Energy Solutions in Kuwait

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Dramatic energy use in the Middle East continues to create problems. This presentation goes through real world solutions that can be cost effectively implemented and contribute to a sustainable world …

Dramatic energy use in the Middle East continues to create problems. This presentation goes through real world solutions that can be cost effectively implemented and contribute to a sustainable world view.

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  • 1. Ali E. H. Hajiah, PhD ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM IN KUWAIT: A LOCAL PERSPECTIVE Department of Building and Energy Technologies Environment and Urban Development Division Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research
  • 2. Fifteenth Symposium on Improving Building Systems in Hot and Humid Climates, Orlando, FL, July 24-26, 2006
  • 3. Due to heavy use of air conditioning, reliance on desalination for water, and highly subsidized electricity prices, Kuwait's per capita electricity consumption is amongst the highest in the world. ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM IN KUWAIT: A LOCAL PERSPECTIVE Ali E. H. Hajiah, PhD; Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research
  • 4. In Kuwait, nearly 300-350 MW power is added every year only to satisfy the growing demand of the A/C systems ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM IN KUWAIT: A LOCAL PERSPECTIVE Ali E. H. Hajiah, PhD; Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research
  • 5. Kuwait • Seven months of summer • Temperatures over 50 C. • “Air-conditioning of buildings is the single largest consumer of electricity and accounts for nearly 75% of nation’s peak power demand and over 50% of annual energy consumption. “ ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM IN KUWAIT: A LOCAL PERSPECTIVE Ali E. H. Hajiah, PhD; Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research
  • 6. • MEW is spending nearly 80 million Kuwaiti Dinars at 400 KD/kW every year to add additional power generation and distribution. • The amount spent annually on fuel to generate electricity for the operation of the A/C systems is well over 90 million KD (MEW, 2002). ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM IN KUWAIT: A LOCAL PERSPECTIVE Ali E. H. Hajiah, PhD; Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research
  • 7. ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM IN KUWAIT: A LOCAL PERSPECTIVE Ali E. H. Hajiah, PhD; Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research
  • 8. ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM IN KUWAIT: A LOCAL PERSPECTIVE Ali E. H. Hajiah, PhD; Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research
  • 9. • Power demand is expected to continue increasing at 7-9 percent a year, necessitating construction of new generating capacity. • According to government estimates, roughly $3.6 billion in further investment is needed by 2010. <
  • 10. September 14, 2009 GE Energy announced that the Kuwait Ministry of Electricity and Water signed a $2.65 billion USD contract for a new power plant Kuwait’s robust business and residential growth has strained the country’s power generation capability, resulting in power outages during the hot summer months.
  • 11. From the Energy Information Administration: Kuwait seeks to significantly increase its use of natural gas in electricity generation, water desalination, and petrochemicals to free up as much as 100,000 barrels per day of oil for export.
  • 12. Kuwait Consumption & Imports In 2006, an annual basis - natural gas consumption matches production. Kuwait’s electricity demand, has outpaced natural gas production during the summer months. Result is the shutdown of refinery and petrochemical operations to meet the increased demand in electricity.
  • 13. By 2014 regional energy demand is forecasted to have a 25.1% growth over the period since 2009. Kuwait's thermal power generation is forecast to rise 70.2% between 2009 and 2019 by Mike King
  • 14. GOALS • Reduce Electrical Demand • Increase Energy Exports • Reduce Energy Imports • Provide More Reliability • Provide a Better Environment
  • 15. Our world is changing… we need to change with it. Our Designs, our Products, our Processes
  • 16. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Heat Island Study
  • 17. Heat Island (Atlanta) Less Vegetation more black asphalt (roofs & parking lots)
  • 18. Heat Island…5-7 degrees warmer
  • 19. Los Angeles Heat Island • With increasing irrigation & orchards, LA cooled 5ºF until the 1930’s • As orchards gave way to hot roofs & pavements, LA warmed 6 ºF to 1980 Dr. Lisa Gartland, Principal Engineer, Positive Energy
  • 20. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Heat Island Study One degree increase in air temperature raises energy demand by two percent …and raises smog by three percent
  • 21. Buildings account for…  36% of total energy use  65% of electricity consumption  30% of greenhouse gas emissions  30% of raw materials use  30% of waste output/136 million tons annually  12% of potable water consumption data from USGBC Website
  • 22. Heat Transfer Where there is a temperature difference between objects in proximity, heat transfer between them can never be stopped; it can only be slowed down.
