High Performance Buildings


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Net-Zero High Performance Buildings White Paper : National Institute of Standards and Technology

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High Performance Buildings

  1. 1. M e a s u r e M e n t s c i e n c e fo rNet-Zero Energy,High-Performance BuildingsWhat is the problem? and perform in a synergistic and reliable manner. Specific needs include standardBuildings account for 40 percent of U.S. data models, communication protocols,energy use and a similar percentage of user interface standards, security proce-carbon dioxide emissions, more than dures, testing tools, and performancethe transportation or industrial sectors. metrics. Overcoming these barriers isEmissions associated with buildings and critical if cybernetic building systems are toappliances are projected to grow faster be successful and if the United States is tothan those from any other sector. In order obtain a significant share of the developingto ensure adequate supplies of energy and worldwide market for such systems.to curtail the projected growth of CO2 emis-sions, it is essential that building energy Why is it hard to solve?consumption be significantly reduced. One Buildings are complex systems of interactingway this can be achieved is through the subsystems. Past improvements in theintroduction of innovative building technolo- energy performance of individual compo-gies enabled by new measurement science. nents/systems have not resulted in the In addition to energy issues, building expected reductions in overall buildingoperation practices face pressure to improve energy consumption. The industry is verysafety, security, and occupant comfort and sensitive to the first cost of new technolo-health. Building control companies, equip- gies, and performance goals, such as energyment and system manufacturers, energy efficiency, indoor air quality, and comfortproviders, utilities, and design engineers often conflict. Because a mismatch existsare under increasing pressure to improve between who invests (builders andperformance and reduce costs by developing manufacturers) and who benefits (public),cybernetic building systems that integrate public sector involvement is necessary tomore and more building services, includ- overcome the initial barrier of developinging energy management, fire and security, the measurement science.transportation, fault detection and diagnos- Performance measurements made ontics, optimal control, the real time purchase individual components in carefully controlledof electricity, and the aggregation of build- laboratory test environments are idealizeding stock. Measurement science is lacking and capture neither the complexities ofto enable these systems to communicate, actual building installation nor the dynamicinteract, share information, make decisions, BuiLDinG & fire researcH LaBoratorY
  2. 2. M e a s u r e M e n t s c i e n c e fo rN e t - z e r o e N e r gy , h i g h - p e r fo r m a N c e b u i l d i N g sinteractions of multiple subsystems. systems with embedded intelligence constructed. this performance not onlyAn integrated portfolio of measurement for energy efficient building operations, relates to energy consumption, but itscience capabilities is needed that not new integrated functionality for build- also applies to the level of indoor envi-only supports innovation in the design ing systems, and improved occupant ronmental quality and economics of theand manufacturing of individual com- comfort and safety by developing the energy measures.ponents and systems, but also captures measurement science needed to devel- the goal of the improved Buildingthe system complexities and interac- op, test, integrate, and demonstrate energy performance program is totions seen in a real building. Each indi- the new technology. In addition, this improve the as-constructed performancevidual measurement capability presents research will provide the measurement of high-performance buildings by devel-technical challenges, and the overall science that will enable the develop- oping and implementing the measure-goal of significantly improved energy ment, deployment, and use of building ment science to assess the energyperformance can only be achieved by energy technologies that will move the consumption, co2 emissions, indoor airapplying an integrated portfolio of such nation towards net-zero energy build- quality, and cost effectiveness of build-measurement science capabilities. ings while maintaining a healthy, pro- ings. the program addresses building ductive, and safe indoor environment. energy, greenhouse gas emissions, andWhy bfrl? indoor air quality measurement science coNtact: Dr. a. Hunter fanneYThe Building and Fire Research in a holistic, integrated manner that hunter.fanney@ nist.govLaboratory (BFRL) is in a position to considers system interactions involvingleverage its strong ties to industry weather, the building envelope, controlstakeholders, academia, and standards Improved Building systems, and space conditioning equip-organizations. BFRL has the needed Energy Performance ment. research efforts are focusedtechnical expertise and an interna- on the development of cost-effective numerous technologies are emergingtional reputation for excellence in the building energy monitoring systems, to reduce energy consumption in build-technical areas relevant to cybernetic improvements in the efficiency of space ings, but it is often difficult to determinebuilding systems as a result of more conditioning equipment through self the performance of buildings as they arethan two decades of technical workand collaboration. The energy relatedresearch within this program supportsBFRL’s core competency in Measurement the building environment and indoor air Quality testScience for Building Energy Technologies, house is being used to studyand BFRL staff members have leader- residential indoor air quality issues including exposureship positions on the key U.S. and inter- to ultrafine particles fromnational committees that will make common household activities, carbon monoxide poisoninguse of the research results. associated with the operation of emergency generators, and BFRL plans to enable and promote whole house performance ofthe use of open cybernetic building air cleaning systems.
