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  1. 1. Valdez 1Anthony ValdezAnth. 410Dr. Mary Scoggin Cover Letter Some will consider my „My Anthropology‟ to be a bit specialized. As I lookback at to the work I have done in anthropology, most of it has been in the area ofBioanthropology. I was originally a nursing major when I entered HSU, however,because of budget cuts I was forced to find a different major and I foundanthropology. Anthropology was an area that I was interested in and this was aperfect opportunity to explore that. I was fortunate to find out that there is a wholearea of study in anthropology that deals with healthcare, EvolutionaryAnthropology. This is where most of my work in centered on, more specifically,hand hygiene. This area really interested me for two reasons; 1) it gave me thechance to get my health field “fix” without being entirely engulfed by it and 2) ithas to do with changing human behavior, an area where anthropology comes in.This area also interested me because depending on who you ask, the US does nothave an hand hygiene problem and therefore, does not have an increase infectionrate problem. There was one aspect of my research that I was unprepared to come upon,politics. It makes sense to me now why politics will play a major role in the
  2. 2. Valdez 2development of an appropriate hand hygiene program. Most hospitals receivegovernment funding in treating patients, however, very little is spent onprevention, which is what hand hygiene falls under. In other countries, they have astate or federally run program to prevent infection rates, something the US ismissing. Although the US has some of the best technological health fieldadvances, it was startling to find out that some third world countries have betterhand hygiene techniques that some US hospitals. I am interested in all aspects of Evolutionary Anthropology and thisannotated bibliography is just a slice of what I am interested in. I am alsointerested in Osteoporosis and most of the research I have done talks about thetreatment of Osteoporosis in and evolutionary context. It is important to knowalternative treatments to certain diseases and infections, and that is whatEvolutionary Anthropology teaches us. Annotated BibliographyCimiotti, Jeannie P, Patricia W Stone, and Elaine L Larson. "A CostComparison of Hand Hygiene Regimens." Nursing Economic, 22.4 (2004):196. The article goes into great detail in comparative cost and quality of usingtraditional soap and water versus alcohol based rub for hands. It was important toget actual numbers pertaining to cost in my research since my main focus wasestablishing an affordable program.
  3. 3. Valdez 3Cordain L, Eaton SB, Sebastian A, Mann N, Lindeberg S, Watkins BA,O‟Keefe JH, Brand-Miller J. “Origins and Evolution of the WesternDiet: Health Implications for the 21stCentury. Am J ClinNutr. 81 (2005): 341-354. It has been established that people throughout history are influenced bytheir environment and by association food can also influence people. The authorsin this article argue that changes in diet from hominin foods, to the production ofagriculture, through the industrialization, to modern diets, had a negative effect onour health and have produced diseases known as the diseases of civilization.Diekema, Daniel J, Bonnie J BootsMiller, Thomas E Vaughn, Robert FWoolson, Jon W Yankey, Erika J Ernst, Stephen D Flach, Marcia M Ward,Carrie L. J Franciscus, Michael A Pfaller, and Bradley N Doebbeling."Antimicrobial Resistance Trends and Outbreak Frequency in United StatesHospitals." Clinical Infectious Diseases, 38.1 (2004): 78-85. This article assessed various antimicrobial-resistant pathogens associatedwith hospitals. As a result most hospitals reported an increase of the number ofpathogens diagnosed and suggested a more aggressive approach to prevention beimplemented.Edmond, MB, SE Wallace, DK McClish, MA Pfaller, RN Jones, and RPWenzel. “Nosocomial Bloodstream Infections in United States Hospitals: AThree-Year Analysis. Clinical Infections Diseases, 29.2 (1999): 239-244. This article covers the various bacterial infections commonly found inhospital settings. According to the article the most common bacteria found areCoagulase-negative staphylococci, staphylococcus aureus, and enterococci.Gass, Margery, and Bees Dawson-Hughes. “Preventing Osteoporosis-relatedFractures: An Overview.” The American Journal of Medicine, 119.4 Suppl1 (2006): S3-S11. The goal of evolutionary medicine is to better understand diseases and usethat information to implement alternative treatment in cooperation with modernmedicine. Although this article is influenced by monetary aspects of the outcomeof osteoporosis, it highlights an action plan not solely based on pharmaceuticalintervention, but lifestyle changes to improve the quality of life, which is theoverall concept and objective of Evolutionary Medicine.
