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STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited
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STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Evaluation & Control Edited

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TKM INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT KOLLAM

TKM INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT KOLLAM

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  • 1. 1<br />STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT<br />Evaluation and Control<br />
  • 2. 2<br />Evaluation and Control <br />Evaluation & Control:<br />Process that ensures that the company is achieving what it set out to accomplish. Compares performance with desired results.<br />1) corporate<br />2) divisional & functional<br />
  • 3. 3<br />Evaluation and Control <br />
  • 4. Hero Honda example<br />What to measure: most important elements of process which account for the highest expense or problems<br />Standards of performance (KPIs): measures of expected performance results relating to strategic objectives. Acceptable tolerance indicated (KPIs)<br />Measure performance at predetermined times<br />4<br />
  • 5. Compare performance to asses deviations if any<br />Corrective action.<br />Deviation by chance<br />Incorrect way of execution<br />Incorrect process<br />best person for corrective action<br />5<br />
  • 6. 6<br />Evaluation & Control Information<br /> Performance data and activity reports<br /> Information on incorrect way of doing<br /> should be available to operations managers for immediate correction.<br /> Information regarding incorrect process should reach top management to develop new one<br />
  • 7. 7<br />Evaluation and Control (corporate)<br />Measuring Performance:<br />Performance end result of activity<br />Measures depend on organizational unit<br />Appropriate Measures:<br />ROI ( post mortem)<br />Steering Controls (real time control, enabling corrective action)<br /> EX: Statistical Process Control(SPC) in quality<br />
  • 8. 8<br />Types of Control:<br />Behavior Controls 2) Output Controls, 3) Input Controls<br />Output controls are used in conglomerate diversifications while in concentric diversification , all three controls are used for synergy<br />Behavior Controls<br /> appropriate when performance results are not clear, but cause -effect relation relationship between activity & result are clear.<br /> Example: ISO 9000 Quality Management uses Policies, rules, SOP’s, directives<br />
  • 9. Output Controls<br /> When out put is clear but relation between activity & result is not clear<br />Objectives, targets, milestones, quota<br /> For example:<br /> production targets, cost reduction targets, profit objectives, customer satisfaction surveys<br />9<br />
  • 10. Input Controls<br /> when output is difficult to measure & relation between activity & result is not clear.<br /> Example :<br /> College teaching Resources, knowledge, skills, values<br />10<br />
  • 11. 11<br />Evaluation and Control <br />Activity-Based Costing:<br />ABC<br />Allocating indirect and fixed costs to individual product lines based on the value-added activities going into that product<br />
  • 12. 12<br />ABC<br /> allocates fixed costs based on value added activities going into the product<br />Traditional cost A/C allocates O.H costs based on volume. <br /> It understates cost of low volume but complex product and overstates cost of high volume but simple product, as O.H costs are now 80 to 90% .<br /> Example: X Pen manufactures black pen for 90% of volume and blue pen for 10% of volume. Retooling takes 8 hours. ABC analyses process and charges retooling cost to the batch being produced. Traditional method allocates volume wise!<br />
  • 13. 13<br />Primary measures of corporate performance<br />Return on <br />Investment<br />(ROI)<br />Traditional<br /> Financial <br />Measures<br />Earnings per<br />Share<br />(EPS)<br />Return on<br />Equity<br />(ROE)<br />
  • 14. ROI = Net income before tax/ Total net assets<br />EPS=Earnings/No of equity shares<br />Not reliable .Accrual basis( encashing may be delayed). Many values possible; Time value of money not considered.<br />ROE= net income/equity <br />All the above can be manipulated. Not adequate measure of corporate performance.<br />14<br />
  • 15. 15<br />Stake holder measures <br />Top management must fix one or two measures addressing concerns of each stake holder group.<br />
