The k to 12 program is expanding Basic
Education by adding two years to a ten years
cycle which can be a solution to yearly
deteriorating quality of education.
Strengthening Early childhood education
Every Filipino child now has access to early childhood education through
Universal Kindergarten. At 5 years old, children start schooling and are
given the means to slowly adjust to formal education.
Research shows that children who underwent Kindergarten have better
completion rates than those who did not. Children who complete a
standards-based Kindergarten program are better prepared, for primary
Education for children in the early years lays the foundation for lifelong
learning and for the total development of a child. The early years of a
human being, from 0 to 6 years, are the most critical period when the
brain grows to at least 60-70 percent of adult size..[Ref: K to 12 Toolkit]
In Kindergarten, students learn the alphabet, numbers, shapes, and
colors through games, songs, and dances, in their Mother Tongue.
Making the curriculum Relevant to the learners
Examples, activities, songs, poems, stories, and illustrations
are based on local culture, history, and reality. This makes the
lessons relevant to the learners and easy to understand.
Students acquire in-depth knowledge, skills, values,
and attitudes through continuity and consistency
across all levels and subjects.
Discussions on issues such as Disaster Risk
Reduction (DRR), Climate Change Adaptation, and
Information & Communication Technology (ICT) are
included in the enhanced curriculum.
Building Proficiency through language
Students are able to learn best through their first language,
their Mother Tongue (MT). Twelve (12) MT languages have
been introduced for SY 2012-2013: Bahasa Sug, Bikol,
Cebuano, Chabacano, Hiligaynon, Iloko, Kapampangan,
Maguindanaoan, Meranao, Pangasinense, Tagalog, and
Waray. Other local languages will be added in succeeding
Aside from the Mother Tongue, English and Filipino are
taught as subjects starting Grade 1, with a focus on oral
fluency. In Grade 4, English and Filipino are used as the
primary Medium of Instruction (MOI).
After Grade 1, every student can read in his or her Mother
Tongue. Learning in Mother Tongue also serves as the
foundation for students to learn Filipino and English easily.
Ensuring Integrated and seamless Learning
Subjects are taught from the simplest concepts to
more complicated concepts through grade levels in
spiral progression. As early as elementary, students
gain knowledge in areas such as Biology, Geometry,
Earth Science, Chemistry, and Algebra.
For example, currently in High School, Biology is
taught in 2nd Year, Chemistry in 3rd Year, and
Physics in 4th Year. In K to 12, these subjects are
connected and integrated from Grades 7 to 10. This
same method is used in other Learning Areas like
Gearing Up for the future
Senior High School is two years of specialized upper secondary
education; students may choose a career track based on aptitude,
interests, and school capacity. The choice of career track will define
the content of the subjects a student will take in Grades 11 and 12.
These subjects fall under either the Core Curriculum or specific
There are six subjects under the Core Curriculum.
These are Humanities, Languages (English and/or
Filipino), Math, Philosophy, Science, and Social Sciences.
Current content from some General Education subjects
are embedded in the SHS curriculum.
Each student in Senior High School can choose among five tracks:
Business and Entrepreneurship; Humanities and Social Sciences; Science,
Technology, and Engineering; Sports; and Technical-Vocational.
Students undergo On-the-Job Training (OJT) or immersion, which may
include earn-while-you-learn opportunities, to provide them relevant exposure
and actual experience in their chosen track.
TVET (Technical Vocational Education & Training) National Certificate
After finishing Grade 10, a student can obtain Certificates of Competency (COC)
or a National Certificate Level I (NC I). After finishing a Technical-Vocational
track in Grade 12, a student may obtain a National Certificate Level II (NC II),
provided he/she passes the competency-based assessment of the Technical
Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA). NC I and NC II improves
employability of graduates in fields like Agriculture, Electronics, and Trade.
Modeling Best Practices for Senior High School
In SY 2012-2013, there are 30 public high schools and higher education
institutions (HEIs) that have implemented Grade 11. This is a Research and
Design (R&D) program to simulate different aspects of Senior High School in
preparation for full nationwide implementation in SY 2016-2017. Modeling
programs offered by these schools are based on students’ interests, community
needs, and their respective capacities.
Nurturing the Holistically Developed
After going through Kindergarten, the enhanced
Elementary and Junior High curriculum, and a
specialized Senior High program, every K to 12 graduate
will be ready to go into different paths – may it be further
education, employment, or entrepreneurship.
Every graduate will be equipped with:
Learning and innovation skills,
Information, media and technology skills,
Effective communication skills, and
Life and career skills.
ARGUMENTS ON K + 12
quality of basic
education in the
Parents have to
shell out more
and food) for the
education of their
The poor quality of
basic education is
reflected in the low
achievement scores of
One reason is that
students do not get
instructional time or
time on task.
The government does
not have the money
to pay for two or
more years of free
education, since it
does not even have
the money to support
today’s ten years.
everybody else in
We can do in ten
everyone else in the
world takes 12
years to do.
present state of
As far as the
DepEd should fix
of adding new
The quality of
reflected in the
preparation of high
school graduates for
the world of work or
A high school
diploma will not get
firms will not hire
fresh high school
The current system
also reinforces the
basic education is just
a preparatory step for
Every family dreams
of having a child
graduate from college.
Most graduates are
too young to enter the
While students are
stuck in Grades 11 and
12, colleges and
universities will have
no freshmen for two
And completing formal schooling , reducing
The short duration of
the basic education
program also puts the
millions of overseas
(OFWs), especially the
professional, at a
The drop-out rate
increase because of
the two extra years.
The short basic
affects the human
development of the
Advantages of K+12
The K to 12 uplift the quality of education in the
Philippines in order for graduates to be easily
The k +12 meet the standards required for
professionals who would want to work abroad.
It enhances and develops the students in order for
them to be prepared especially in emotional and
The k to 12 prepare 5 years old children chance for
surviving and formal schooling, reducing dropouts
incidence and insuring better school performances.
It will be the readiness and foundationally skills of
the children to be ready for primary grades.
The kj+12 decongest and enhance the basic
It provides better for all.
Studies in the Philippines have shown that an
additional years of schooling increase earnings by
The advantages to the society:
K to 12 will facilitate an accelerated economic
k to 12 will facilitate mutual recognition of Filipino
graduates and professionals in other countries.
A better educate society provides a sound foundation
for long-term socio-economic development.