  • 24. SOLAR RADIATION Infrared (thermal) heat rays travel… •With the greatest intensity perpendicular to the surface. •With the least intensity parallel with the receiving surface (zero intensity).
  • 25. SOLAR RADIATION Radiation Exposure • A 7 story building is exposed to more radiation on the walls than on the roof. • A single story building receives 70% of it’s solar radiation on the roof.
  • 26. Environmental Factors Cannot be manipulated: • Ambient air temperature • Solar radiation • Wind
  • 27. Building Material Factors Can be manipulated: • Material resistivity (r-value) • Surface Solar reflectivity • Surface Solar absorptivity • Surface Thermal radiation emissivity
  • 28. Heat Transfer and Buildings The best way to reduce heat transfer:  Prevent it from entering the building. The best way to manage heat transfer:  Re-emit it quickly.
  • 29. Solutions That Require Large Scale Investments
  • 30. Kuwait Declaration • Calls for…  taking the necessary procedures to preserve environment & natural resources, & the optimal use of it to achieve sustainable development.  …and take action to limit the impact of climate change & its repercussions on Arab societies. eeches.php?p=summit_declaration
  • 31. History • In 1995, the Kuwait Environment Public Authority (EPA) was created. • With the help of the ESCWA (the Economic Commission for Western Asia (ECWA) in 2005 set forth an environmental strategy with three types of objectives:  the reduction of the rate of pollution;  introduction of the environmental dimension in policies, plans and national programs;  the protection of the national resources and the biodiversity in the context of sustainable development. (LEED) “The adoption of such strategies can hardly be considered as a luxury in all Gulf countries; in which environmental problems are somewhat similar”.
  • 32. Questions Can Kuwait avoid the need to build new power plants? Can economic competitiveness be increased? Can health conditions be improved ? Can building maintenance and operation costs be decreased? Can green house gas emissions be reduced?
  • 33. HOW?
  • 34. A Radiant Heat Barrier…  Reduces surface temperatures by as much as 20˚ C  Reflects at least 70% of radiant heat  Limits radiant heat absorption between 15% and 20%  Emissivity level of 90% quickly reducing heat transfer  Reduces energy consumption by as much as 40%
  • 35. Florida Power & Light Company
  • 36. Reflective roof surfaces $0.45 per square foot of reflective roof When the retrofit application reflects at least 73% of the sun’s heat.
  • 37. San Antonio, TX • CPS Energy • The Largest Municipally Owned Energy Company in the Nation • (Provides Both Gas and Electricity)
  • 38. Residential Cool Roof Rebate $0.20 per square foot. Must be ENERGY STAR® cool roof products.
  • 39. $0.10 per Sq. Ft. for Commercial Roofs • Rated reflectivity must be measured by test method ASTM E424-71, ASTM E903-96 • Must have a minimum reflectivity of 75%.
  • 40. California Low - Sloped Roofs: $.20 per sq ft Steep-sloped: $.10 - $.20 per sq ft.
  • 41. The USA Federal Energy Policy Act of 2005 • Commercial buildings are eligible for tax deductions up to $1.80 USD per square foot. • Many buildings are eligible for improvements completed within the normal course of business. • For municipal buildings, benefits are passed through to the primary designers/architects in an attempt to encourage innovative municipal design.
  • 42. Hashem Akbari Heat Island Group Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory • Cool roof standards are designed to reduce a/c demand, save money, and save emissions. • In Los Angeles they will eventually save $100,000 per hour. • Each 25m2 of cool roof offsets 1 ton of CO2
  • 43. REDUCE PEAK DEMAND A reflective roof can reduce peak cooling demand by 10-15%.
  • 44. Power Grid Benefits with “Cool Roofs” Utility Grid/Operator Benefits  Reduced need for infrastructure spending  Generation  Transmission  Local Distribution  Mitigation of System Peaks  Reduced Spending will lower rates over long term
  • 45. Department of Energy DOE “Cool Roof” Calculator shows substantial savings in Puerto Rico.
  • 46. DOE…PR Solar reflectance Net Savings
  • 47. • Since 2005 California has required most flat- roofed buildings to be white. • 75% of Wal-Mart stores in the US have installed “cool roofs”. • Washington, D.C. will require new flat roofs on commercial buildings to be covered in vegetation or a reflective material.