  • 16. 16<br />Evaluation and Control <br />Shareholder Value<br />Present value of the anticipated future stream of cash flows plus the value of the company if liquidated. Cash flow is the important measure. Present value of future cash flows discounted at cost of capital should be > capital invested.<br />
  • 17. 17<br />Evaluation and Control <br />Economic Value Added (EVA) (will soon replace ROI)<br />= EAT minus total annual cost of capital<br />EVA = After tax operating income minus ( product of investment in assets and weighted average cost of capital ‘k’). ‘k’ includes cost of equity and debt)<br />
  • 18. India’s most admired companies based on EVA<br />HUL<br />Wipro<br />Infosys<br />Reliance<br />ITC<br />Ranbaxy …<br />18<br />
  • 19. 19<br />Evaluation and Control <br />Market Value Added (MVA)<br />Difference between the market value of a corporation and capital contributed by shareholders and lenders. It measures the stock market’s expectations of NPV of past and future projects of the firm.MVA is the present value of future EVA <br />Microsoft, GE, Intel & coca-Cola have high MVA in US. GM has low value. <br />EVA & MVA are better measures <br />
  • 20. 20<br />Evaluation and Control <br />Balanced Scorecard (Kaplan & Norton)<br />Financial (How do we appear to shareholders?)<br />Customer (How do customers view us?)<br />Internal Business Perspective (What must we excel at?)<br />Innovation and Learning (Can we continue to improve and create value?)<br />
  • 21. 21<br />Balanced Score Card<br /> Under each area , include key performance measures , a target ,and an initiative<br />Cash flow, Quarterly sales growth, ROCE<br />Customer: market share ,sales from new products<br />Internal Business perspective: cycle time, unit cost, productivity, quality<br />Innovation: Time to develop new products<br />
  • 22. 22<br />Evaluation and Control <br />Evaluating Top Management<br />Board of Directors evaluate CEO performance through:<br />Strategy Committee (17 item questionnaire by Charan, focusing on leadership in the organisation, team building, management succession, and leadership of external constituencies<br />Audit Committee( CSR, Functional areas, & strategic audit ) <br />Compensation Committee( CEO’s ability to set strategic direction, build a management team, and provide leadership are more important than a few quantitative measures)<br />
  • 23. 23<br />Evaluation and Control (Divisional & functional) <br />Variance analysis on operating budgets for the strategic programs is done by Top Management. Each Responsibility Centre has its own budget and is assessed on its use<br />Responsibility Centers:<br />Standard cost centers ( Production centres--Expected cost vs actual cost)<br />Revenue centers( sales regions –projected vs actual sales)<br />Expense centers (admn, service, research centers - <br />Profit centers (Divisions)<br />Investment centers( different divisions, making same product-ROI is the comparative assessment)<br />
  • 24. 24<br />Evaluation and Control <br />Benchmarking:<br /><ul><li>Identify the area or process to be examined
  • 25. Find output measures and obtain measurements
  • 26. Select best-in-class to benchmark against
  • 27. Calculate differences and determine reasons
  • 28. Develop tactical programs for closing gaps
  • 29. Implement programs and compare </li></li></ul><li>25<br />Evaluation and Control <br />Strategic Information Systems:<br />ERP (enterprise resource planning)<br />SAP R/3,Oracle,<br />Intranets and extranets<br />
  • 30. 26<br />Evaluation and Control <br />Problems in Measuring Performance:<br />1)Lack of quantifiable objectives/performance standards<br />2)Lack of timely and valid information<br />3) Side effects of measurement (DEMING was against quantifiable goals)<br /> 3.1 Short-term orientation( ROI) manipulation of earnings /investment<br />3.2 Goal displacement( Means become ends themselves)<br />Behavior substitution (doing only those activities which are rewarded .Quantifiable drives out non quantifiable<br />Sub optimization (Local optimization)<br />
  • 31. 27<br />Evaluation and Control <br />Guidelines for Proper Control:<br />(Control should follow strategy)<br />Minimum amount of information( Monitor those 20% important strategic factors contributing 80% results<br />Monitor only meaningful activities & results( if cooperation between divisions is important establish some qualitative or quantitative measures<br />Timely to take prompt corrective actions<br />Long-term and short-term controls<br />Pinpointing exceptions (management by exceptions)<br />Reward meeting or exceeding standards. Rather than punishment for failing. Heavy punishment leads to goal displacement. Managers will fudge reports & lobby for lower standards<br />