  3. 3. b f r l act i v i t i e s , a c c o M p L i s H M e n t s & r e c o G n i t i o n sdiagnostics and enhanced design tools, Embedded Intelligenceproviding accurate metrics to capturethe performance of thermal insulation, in Buildingsimproved measures of co2 emissions a cybernetic building system integratesfrom facilities, and development of intelligent building automation and con-tools to enhance indoor air quality (iaQ) trol systems for energy management, the Nist Virtual cybernetic testbed, a whole-through measurement science advance- fire detection, security, and vertical building emulator used for a variety of integrated building system research activities.ments to address volatile organic com- transport. it also integrates the buildingpounds (voc) emissions and advanced systems with outside service providers past work has led to adoption of Bacnetventilation schemes. Metrics to assess and utilities. this research program by more than 30 countries and mostthe sustainability of buildings and to aims to address building systems mea- heating, ventilating, and air conditioningquantify the carbon footprint of buildings surement needs in a holistic, integrated (Hvac) control system manufacturers.are an integral part of the program. manner that considers complex system conformance testing tools and process- this program will transform u.s. inno- interactions and their impact on energy es have been developed and industry runvation and competitiveness in the build- consumption, comfort, safety, and certification programs are in place. it ising sector by developing the means to maintenance. one of the most widely used and suc-assess next-generation building technol- the research plan consists of eight cessful standards in asHrae history, butogies needed to achieve net-zero energy key interrelated areas of measurement that success has been primarily limitedbuildings. additional impacts of this science needed to achieve successful to Hvac applications. this research willprogram include significant reduction in development and implementation of remove a number of identified barriersthe nation’s co2 emissions and reduced cybernetic building systems with embed- to expanding Bacnet beyond Hvac.stress on the electrical power grid. ded intelligence. collectively they provide another major contributor to theprevious impacts of this program have a comprehensive approach that will program is the virtual cyberneticincluded methods of testing and rating result in a radical market transformation testbed (vcBt). the vcBt consists of aprocedures that are used exclusively in building design and operation. variety of simulation models combinedthroughout the appliance and solar ther- expansion, certification, and demon- with commercial and prototype Bacnetmal industries, leadership in the forma- stration of Bacnet is the cornerstone controllers that create a hybrid software/tion of the u.s. Green Building council, upon which all other aspects of cyber- hardware environment suitable for test-and providing the technical foundation netic building systems are built because ing various integrated control systemfor energy and indoor air quality stan- it provides the basis for communication components for cybernetic buildings indards adopted by the american society and information exchange. Bacnet is a ways that cannot be accomplished byof Heating, refrigerating, and air- data communication protocol for building testing in actual buildings. the currentconditioning engineers (asHrae.) automation and control networks devel- research focus is on expanding the capa- oped under the auspices of asHrae,coNtact: Dr. WiLLiaM M. HeaLY bilities of the vcBt to include additional to standardize communication betweenwilliam.healy@nist.gov building systems and a wider range of building automation devices and systems building types and emergency scenarios. from different manufacturers. BfrL’s
  4. 4. M e a s u r e M e n t s c i e n c e fo rN e t - z e r o e N e r gy , h i g h - p e r fo r m a N c e b u i l d i N g s other aspects of the research pro- since the concept of the net-zero energygram include fault detection metrics and building includes cost effectiveness on atools for Hvac equipment, automated six photovoltaic (pV) roofing products are currently life-time basis, advanced cost-neutralcommissioning tools, autonomous, being monitored to provide the data needed to solutions are of particular interest. develop, improve, and validate computer simulationintelligent agents for optimizing system programs that model the response of pV systems testing and rating methodologies for a wide range of environmental conditions.performance, integration of building n reduce the measurement uncertaintysystems with a future smart Grid, and associated with rating of photovoltaic energy generation and by novel energyproviding building system information modules. efficient solutions. the goal of this pro-to emergency responders. Develop testing and rating procedures gram is to develop the measurement n Work being conducted under the for micro-cogeneration systems. science needed to deploy renewable andembedded intelligence in Buildings Develop test methods for high- new, energy efficient technologies that nprogram will result in the adoption of efficiency particle filtration devices. will help bridge the 50% to 60% energynew and improved industry standards savings gap that remains after employing indoor air qualitycodes and regulations. it will advance current energy conserving technologies. n enhance nist’s multizone modelingindustry practices and improve pro- the program’s topical focus is on three tools for indoor environmental analysisductivity, life cycle cost savings, energy technology thrusts: space conditioning, to incorporate more complete particleefficiency, and occupant satisfaction. it renewable and Distributed energy transport.will also increase u.s. market leadership technologies, and cleaning and control n apply multizone building analysis tothrough the commercial application of technologies for indoor air Quality. this relate air cleaner performance as mea-tested, integrated, and open cybernetic last focus area is important and so in- sured in the laboratory to contaminantbuilding systems and concepts. cluded because the impact of net-zero exposure reduction in actual occupiedcoNtact: Mr. steven BusHBY energy technologies on the indoor envi- environments.steven.bushby@nist.gov ronment must be assessed to ensure exploratory research that indoor air quality is not compromised n identify measurement science barriersAdvanced Building but preferably enhanced. the technical that impede market implementation of ideas pursued within these thrusts can beEnergy Technologies alternative, emerging cooling technologies. placed in the following four categories:the path to achieving net-zero energy collectively, the projects within this cost-neutral energy savingsresidential and commercial buildings program will bring innovation and n apply advances in material science —is projected to be realized from a com- promote competitiveness in the build- nanolubricants — to improve the energybination of resources. full utilization of ing sector by enabling the introduction efficiency of chillers used to cool com-technologies that are available today and widespread use of next-generation mercial buildings.provides the means to reduce the build- building energy technologies that are n apply particle image velocimetrying energy consumption on the order of needed to achieve net-zero energy, high- measurements, computational fluid40% to 50% at no or minimum life cycle performance buildings. dynamic modeling, and evolutionarycost. consequently, the remaining 50% to coNtact: Dr. piotr a. DoManski computation methods for optimization60% of energy savings must be realized piotr.domanski@nist.gov space–conditioning heat exchangers.through on-site deployment of renewable BFRL 100 bureau drive gaithersburg, md 20899-8600 301.975.5900 http://www.bfrl.nist.gov