  • 48. Hashem Akbari "It buys us precious time" to figure out ways to limit greenhouse-gas emissions or remove the gases from the atmosphere. “ "It basically buys us time until we come up to our senses."
  • 49. 1998 US established the Cool Roof Rating Council First products rated in 2003. 2009 EU established its Cool Roof Rating Council
  • 50. Cool “white” roofs are not new, used for thousands of years (e.g. Greece, Santorini)
  • 51. “Cool Roofing”…Why? • Environmental Benefits • Economic Benefits • Health & Community Benefits
  • 52. Environmental benefits: Enhance and protect ecosystems and biodiversity Reduce waste - Nothing added to landfills Conserve natural resources Sustainable…extends life of roof • Renewable every 10 years
  • 53. Economic benefits: • Reduce operating costs • Enhance asset value and profits • Improve employee productivity, safety and satisfaction • Optimize life-cycle economic performance
  • 54. Health and community benefits: • Improve air, thermal and acoustic environments • Minimize strain on local infrastructure • Mitigate Heat Island Effect
  • 55. Health and community benefits: • Lower roof top and building temperatures • Less heat transfer • Increased occupant comfort • Reduced AC load • Lower building occupant’s electricity bills » Up to 40% reduction in cooling costs • Reduce peak electricity demand (avoid black-outs) • LBNL estimates Worldwide energy savings of $27 billion (2008)
  • 56. “Cool Roof” Cost vs. Benefits Good design, but is it economically feasible?
  • 57. Economics Astec Roof Coatings: • No need to tear off old roof. • No need to raise equipment on roof. • No Facility Downtime • Makes most roofs better than original.
  • 58. Economics Astec Roof Coatings: • Reduced Air-Conditioning Demand • Equipment lasts longer • Sustainable, Renewable…lower life-cycle cost. • Substantial savings over other conventional roofing systems... Up to 50% savings
  • 59. Cool Roofing Energy Savings “Cool” roof systems will eventually pay for themselves and continue to pay a premium.
  • 60. Energy Savings Demonstrated Dr. Lisa Gartland, Principal Engineer, Positive Energy
  • 61. Cool Roof Coating Case Study: Paulding County, GA Thermostats Controlled at District Office Both Facilities 90,000 SQ.FT. Dr. Lisa Gartland, Principal Engineer, Positive Energy
  • 62. Cool Roof Coating Results 1st Year Savings $8,054 USD Total Electricity Reduction 13 % Projected 35 Year Savings $282,000 USD Dr. Lisa Gartland, Principal Engineer, Positive Energy
  • 63. Cool Roof Coating Demonstrated Savings • Evaporative cooling system was undersized • Store was well over 85°F on some afternoons • Instead of adding cooling capacity - installed a cool coating Dr. Lisa Gartland, Principal Engineer, Positive Energy
  • 64. Cool Roof Coating Demonstrated Savings Initial solar reflectivity of 31%, after coating 74% Initial max temperature 170°F, after coating 120°F Used 10% less cooling energy Always 85°F or less in store Optimal comfort (below 79 F and 60% relative humidity) for 10 more shopping hours a week Dr. Lisa Gartland, Principal Engineer, Positive Energy
  • 65. Savings of $500,000 USD over Replacement
  • 66. Savings of an Est. $600,000 over Replacement
  • 67. Savings of $1.5 Million USD over Replacement
  • 68. Cool Roofs = Good Economics
  • 70. “…almost immediately the room temperature inside was cooled by 19° F.” -Donald E., Yakima Ice Arena
  • 73. “Our engineering department reported that the plant is consuming less energy …” -Vice President, Rainier Cold Storage & Ice
  • 74. Airport Hanger: The concrete pad in front of the hanger: 107 ̊ F / 42 ̊ C The underside of the roof of an adjoining hanger: 164 ̊ F / 73 ̊ C The temperature on the underside of the Astec roof: 98 ̊ F / 37 ̊ C
  • 75. Galveston, Texas • Prior • Ambient: 95 ̊ F / 35 ̊ C • Inside: 119 ̊ F / 48 ̊ C • Surface 173 ̊ F / 78 ̊ C • 2 hours after • Ambient: 95 ̊ F / 35 ̊ C • Inside: 97 ̊ F / 36 ̊ C • Surface 104 ̊ F / 40 ̊ C
  • 76. “In the past, we have struggled to maintain minus 12° F / -11° C … Since the application, we have been able to maintain minus 15° F / -9° C or less.” -Plant Superintendent, Land-O-Sun Dairies
  • 77. ‫الحماية الحرارية‬ Thermal Protection
  • 78. ‫درع شمسي‬ Solar Shield
  • 79. Cool Roofing improves insulation performance • “The thermal resistance of insulation installed immediately below a black membrane has been found to be up to 30% lower than advertised, when measured at peak summertime temperatures in Austin, Texas.” -Konopacki and Akbari
  • 80. Fluid Applied Cool Roof Systems  Provide durable / flexible surfaces  Protect from Ultra-violet degradation  Eliminates/minimizes roof tear-off  Sustainable, Renewable, lower life-cycle cost
  • 81. Some Benefits of the Astec Re-Ply and Ceramic Coating Systems:  Save on annual electricity bills by reducing summer air conditioning costs. Save peak electricity demand.  Reduce roof maintenance and replacement expenses by extending roof life.  Increase indoor comfort in summer by reflecting heat from the roof surface.
