Presentation1 Bra Burning


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Presentation1 Bra Burning

  1. 1. FEMINISM AND SEXUAL OBJECT <ul><li>The Burning Bras as a protest to male oppression </li></ul>ý
  2. 2. Review of the 03 phases in American feminism <ul><li>1. Liberal Feminism: demonstrating women are fully human as men (integration) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Marxist Feminism: restructuring social orders (difference) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Cultural (Radical) Feminism: conceptualizing women as universally centered. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Bras and the Independent Woman
  4. 4. I. How has it been invented and signified as Womenliness? <ul><li>The bra as we know it today is now a centenarian. But even before it made it’s way into fashion magazines, the concept of breast support was experimented with by the Greeks and Romans as well as the Minoans, who sported their own version over 3,000 years ago. Fascinating facts like this are included in John Walsh’s history of the bra in today’s issue of The Independent. </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1.The dawning history <ul><li>1874 - Patricia P. Clark ads a shoulder strap to the corset </li></ul><ul><li>1900 - Henry Lesher of Brooklyn offers woman a metal contraption to keep things upright </li></ul><ul><li>1907 - the word “brassiere” is featured in Vogue for the first time </li></ul><ul><li>1911 - “brassiere” appears in the Oxford English Dictionary </li></ul><ul><li>1914 - the backless brassiere is patented by Phelps Jacob and then sold to Warner Bros. Corset Company for $1500 (it’s later valued at $15 million) </li></ul>
  6. 6. 2.The Sexist History <ul><li>1914 -1918 - World War I creates a bra craze since women have to abandon the corset to work in factories </li></ul><ul><li>1930 - Maidenform revolutionizes the fit and comfort of the “brassiere,” which becomes known as the “bra” </li></ul><ul><li>1939-1945 - during World War II, the military decides that low-ranking women should don a bra for “protection” </li></ul><ul><li>1950s - the pointy bra gets rounded out and sales </li></ul>
  7. 7. 3. The Protesting History <ul><li>1960s - the bra becomes a political tool when feminist Germaine Greer declares, “Bras are a ludicrous invention” that sexually objectifies women </li></ul><ul><li>1968 - at a protest against the Miss America pageant, women throw their bras, nylons, and girdles into a “Freedom Trash Can” and even though their plans to set fire to the lot never materializes, the legend of bra burning feminists is born . </li></ul>
  8. 8. 4…And the contemporary “Renaissance” <ul><li>1974 - viewers get a glimpse women’s naked torsos and bra-clad breasts in a groundbreaking Wonderbra commercial </li></ul><ul><li>1980 - Bra sales bring in multi-millions </li></ul><ul><li>1990 - Madonna wears a Jean Paul Gaultier bra for her Blonde Ambition tour </li></ul><ul><li>1994 - With the help of Eva Herzigova, the Wonderbra makes a comeback </li></ul>
  9. 9. II. Beauvoir’s pinpointed analyses of the Independent Women’s problem <ul><li>Sexual satisfaction vs. social danger and “morality” </li></ul><ul><li>Profession vs. “womanhood” </li></ul><ul><li>And bodily liberty vs. narcissism </li></ul>
  10. 10. 1. The Freudian Pennis Envy and Sexual repression within the bras?
  11. 12. 3. Burning the Bras! Burning the Enslavement! <ul><li>On September 7-1968, feminists led by New York Radical Women-an early radical feminist group existed from 67-68-protested again the 1968 Miss America Contest in Atlantic City NJ by the “Bra Burning ” action. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Facts <ul><li>There were more than bras being thrown into the “Freedom Trash Cans”: girdles, socks, pots, fans… </li></ul><ul><li>None of the female attendees took off their bras, </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing was literally burn, </li></ul><ul><li>Female contestants were literally challenged and somewhat insulted </li></ul>
  13. 14. 4. The aftermath of the “Bra Burning”
  14. 15. Ideas of bralessness <ul><li>Interesting stuff... I go braless at least half the day, but if I'm going to be doing any kind of work (or leaving the house) I HAVE to put one on. I'm just too well endowed to be comfortable going without. In fact, if I'm cooking or doing dishes, it's more comfortable to wear an underwire bra with a sport bra over it! I love corsetry too, but not for daily wear. Just NO. I like loose and comfy unless there's a good enough reason to tolerate something else. </li></ul><ul><li>4/10/2009 5:32 PM </li></ul><ul><li>lupa ( message ) </li></ul><ul><li>reply </li></ul><ul><li>I'd be lost without my bra. I think it's one of the greatest inventions ever. Yes, some days I can't wait to get out of it, but there's nothing worse than running and having your boobs go flying. I also adore corsets. If I could wear one everyday, I probably would (not tightlaced, though--just tight enough to keep the boobs up!). </li></ul><ul><li>10/8/2004 10:35 AM </li></ul><ul><li>Phencyclidene ( message ) </li></ul><ul><li>reply </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>LOL... interesting info!   I wouldn't do without a bra ... I'm much too big and it would be terribly uncomfortable not to have support.  I'm awfully glad not to have stayed the 42J I was when my milk came in!!  But I can't jog or run ... too much of me jiggles even WITH a bra on and it's painful without... not to mention sweating where I really don't want to be sweating (yeah, I know... Too Much Information ).  </li></ul><ul><li>10/8/2004 10:30 AM </li></ul><ul><li>LetMeGoToo ( message ) </li></ul><ul><li>reply </li></ul><ul><li>I wish I could get away with going braless ....sigh.... and I have no idea HOW many millions of exercises would lift up these pendulous breasts!!!  GAH! (yeah I know, tmi).... they were like that even when I was in decent shape...sigh </li></ul><ul><li>10/7/2004 7:33 PM </li></ul><ul><li>soul_survivor ( message ) </li></ul><ul><li>reply </li></ul>
  16. 17. Problems of Independent Women seen from the “Bra perspective” <ul><li>The Burning bra is a somehow non-event myth since the attendees didn’t dare to light a fire since permission was not obtained-> obedience toward male dominant law enforcement. </li></ul><ul><li>The consciousness of “feminine morality” forbidden the actual undressing. </li></ul><ul><li>Bralessness would then be sexualized by male who enjoy the sight of unconstraint breasts under clothes. </li></ul>
  17. 18. III. Conclusion <ul><li>04 decades after the firestorm of Radical Feminism, bra burning is no more than a “symbolic ritual”, </li></ul><ul><li>for most women, the bra is a necessity of narcissism without viewing of it as a symbol of oppression </li></ul><ul><li>The bra, therefore, stays as one of the hardest challenging obstacles for the feminist model of the “Independent Woman” </li></ul>
  18. 19. Bonus: Thinking Beauvoir: statement from a world-class celebrity-an independent woman and a feminist <ul><li>Katie Melua: 'I'm a product of my past. In Georgia women marry young and have no independence. That has made me a feminist .' (???) </li></ul>
  19. 20. Bibliography: <ul><li>During, Simon ed, The Cultural Studies Reader , Routledge- NY 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Sandoval, Chela. Methodology of the Oppressed . U of Minnesota- London 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Farrell-Beck, Jane, gau, Colleen.  Uplift: The Bra in America.   Philadelphia, University of Philadelphia Press, 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Web pages retrieved: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> /.../08/16/the-bra-turns-100/ </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>