  • 32. 28<br />Evaluation and Control <br />Strategic Incentive Management:<br />Weighted-factor method (SBU Managers)……. see next slide<br />Long-term evaluation method ( Top corporate level managers) --Growth in EPS over 5 year period<br />Strategic-funds method (Expenses for current operations & developmental expenses are accounted separately, emphasizing S/T & L/T approaches<br />
  • 33. 29<br />Weighted Factor Approach to Strategic Incentive Management<br />Strategic Business Unit Category Factor Weight<br />High Growth Return on assets 10%<br /> Cash flow 0% <br /> Strategic-funds programs (developmental expenses) 45%<br /> Market-share increase 45%<br />100%<br />Medium Growth Return on assets 25%<br /> Cash flow 25%<br /> Strategic-funds programs (developmental expenses) 25%<br /> Market-share increase 25%<br />100%<br />Low Growth Return on assets 50%<br /> Cash flow 50%<br /> Strategic-funds programs (developmental expenses) 0%<br /> Market-share increase 0%<br />100%<br />
  • 34. 30<br />Evaluation and Control <br />Strategic Audit:<br />Type of management audit that is extremely useful as a diagnostic tool to pinpoint corporate-wide problem areas and to highlight organizational strengths and weaknesses.<br />
  • 35. 31<br />Evaluation and Control<br />Audit Steps:<br /><ul><li>Evaluate current performance results
  • 36. Review corporate governance
  • 37. Scan and assess the external environment
  • 38. Scan and assess the internal environment
  • 39. Analyze strategic factors using SWOT
  • 40. Generate and evaluate strategic alternatives
  • 41. Implement strategies
  • 42. Evaluate and control</li></li></ul><li>32<br />Appendix 10A: Strategic Audit of a Corporation<br />I. Current Situation<br /><ul><li>A. Current Performance
  • 43. How did the corporation perform the past year overall in terms of return on investment, market share, and profitability?
  • 44. B. Strategic Posture
  • 45. What are the corporation’s current mission, objectives, strategies, and policies?
  • 46. Are they clearly stated or are they merely implied from performance?
  • 47. Mission: What businesses) is the corporation in? Why?
  • 48. Objectives: What are the corporate, business, and functional objectives? Are they consistent with each other, with the mission, and with the internal and external environments?</li></li></ul><li>33<br />Appendix 10A: Strategic Audit of a Corporation<br /><ul><li>Strategies: What strategy or mix of strategies is the corporation following? Are they consistent with each other, with the mission and objectives, and with the internal and external environments?
  • 49. Policies: What are they? Are they consistent with each other, with the mission and objectives, with the strategies, and with the internal and external environments?
  • 50. Do the current mission, objectives, strategies, and policies reflect the corporation’s international operations — whether global or multi-domestic?</li></ul> II. Corporate Governance<br /><ul><li>A. Board of Directors
  • 51. Who are they? Are they internal or external?
  • 52. Do they own significant shares of stock?</li></li></ul><li>Prentice Hall, 2004 <br />Chapter 10<br />Wheelen/Hunger <br />34<br />Appendix 10A: Strategic Audit of a Corporation<br /><ul><li>Is the stock privately held or publicly traded? Are there different classes of stock with different voting rights?
  • 53. What do they contribute to the corporation in terms of knowledge, skills, background, and connections? If the corporation has international operations, do board members have international experience?
  • 54. How long have they served on the board?
  • 55. What is their level of involvement in strategic management? Do they merely rubber-stamp top management’s proposals or do they actively participate and suggest future directions?</li></li></ul><li>35<br />Appendix 10A: Strategic Audit of a Corporation<br /><ul><li>B. Top Management
  • 56. What person or group constitutes top management?
  • 57. What are top management’s chief characteristics in terms of knowledge, skills, background, and style? If the corporation has international operations, does top management have international experience? Are executives from acquired companies considered part of the top management team?
  • 58. Has top management been responsible for the corporation’s performance over the past few years? How many managers have been in their current position for less than 3 years? Were they internal promotions or external hires?
  • 59. Has it established a systematic approach to strategic management?
  • 60. What is its level of involvement in the strategic management process?