  • 82. Benefits of the Astec Re-Ply and Ceramic Coating Systems:  Reduce the heat island effect in cities and suburbs.  Reduce air pollution and smog formation.  Reduce waste added to landfills.  Help builders and building managers meet Energy Efficiency Building Standards such as Perl, LEED, etc.
  • 84. On Roofs for over 50 years
  • 85. History • Early 60’s Roof Painting Contractor…FL. • Manufacturing…South Florida • Ceramic Coating Technology…late 70’s (started the Ceramic Coating Industry) • Astec Products started in 1986
  • 86. Important Affiliations
  • 87. Important Affiliations
  • 91. ASTEC PRODUCTS • Tom Ennis • Advanced Formulations • Advanced Technology
  • 92. 1.3 million square feet currently under contract & 3 million total in Lolita, TX.
  • 93. ‫استقرار في كافة الظروف المناخية‬ ‫‪All Climate Stability‬‬
  • 95. ICC’s Technical Dept. • Application specs are the most stringent in the industry • The best 100% acrylic available. • Field inspections
  • 96. Insulating Coatings Corporation All fluid applied products are manufactured by us…no outside sources
  • 97. What is the difference between a paint and a coating? Paint: An aqueous liquid continuous film applied at film thickness' of less than 10 wet mls. Coating: An aqueous liquid continuous membrane applied at film thickness’ greater than 40 wet mls.
  • 98. Benefits of Acrylic Roof Membrane vs. Paint Remain Flexible Resist standing Water Excellent Adhesion to a variety of substrates Resist UV exposure Applied at greater film thickness for increased flexibility Resistance to Foot Traffic…tensile strength Higher Reflectivity and increased emissivity
  • 99. Definition of an Advanced Roof Coating An aqueous liquid suspension, applied to roofing substrates, which dries to a seamless, resilient, durable membrane which is flexible across a broad temperature range.
  • 100. What is the difference in coatings?
  • 101. White coatings have good solar reflectance, but…..  Chalks, talc and clay can be added to make the coating white and increase solid content.  They have a higher rate of erosion over advanced roof coatings using titanium and ceramics. Ceramics dramatically reduce erosion.  Premium resins are superior for adhesion, flexibility and durability.
  • 102. So what makes a quality Roof Coating? Binder Volume Solids PVC
  • 103. Volume Solids (VS) High Quality Coating Lower Quality Coating Pigments Pigments Resin Resin less 60% or than 50% Greater
  • 104. How to insure you are getting quality products? Testing - ASTM Earned credibility in the field ISO
  • 105. Fluid-Applied Membranes QUALITY is the only way to go! Cheap coatings lead to continued roof problems.
  • 106. Insulating Coatings Corporation ASTEC Authorized Applicators insure that the applications are done to ASTEC Specifications.
