Index because the JDI focuses too much on individual facets and not enough on work satisfaction in general. </li></ul>
Applying the theory <ul><li>To apply Herzberg's theory to real-world practice, let's begin with the hygiene issues. Although hygiene issues are not the source of satisfaction, these issues must be dealt with first to create an environment in which employee satisfaction and motivation are even possible. </li></ul>
Factors - Two dimensions of employee satisfaction Frederick Herzberg theorized that employee satisfaction depends on two sets of issues: "hygiene" issues and motivators. Once the hygiene issues have been addressed, he said, the motivators create satisfaction among employees Hygiene issues (dissatisfiers) Acceptance and Treatment Teamwork & interpersonal relationship Communication Welfare, Grievance Handling & Safety Supervision Training and Development Work environment Participation in Management Loss of Personal and Family Life Motivators (satisfiers) Recognition, Compensation &Rewards Job Security and Career Growth Work itself
How does your practice rate? <ul><li>To evaluate your practice's performance in the area of job satisfaction and to identify where you might focus your efforts, complete the following self-assessment, which is structured around Frederick Herzberg's motivation-"hygiene" theory. As you answer each question, keep in mind the needs and concerns of your employees and colleagues. </li></ul>
Eg: Survey- Acceptance and Treatment Questions: Yes, to a very great extent Yes, to a large extent Yes, to some extent No, not at all a. Acceptance and Treatment: 1) Are your ideas and suggestions given good hearing and accepted? 2) Are you fully guided and supported at work by your superior clearly defining your job and responsibility? 3) Do you feel that the management treats everyone equally? 4) Do your junior colleagues and peers treat you with respect?
Survey-Teamwork and interpersonal relationship Questions: Yes, to a very great extent Yes, to a large extent Yes, to some extent No, not at all b. Teamwork and interpersonal relationship: 5) Do you feel part of a team working towards a shared goal? 6) Do you think mutual trust among employees exist in our organization? 7) Do you think employees working in the same department encourage each other?
Survey- Communication : Questions: Yes, to a very great extent Yes, to a large extent Yes, to some extent No, not at all c. Communication: 8) Are you aware of our organizational goal and target and business plans? 9) Do you feel communication between your department and other departments is easy and effective? Satisfied, to a very great extent Satisfied, to a large extent Satisfied, to some extent No, not at all. 10) Do you feel there is an effective communication within your branch? Yes, to a very great extent Yes, to a large extent Yes, to some extent No, not at all
Survey-Welfare, Grievance Handling and Safety Questions: Yes, to a very great extent Yes, to a large extent Yes, to some extent No, not at all d. Welfare, Grievance Handling and Safety: 11) How satisfied are you about the welfare measures now being provided to you? 11.1)Insurance 11.2)SDF 12) Are your grievances when expressed given due attention and redressed? 13) Do you feel your work environment is fully safe and free of accident?
Survey- Training and Development Questions: Yes, to a very great extent Yes, to a large extent Yes, to some extent No, not at all e. Training and Development: 14) Are you given adequate training to handle your job or work? 15) What do you feel is the quality of training classes conducted? 16) Does the training given to you improve your skills, abilities, and work efficiency?
Survey-Recognition, Compensation and Rewards Questions: Yes, to a very great extent Yes, to a large extent Yes, to some extent No, not at all f. Recognition, Compensation and Rewards: 17) Do you feel that you are appreciated and encouraged? 18) Your knowledge, skills and abilities are fully utilized by your higher officials? 19) Do your higher ups try to understand your problems and difficulties and also attempt to solve them? 20) Do you agree that promotions are given based on abilities and work performance rather than favoritism? 21) Do you think the current compensation system is fine?
Survey- Job Security and Career Growth Questions: Yes, to a very great extent Yes, to a large extent Yes, to some extent No, not at all g. Job Security and Career Growth: 22) Do you believe that your job is secure? 23) Do you see a good career for you in your organization? 24) Do you feel that you have a clearly established career path in this organization? 25) Do you have opportunities to learn and grow here?
Survey- Work environment Questions: Yes, to a very great extent Yes, to a large extent Yes, to some extent No, not at all h. Work environment: 26) Do you feel the work environment is with adequate, encouraging and required infrastructure? 27) Is your work environment spacious, clean with sufficient aeration, lighting that makes you feel pleasant?
Survey-Participation in Management Questions: Yes, to a very great extent Yes, to a large extent Yes, to some extent No, not at all i. Participation in Management: 28) Are you encouraged to give your ideas and suggestions to improve productivity and work environment?
Survey-Loss of Personal and Family Life Questions: Yes, to a very great extent Yes, to a large extent Yes, to some extent No, not at all j. Loss of Personal and Family Life: 29) Normally in a day how many hours do you attend office work? 8- 9 hours 9-10 hours 10-11 hours 11-12 hours 30) How frequently do you attend work on Sundays? Once or Twice in a year Once in two months Once in a month Twice or thrice in a month 31) Do you feel you are losing your personal life due to work pressure and workload? Yes, to a very great extent Yes to a large extent Yes to some extent No, not at all.
Survey- Supervision Questions: Yes, to a very great extent Yes, to a large extent Yes, to some extent No, not at all k.Supervision 32)Do the practice's supervisors possess leadership skills? 33)Do they treat individuals fairly? 34)Do employees feel that they can trust their supervisors? 35)Do you get proper feedback when it is necessary? 36)Do the practice's supervisors use positive feedback with employees? 37)Does the practice have a consistent, timely and fair method for evaluating individual performance?
Survey-Company and administrative policies Questions: Yes, to a very great extent Yes, to a large extent Yes, to some extent No, not at all l.Company and administrative policies 38)Does the practice have a policy manual? 39)Are the policies easy to understand? 40)Do employees perceive the policies as fair? 41)Are all persons in the practice required to follow the policies? 42)Do employees have easy access to the policies? 43)Do employees have input into the policies? 44)Has the practice revisited or revised its policies recently? 45)Are your policies reasonable compared with those of similar practices?
Survey- Work itself Questions: Yes, to a very great extent Yes, to a large extent Yes, to some extent No, not at all m.Work itself 46)Do employees perceive that their work is meaningful? 47)Do you communicate to individuals that their work is important? 48)Do you have autonomy or independence to carry out your job effectively? 49)Do you look for ways to streamline processes and make them more efficient? 50) Overall, how satisfied are you with organization as an employee?
The trickle-down effect <ul><li>While there is no one right way to manage people, all of whom have different needs, backgrounds and expectations, Herzberg's theory offers a reasonable starting point. By creating an environment that promotes job satisfaction, you are developing employees who are motivated, productive and fulfilled. </li></ul>