  • 61. How well does top management interact with lower level managers and with the board of directors?</li></li></ul><li>36<br />Appendix 10A: Strategic Audit of a Corporation<br /><ul><li>Are strategic decisions made ethically in a responsible manner?
  • 62. Is top management sufficiently skilled to cope with likely future challenges?</li></ul>III. External Environment: Opportunities and Threats (SWOT)<br /><ul><li>A. Societal Environment
  • 63. What general environmental forces are currently affecting both the corporation and the industries in which it competes? Which present current or future threats? Opportunities? See Table 3.1 on page 55.
  • 64. a) Economic
  • 65. b) Technological
  • 66. c) Political-legal
  • 67. d) Sociocultural
  • 68. Are these forces different in other regions of the world?</li></li></ul><li>37<br />Appendix 10A: Strategic Audit of a Corporation<br /><ul><li>B. Task Environment
  • 69. What forces drive industry competition? Are these forces the same globally or do they vary from country to country?
  • 70. a) Threat of new entrants
  • 71. b) Bargaining power of buyers
  • 72. c) Threat of substitute products or services
  • 73. d) Bargaining power of suppliers
  • 74. e) Rivalry among competing firms
  • 75. f) Relative power of unions, governments, special interest groups, etc.
  • 76. What key factors in the immediate environment (that is, customers, competitors, suppliers, creditors, labor unions, governments, trade associations, interest groups, local communities, and shareholders) are currently affecting the corporation? Which are current or future threats? Opportunities?</li></li></ul><li>38<br />Appendix 10A: Strategic Audit of a Corporation<br /><ul><li>C. Summary of External Factors
  • 77. Which of these forces and factors are the most important to the corporation and to the industries in which it competes at the present time? Which will be important in the future?
  • 78. IV. Internal Environment: Strengths and Weaknesses (SWOT)
  • 79. A. Corporate Structure
  • 80. How is the corporation structured at present?
  • 81. a) Is the decision-making authority centralized around one group or decentralized to many units?
  • 82. b) Is it organized on the basis of functions, projects, geography, or some combination of these?
  • 83. Is the structure clearly understood by everyone in the corporation?</li></li></ul><li>39<br />Appendix 10A: Strategic Audit of a Corporation<br /><ul><li>Is the present structure consistent with corporate objectives, strategies, policies, and programs as well as with the firm’s international operations?
  • 84. In what ways does it compare with similar corporations?
  • 85. B. Corporate Culture
  • 86. Is there a well-defined or emerging culture composed of shared beliefs, expectations, and values?
  • 87. Is the culture consistent with the current objectives, strategies, policies, and programs?
  • 88. What is the culture’s position on important issues facing the corporation (that is, on productivity, quality of performance, adaptability to changing conditions, and internationalization)?
  • 89. Is the culture compatible with the employees’ diversity of backgrounds?
  • 90. Does the company take into consideration the values of each nation’s culture in which the firm operates?</li></li></ul><li>40<br />Appendix 10A: Strategic Audit of a Corporation<br /><ul><li>C. Corporate Resources
  • 91. Marketing
  • 92. a) What are the corporation’s current marketing objectives, strategies, policies, and programs?
  • 93. i) Are they clearly stated, or merely implied from performance and/or budgets?
  • 94. ii) Are they consistent with the corporation’s mission, objectives, strategies, policies, and with internal and external environments?
  • 95. b) How well is the corporation performing in terms of analysis of market position and marketing mix (that is, product, price, place, and promotion) in both domestic and international markets? What percentage of sales comes from foreign operations?
  • 96. i) What trends emerge from this analysis? </li></li></ul><li>41<br />Appendix 10A: Strategic Audit of a Corporation<br />ii) What impact have these trends had on past performance and how will they probably affect future performance?<br /> iii) Does this analysis support the corporation’s past and pending strategic decisions?<br /> iv) Does marketing provide the company with a competitive advantage?<br /> c) How well does this corporation’s marketing performance compare with that of similar corporations?<br /> d) Are marketing managers using accepted marketing concepts and techniques to evaluate and improve product performance? (Consider product life cycle, market segmentation, market research, and product portfolios.)<br /> e) Does marketing adjust to the conditions in each country in which it operates?<br />
  • 97. 42<br />Appendix 10A: Strategic Audit of a Corporation<br /><ul><li>Finance
  • 98. a) What are the corporation’s current financial objectives, strategies, policies, and programs?