  4. 4. Valdez 4“Guidelines for Hand Hygiene in Health-care Settings. Recommendations ofthe Healthcare Infection Control Practices. Morbidity and Mortality WeeklyReport, 2002. This 46 page journal goes into a wide range of hand hygiene topics fromcommon bacteria found in hospitals, their current (or not so current) statistics oninfection rates, studies on different hand soaps used and what‟s affective, certainbarriers HCW‟s report, and possible methods to increase compliance.Grayson, Lindsay et al. “Outcomes from the first 2 years of the AustralianNational Hand Hygiene Initiative”. The Medical Journal of Australia,195.10 (2011): 615-619. This program was implemented in all Australian Hospitals to improvehealth care workers‟ HH compliance. This article is significant to my researchbecause I am attempting to compare methods of hand hygiene in the United Statesto other countries hand hygiene methods.Holroyd, C, N Harvey, E Dennison, and C Cooper. “Epigenetics Influences inthe Developmental Origins of Osteoporosis.” Osteoporosis International: AJournal Established as Result of Cooperation between the EuropeanFoundation for Osteoporosis and the National OsteoporosisFoundation of the USA, 23.2 (2012): 401-410.This article deals with Epigenetics and its influence on the origins of osteoporosis.One of the goals of Evolutionary Anthropologists is to link environmental factorsin the development of diseases.Morales-Jimenez, Alba. Action Plan of the spider monkeysAteleshybridus andAteles fuscicepsin Colombia. 2012. 14 Feb. 2012. Primates are important for tropical forests, and they are key components inthe evaluation strategies for biodiversity conservation for specific areas. Thisarticle explains an action plan dedicated to the preservation of a very endangeredspecies of monkey, the spider monkey.Morell, Virginia. Hug it out, Monkey. Science Magazine. 21 February 2007.
  5. 5. Valdez 5In order to preserve declining species of primates some need to point out thehuman qualities that some primates have. In this article, it explains how somespider monkeys embrace intensely after a period of separation just like humans do.Jumaa, P.A. “Hand Hygiene: Simple and Complex.” International Journal ofInfectious Diseases, 9.1 (2005): 3-14. This review is on hand hygiene from a world-wide perspective. Theauthor suggests to focus on cultural and behavioral issues and to highlight areas forfurther research. This was important because it brings in anthropology into thepicture rather than a merely biological viewpoint.Karasik, David. “Osteoporosis: An Evolutionary Perspective.” HumanGenetics, 124.4 (2008): 349-356. In his article, he explains how the symptoms of osteoporosis can beexplained evolutionary through foods, physical activity, and natural selection. Oneof the reasons I chose this article is because it provides an explanation to abiological problem by using evolutionary anthropology, an area of study that I aminterested in.Kuzu, Nevin et al. “Comliance with Hand Hygiene and Glove Use in AUniversity- Affiliated Hospital.” Infection Control and HospitalEpidemiology, 26.3 (2005): 312- 315. The hands of healthcare workers often transmit pathogens causingnosocomial infections. This study examined compliance with hand washing andglove use.Latimer, Bruce. “The Perils of Being Bipedal.” Annuals of BiomedicalEngineering, 33.1 (2005): 3. With 8 million years of walking bipedally, the adaptation that no doubt ledto the development of us, are also responsible for the pathological conditions seenin the elderly now. Larson, Elaine L, Dave Quiros, and Susan X Lin. "Dissemination of theCDCs Hand Hygiene Guideline and Impact on Infection Rates." AmericanJournal of Infection Control, 35.10 (2007): 666-675.
  6. 6. Valdez 6 Here in the US most hospital follow the CDC‟s guidelines on hand hygienetechniques. The objective of this article was to evaluate the CDC‟s guidelines andcompare the difference of before and after implementation.Marra, Alexandre R, Luciana Reis Guastelli, Carla Manuela Pereira deAraújo, Jorge L Saraiva dos Santos, Miguel Almeida O Filho, ClaudiaVallone Silva, Julia Yaeko Kawagoe, Miguel CendorogloNeto, OscarFernando Pavão dos Santos, and Michael B Edmond. "Positive Deviance: AProgram for Sustained Improvement in Hand Hygiene Compliance."American Journal of Infection Control, 39.1 (2011): 1-5. Positive deviance is a social and behavioral change process based on thepremise that in most organizations and communities there are people or groups ofpeople who solve problems better than colleagues with the exact same resources.As a result, positive deviance was responsible for a sustained improvement in handhygiene in inpatient settings.McGuckin, Maryjane, Richard Waterman, and Arlen Shubin. “ConsumerAttitudes About Health Care- Acquired Infections and Hand Hygiene.American Journal of Medical Quality: The Official Journal of the AmericanCollege of Medical Quality, 21.5 (2006): 342-346. Mandatory reporting of healthcare acquired infections have resulted incontroversy on the perceived notion that “regular” people would not understand themedical jargon. This article produced a survey about consumer attitudes towardshand hygiene and infections. Michaelsson K, Olofsson H, Jenseuik K, Larsson S, Mallmin H, LarsBerglund, BengtVessby, and HakanMelhus. “Leisure Physical Activity andthe Risk of Fracture in Men.” PLoSMedicine, 4.6 (2007): e1999. This article explains, through a longitudinal study of physical activity, whattype of physical activity is best for preventing hip fractures and possible death.Nelson, Dorthy, Norman Sauer, and Sabrina Agarwall. “Evolutionary Aspectsof Bone Health: Development in Early Human Populations.” Clinical Reviewsin Bone and Mineral Metabolism, 1.3 (2002): 169-179.