  • 107. Burgan One General Trading & Contracting
  • 108. BG1 • Established 1992 • Working in the oil industry with KOC for 16 years • Working with the US Army for 7 years
  • 110. ROOFING
  • 111. Restore or Replace? Big savings over replacement:  Avoid Costly Tear-Off  Eliminate Facility Downtime  Cool Roof Energy Savings  Sustainable  Helps the Planet
  • 112. Metal Roofs
  • 114. New Orleans Conv. Center
  • 115. Concrete Roofs
  • 116. Concrete Roof Before
  • 117. Other Substrates
  • 119. Other Substrates • Polyurethane Foam • Hypalon • PVC • Stucco • Vinyl • Thermoplastic
  • 120. Other Applications
  • 121. Celgene Cellular Therapeutics
  • 122. Steel Tank Used For: Egg Product Storage Stabilized Temperatures & Lowered Energy Costs
  • 123. Self Storage Facility
  • 124. Environmental Furnace
  • 125. US Navy Mobile Facility
  • 126. Air Ducts • Continental Airline • Disney • American Airlines • Campbell’s
  • 127. Duct Work
  • 128. AC and Air Handlers
  • 129. Swamp Coolers
  • 130. Vehicles
  • 132. • In the United States: • China Lake, California • Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada • Fort Dix, New Jersey • Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland
  • 133. US Naval Observatory
  • 134. United States Air Force “… After the application of the coating, the average peak temperature in the warehouse area dropped to 86° F, a decrease of 17° F. “ - James A., Capt. USAF Chief RSD of Civil Engineering
  • 135. Before After
  • 136. United States Army “… a 64° F reduction in roof surface temperature, a 23° F reduction in attic temperature and a 10° F reduction in room temperature as a result of the insulative and reflective value of the coating.” - Benjamin S., Col, Dept. of the Army
  • 137. Camp Robinson, North Little Rock, AR Army Reserve
  • 138. US Army in Kuwait • Camp Arifjan • Tent Project • Thermal Protection
  • 139. UN-Treated Tent Temperature Reading taken on AUG. 6TH,2008 96.4 ̊F AVG Treated Tent Temperature Reading taken on AUG. 6TH,2008 85.6 ̊F AVG
  • 140. • Un-treated Tent includes a Sun shade on Top • Un-treated Tent Contains 3 split Units • Treated Tent includes No Sun shade on Top • Treated Tent Contains 2 split Units
  • 141. Further Tests…. • Un-treated tent • Removed the third air conditioner • Same air conditioning units in both tents. • Treated tent used 26% less energy.
  • 142. Water Tanks
  • 143. “I avoided taking a shower during the noon time, but after you have coated my water tank with Astec, there is no issue with hot water in my house any more, at any time of the day". – Recent Customer in Kuwait
  • 144. “Astec is amazing, after 4 years the finish on the tanks still look great” -President, Studer Fertilizer
  • 145. ON WALLS
  • 146. Port of Pensacola Pensacola, Florida
  • 147. Port of Pensacola Pensacola, Florida
  • 148. Public Housing Authority
  • 149. Public Housing Authority
  • 150. Senior Public Housing Authority
  • 151. Senior Public Housing Authority
  • 152. New Construction
  • 153. New Construction
  • 154. New Construction
  • 157. Renewable & Sustainable Extend the system after 10 years with a recoat. Only a fraction (40 -70%) of the original cost.
  • 158. “We can extend the life of existing roofing for a fraction of the cost of conventional roof replacement.” - Benjamin S., Col, Dept. of the Army
  • 159. Astec Benefits  Radiant Heat Barrier  Reduces Surface Temperatures  Provides more stable internal temperatures  Lower energy costs
  • 160. Astec Benefits Sustainable / Renewable Systems  Environmentally friendly  Low VOCs (volatile organic chemicals)  Eliminate tear-offs and landfill usage  Reduce capital expenditures
  • 161. Astec Benefits Resists UV Exposure & Thermal Shock  A/C equipment lasts longer  Requires less maintenance  Less surface degradation
  • 162. For Further Information Please Contact: Saad Al-Yaseen Burgan One General Trading and Contracting Tel: +965 22409685 or Tel: +965 22409686 Fax: +965 22409551 PO Box 29770 Code: 13158 Safat – Kuwait
  • 163. References • • • Energy Information Administration (Content source); Langdon D. Clough (Topic Editor). 2008. "Energy profile of Kuwait." In: Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. Cutler J. Cleveland (Washington, D.C.: Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment). [First published in the Encyclopedia of Earth June 28, 2007; Last revised September 2, 2008; Retrieved February 15, 2010]. • • hes.php?p=summit_declaration
  • 164. References • ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM IN KUWAIT: A LOCAL PERSPECTIVE ; Ali E. H. Hajiah, PhD; Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research • • • Dr. Lisa Gartland, Principal Engineer, Positive Energy • Kuwait's thermal power generation is forecast to rise 70.2% between 2009 and 2019 by Mike King, r1724985.htm