  • 99. i) Are they clearly stated or merely implied?
  • 100. ii) Are they consistent with the corporation’s mission, objectives, strategies, policies, and with internal and external environments?
  • 101. b) How well is the corporation performing in terms of financial analysis?
  • 102. i) What trends emerge from this analysis?
  • 103. ii) Are there any significant differences when statements are calculated in constant versus reported dollars?
  • 104. iii) What impact have these trends had on past performance and how will they probably affect future performance?</li></li></ul><li>43<br />Appendix 10A: Strategic Audit of a Corporation<br /><ul><li>iv) Does this analysis support the corporation’s past and pending strategic decisions?
  • 105. v) Does finance provide the company with a competitive advantage?
  • 106. c) How well does this corporation’s financial performance compare with that of similar corporations?
  • 107. d) Are financial managers using accepted financial concepts and techniques to evaluate and improve current corporate and divisional performance? (Consider financial leverage, capital budgeting, ratio analysis, and managing foreign currencies.)
  • 108. e) Does finance adjust to the conditions in each country in which the company operates?
  • 109. f) What is the role of the financial manager in the strategic management process?</li></li></ul><li>44<br />Appendix 10A: Strategic Audit of a Corporation<br /><ul><li>Research and Development (R&D)
  • 110. a) What are the corporation’s current R&D objectives, strategies, policies, and programs?
  • 111. i) Are they clearly stated, or merely implied from performance and/or budgets?
  • 112. ii) Are they consistent with the corporation’s mission, objectives, strategies, policies, and with internal and external environments?
  • 113. iii) What is the role of technology in corporate performance?
  • 114. iv) Is the mix of basic, applied, and engineering research appropriate given the corporate mission and strategies?
  • 115. v) Does R&D provide the company with an advantage?</li></li></ul><li>45<br />Appendix 10A: Strategic Audit of a Corporation<br /><ul><li>b) What return is the corporation receiving from its investment in R&D?
  • 116. c) Is the corporation competent in technology transfer? Does it use concurrent engineering and cross-functional work teams in product and process design?
  • 117. d) What role does technological discontinuity play in the company’s products?
  • 118. e) How well does the corporation’s investment in R&D compare with the investments of similar corporations?
  • 119. f) Does R&D adjust to the conditions in each country in which the company operates?
  • 120. g) What is the role of the R&D manager in the strategic management process? </li></li></ul><li>46<br />Appendix 10A: Strategic Audit of a Corporation<br /><ul><li>Operations and Logistics
  • 121. a) What are the corporation’s current manufacturing/service objectives, strategies, policies, and programs?
  • 122. i) Are they clearly stated, or merely implied from performance and/or budgets?
  • 123. ii) Are they consistent with the corporation’s mission, objectives, strategies, policies, and environments?
  • 124. b) What is the type and extent of operations capabilities of the corporation? How much is done domestically versus internationally? Is the amount of outsourcing appropriate to be competitive? Is purchasing being handled appropriately?
  • 125. i) If product-oriented, consider plant facilities, type of manufacturing system, age and type of equipment, degree and role of automation and/or robots, plant capacities and utilization, productivity ratings, availability and type of transportation.</li></li></ul><li>47<br />Appendix 10A: Strategic Audit of a Corporation<br /><ul><li>ii) If service-oriented, consider service facilities (hospital, theater, or school buildings), type of operations systems (continuous service over time to same clientele or intermittent service over time to varied clientele), age and type of supporting equipment, degree and role of automation and/or use of mass communication devices (diagnostic machinery, video-tape machines), facility capacities and utilization rates, efficiency ratings of professional/ service personnel, availability service personnel, and availability and type of transportation to bring service staff and clientele together.