  7. 7. Valdez 7 It is important to understand evolution in general when researching diseasesthat have an evolutionary past. In this article the authors not only put anevolutionary aspect in bone health, but explain first the process of evolution andthe evolution of man.O‟Boyle, CA, SJ Henly, and E Larson. “Understanding Adherence to HandHygiene Recommendations: The Theory of Planned Behavior.”American Journal of Infection Control, 29.6 (2001): 352-360. The purpose of this article was to understand the relationship amongmotivational factors, adherence, and intensity of hand washing. Furthermore, itprovided a model for adherence called the Planned Behavior which was importantto my research about human behavior and hand hygiene.Pittet, Didier. “Improving Compliance with Hand Hygiene in Hospitals.”Infection Control and Hospital Epidemology, 21.6 (2000): 381-386 This article by Pittet identifies some of the main barriers HCW‟s report toappropriate hand-hygiene and factors associated with poor compliance. Accordingto Pittet, compliance with hand-hygiene recommendations usually is below 50%.During my research on hand hygiene is was important to know why HCW‟s didnot comply with appropriate hand hygiene.Pittet, Didier, StéphaneHugonnet, Stephan Harbarth, Philippe Mourouga,Valérie Sauvan, Sylvie Touveneau, and Thomas V Perneger."Effectiveness of a Hospital- wide Programme to Improve Compliance withHand Hygiene." The Lancet, 356.9238 (2000): 1307-1312. One of the best ways to reduce hospital acquired infections is to implementan effect hospital wide program. Pittet evaluates a hospital in Geneva thatimplement a hospital wide program and proved that effect program like the one inGeneva is the best way to reduce infections.
  8. 8. Valdez 8Pollycove, Ricki, Frederick Naftolin, and James A Simon. “The EvolutionaryOrigin and Significance of Menopause.” Menopause (New York, N.), 18.3(2011): 336-342. With the majority of women developing osteoporosis, it is appropriate toresearch menopause in an evolutionary sense. This article provides anevolutionary origin to possible reasons why women develop menopause, anddetermines if menopause has an evolutionary advantage. Sax, H, B Allegranzi, I Uçkay, E Larson, J Boyce, and D Pittet. "„MyFive Moments for Hand Hygiene‟: A User-centred Design Approach toUnderstand, Train, Monitor and Report Hand Hygiene." Journal of HospitalInfection, 67.1 (2007): 9-21. The promotion for hand hygiene is a challenge that requires a multi-modalstrategy using a clear, robust and simple conceptual framework. This multi-modalstrategy was a result of the World Health Organizations „My Five Moments forHand Hygiene,‟ which most of the world‟s hospitals follow with successful results. Snow, Michelle, George L White, Stephen C Alder, and Joseph BStanford. "Mentors Hand Hygiene Practices Influence Students HandHygiene Rates." AJIC: American Journal of Infection Control, 34.1 (2006): 18-24. It is said that in order to improve on hand hygiene you need good rolemodels and those role models need to push for appropriate hand hygiene. Thisstudy proved that mentor‟s use of hand hygiene and glove usage was associatedwith increased hand hygiene among students.Stini, W A. “Calcium Homeostasis and Human Evolution.” CollegiumAnthropologicum, 22-2 (1998): 411. It is appropriate to assume that calcium is important to us, as it is importantto many other living species on the planet and suggests the adoption of it in earlyevolutionary life. However, according to Stini, in the context of evolution, the useof calcium in the structure of the skeleton is relatively late, or a derived trait.Stone, Sheldon Paul et al. “Evaluation of the National CleanyourhandsCampaign to Reduce Staphylococcus aureusbacteraemia and Clostridium
  9. 9. Valdez 9difficile infection in hospitals in England and Wales by Improved HandHygiene” : Four Year, Prospective, ecological, Interrupted Time SeriesStudy. British Medical Journal, 344.7858 (2012): 17. This article is also an evaluation of the National Cleanyourhands campaignin England and Wales. Similar to Australia, this was a nation-wideimplementation that had increased results from the start of these campaigns.