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Krashen’s theory

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  • 1. Krashen’s Theory: SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION Antonia Cornejo Campos Francisca Urrutia Mundaca Universidad de las Américas Phonetics II
  • 2. The psychologist Stephen Krashen
  • 3. Five main hypotheses: • The acquisition-learning hypothesis • The monitor hypothesis • The natural order hypothesis • The input hypothesis • The affective filter hypothesis.
  • 4. Acquisition • Subconscious process • Similar to learning native language
  • 5. Learning • Conscious process • “Rules" and "grammar“ • Formal instruction • Less effective than acquisition (according to Krashen)
  • 6. Acquisition – Learning Distinction Acquisition Sub-conscious by environment (Ex: games, Movies, radio) Picking up words Learning Conscious by instructors Correct errors Knowing about Grammar rules
  • 7. Monitor hypothesis • Relationship between acquisition and learning. • The acquirer/learner must know the rule. • The acquirer must be focused on correctness. • Having time to use the monitor.
  • 8. Natural Order Hypothesis • The acquisition of grammatical structures follows a “natural order” which is predictable. • He rejects grammatical sequencing. • Teaching of grammar can result in language acquisition – when students are interested.
  • 9. Input Hypothesis • Structure that is “a little beyond” where we are now. • “going for meaning” first. • Speaking fluency cannot be taught directly. • Provide comprehensible input.
  • 10. Affective Filter Hypothesis • ‘Affective variables’: Motivation, self-confidence and anxiety. • Learners with these affective variables are better equipped.
  • 11. Conclusion The acquisition-learning hypothesis is at the core of modern language acquisition theory, and is perhaps the most fundamental of Krashen's theories on second acquisition.
  • 12. Bibliography • Krashen, Stephen D.  Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition.  Prentice-Hall International, 1987. • Krashen, Stephen D.  Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning.  Prentice-Hall International, 1988.