  • 126. c) Are manufacturing or service facilities vulnerable to natural disasters, local or national strikes, reduction or limitation of resources from suppliers, substantial cost increases of materials, or nationalization by governments?</li></li></ul><li>48<br />Appendix 10A: Strategic Audit of a Corporation<br /><ul><li>d) Is there an appropriate mix of people and machines in manufacturing firms, or of support staff to professionals in service firms?
  • 127. e) How well does the corporation perform relative to the competition? Is it balancing inventory costs (warehousing) with logistical costs (just-in-time)? Consider costs per unit of labor, material, and overhead; downtime; inventory control management and/or scheduling of service staff; production ratings; facility utilization percentages; and number of clients successfully treated by category (if service firm) or percentage of orders shipped on time (if product firm).
  • 128. i) What trends emerge from this analysis?
  • 129. ii) What impact have these trends had on past performance and how will they probably affect future performance?
  • 130. iii) Does this analysis support the corporation’s past and pending strategic decisions? </li></li></ul><li>49<br />Appendix 10A: Strategic Audit of a Corporation<br /><ul><li>iv) Does operations provide the company with a competitive advantage?
  • 131. f) Are operations managers using appropriate concepts and techniques to evaluate and improve current performance? Consider cost systems, quality control, reliability systems, inventory control management, personnel scheduling, TQM, learning curves, safety programs, and engineering programs that can improve efficiency of manufacturing or of service.
  • 132. g) Does operations adjust to the conditions in each country in which it has facilities?
  • 133. h) What is the role of the operations manager in the strategic management process?
  • 134. Human Resources Management (HRM)
  • 135. a) What are the corporation’s current HRM objectives, strategies, policies, and programs?</li></li></ul><li>50<br />Appendix 10A: Strategic Audit of a Corporation<br /><ul><li>i) Are they clearly stated, or merely implied from performance and/or budgets?
  • 136. ii) Are they consistent with the corporation’s mission, objectives, strategies, policies, and with internal and external environments?
  • 137. b) How well is the corporation’s HRM performing in terms of improving the fit between the individual employee and the job? Consider turnover, grievances, strikes, layoffs, employee training, and quality of work life.
  • 138. i) What trends emerge from this analysis?
  • 139. ii) What impact have these trends had on past performance and how will they probably affect future performance?
  • 140. iii) Does this analysis support the corporation’s past and pending strategic decisions?
  • 141. iv) Does HRM provide the company with a competitive advantage?</li></li></ul><li>51<br />Appendix 10A: Strategic Audit of a Corporation<br /><ul><li>c) How does this corporation’s HRM performance compare with that of similar corporations?
  • 142. d) Are HRM managers using appropriate concepts and techniques to evaluate and improve corporate performance? Consider the job analysis program, performance appraisal system, up-to-date job descriptions, training and development programs, attitude surveys, job design programs, quality of relationship with unions, and use of autonomous work teams.
  • 143. e) How well is the company managing the diversity of its workforce?
  • 144. f) Does HRM adjust to the conditions in each country in which the company operates? Does the company have a code of conduct for HRM in developing nations? Are employees receiving international assignments to prepare them for managerial positions?
  • 145. g) What is the role of the HRM manager in the strategic management process?</li></li></ul><li>52<br />Appendix 10A: Strategic Audit of a Corporation<br /><ul><li>Information Systems (IS)
  • 146. a) What are the corporation’s current IS objectives, strategies, policies, and programs?
  • 147. i) Are they clearly stated, or merely implied from performance and/or budgets?
  • 148. ii) Are they consistent with the corporation’s mission, objectives, strategies, policies, and with internal and external environments?
  • 149. b) How well is the corporation’s IS performing in terms of providing a useful database, automating routine clerical operations, assisting managers in making routine decisions, and providing information necessary for strategic decisions?
  • 150. i) What trends emerge from this analysis?
  • 151. ii) What impact have these trends had on past performance and how will they probably affect future performance?</li></li></ul><li>Prentice Hall, 2004 <br />Chapter 10<br />Wheelen/Hunger <br />53<br />Appendix 10A: Strategic Audit of a Corporation<br /><ul><li>ii) What impact have these trends had on past performance and how will they probably affect future performance?
  • 152. iii) Does this analysis support the corporation’s past and pending strategic decisions?
  • 153. iv) Does IS provide the company with a competitive advantage?
  • 154. c) How does this corporation’s IS performance and stage of development compare with that of similar corporations?
  • 155. d) Are IS managers using appropriate concepts and techniques to evaluate and improve corporate performance? Do they know how to build and manage a complex database, conduct system analyses, and implement interactive decision-support systems?
  • 156. e) Does the company have a global IS? Does it have difficulty with getting data across national boundaries?
  • 157. f) What is the role of the IS manager in the strategic management process?</li></li></ul><li>Prentice Hall, 2004 <br />Chapter 10<br />Wheelen/Hunger <br />54<br />Appendix 10A: Strategic Audit of a Corporation<br /><ul><li>D. Summary of Internal Factors
  • 158. Which of these factors are the most important to the corporation and to the industries in which it competes at the present time? Which will be important in the future?
  • 159. V. Analysis of Strategic Factors (SWOT)
  • 160. A. Situational Analysis
  • 161. What are the most important internal and external factors (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) that strongly affect the corporation’s present and future performance? List five to ten strategic factors.
  • 162. B. Review of Mission and Objectives
  • 163. Are the current mission and objectives appropriate in light of the key strategic factors and problems?</li></li></ul><li>Prentice Hall, 2004 <br />Chapter 10<br />Wheelen/Hunger <br />55<br />Appendix 10A: Strategic Audit of a Corporation<br /><ul><li>Should the mission and objectives be changed? If so, how?
  • 164. If changed, what will the effects on the firm be?
  • 165. VI. Strategic Alternatives and Recommended Strategy
  • 166. A. Strategic Alternatives
  • 167. Can the current or revised objectives be met by the simple, more careful implementing of those strategies presently in use (for example, fine-tuning the strategies)?
  • 168. What are the major feasible alternative strategies available to this corporation? What are the pros and cons of each? Can corporate scenarios be developed and agreed upon?
  • 169. a) Consider cost leadership and differentiation as business strategies.</li></li></ul><li>Prentice Hall, 2004 <br />Chapter 10<br />Wheelen/Hunger <br />56<br />Appendix 10A: Strategic Audit of a Corporation<br /><ul><li>b) Consider stability, growth, and retrenchment as corporate strategies.
  • 170. c) Consider any functional strategic alternatives that might be needed for reinforcement of an important corporate or business strategic alternative.
  • 171. B. Recommended Strategy
  • 172. Specify which of the strategic alternatives you are recommending for the corporate, business, and functional levels of the corporation. Do you recommend different business or functional strategies for different units of the corporation?
  • 173. Justify your recommendation in terms of its ability to resolve both long- and short-term problems and effectively deal with the strategic factors.
  • 174. What policies should be developed or revised to guide effective implementation?</li></li></ul><li>Prentice Hall, 2004 <br />Chapter 10<br />Wheelen/Hunger <br />57<br />Appendix 10A: Strategic Audit of a Corporation<br /><ul><li>VII. Implementation
  • 175. A. What kinds of programs (for example, restructuring the corporation or instituting TQM) should be developed to implement the recommended strategy?
  • 176. Who should develop these programs?
  • 177. Who should be in charge of these programs?
  • 178. B. Are the programs financially feasible? Can pro forma budgets be developed and agreed upon? Are priorities and timetables appropriate to individual programs?
  • 179. C. Will new standard operating procedures need to be developed?</li></li></ul><li>Prentice Hall, 2004 <br />Chapter 10<br />Wheelen/Hunger <br />58<br />Appendix 10A: Strategic Audit of a Corporation<br /><ul><li>VIII. Evaluation and Control
  • 180. A. Is the current information system capable of providing sufficient feedback on implementation activities and performance? Can it measure critical success factors?
  • 181. Can performance results be pinpointed by area, unit, project, or function?
  • 182. Is the information timely?
  • 183. B. Are adequate control measures in place to ensure conformance with the recommended strategic plan?
  • 184. Are appropriate standards and measures being used?
  • 185. Are reward systems capable of recognizing and rewarding good performance?</li>

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