Teaching in medieval times


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Teaching in medieval times

  1. 1. The teaching in medieval times<br />Education<br />
  2. 2. In the begin of Middle Ages around 450 DC<br />The main subjects were Christian ones, and the Aristotle’s rhetoric was important.<br />Aristotle’s rhetoric is the use of language with persuasive effect.<br />Saint Augustine: <br />taught in the Latin grammar school at Tagaste<br />opened a school of rhetoric at Carthage<br />taught rhetoric in Rome<br />accepted a professorship in rhetoric at Milan<br />
  3. 3. Saint Augustine<br />Saint Augustine and his mother Saint Monique<br />
  4. 4. Aristotle’s rhetoric (1)<br />The base of rhetoric was three persuasive audience appeals :<br /> logos, pathos and ethos<br />And five canons:<br />invention or discovery, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery<br />
  5. 5. three persuasive audience appeals<br />Logos<br />In the old Greece the word meant word, speech, reason<br />For Aristotle the term to meant reasoned discourse<br />Further Jesus saw as the incarnation of the Logos<br />Pathos<br />represented an appeal to the audience's emotions<br />Ethos<br />involved moral competence only; But Aristotle broadens the concept to include expertise and knowledge<br />
  6. 6. The five canons<br />Inventio<br />was the method used for the discovery of arguments<br />Dispositio<br />the system were used for the organization of arguments<br />Elocutio <br />the term used for the mastery of stylistic elements concern the crafting and delivery of speeches and writing<br />four ingredients necessary in order to achieve good style included correctness, clearness, appropriateness, and ornament<br />Memoria<br /> was the same meaning as today<br />Pronuntiatio<br />the content, structure, and style of oration .The most important elements of oratory enhancing its persuasive power<br />
  7. 7. Making a book in medieval times<br />As paper, in Europe, did not become common until around 1450 the most medieval manuscripts were written on treated animal skins called parchment.<br />The parchment was ruled colored ink, lines that helped the scribe to write<br />
  8. 8. Medieval people<br />Few books, few ideas, many people could not read, religiosity was predominant with many wars<br />
  9. 9. Medieval people and medieval buildings<br />Giordano Bruno<br />
  10. 10. At the end around 1400 DC<br />The word universitas originally was applied to the scholastic guild<br />A guilt was a corporation of students and masters:<br />A community of teachers and scholars whose corporate existence had been recognized and by the ecclesiastical authority<br />
  11. 11. Scholasticism<br />Has its origins in Charlemagne, who attracted the scholars of England and Ireland, established schools in every abbey in his empire which arise the name scholasticism<br />The word as two meanings<br />a method of learning taught by scholastics<br />A program that articulates and defends orthodoxy in an increasingly pluralistic context<br />
  12. 12. The method of learning<br />As a method of learning it has his bases<br />Dialectic:<br />a dialogue between two or more people who may hold differing views<br />applying reason the people exchange their viewpoints to seek the truth <br />Inference:<br />achieving a conclusion by deductive reasoning from given facts<br />Resolving Contradictions. <br />a contradiction is a logical incompatibility between two or more propositions<br />
  13. 13. Magisterdixit<br />This sentence used in Florence and all Italy, by 1600 by the teachers to shut up all the students who contested the Aristotle's astronomy theory.<br />
  14. 14. Aristotle astronomy<br />Aristotle argued that the universe is spherical and finite with the Earth in the center.<br />Aristotle's model of the universe had a profound influence on medieval scholars, but nevertheless they modified it to correspond with Christian theology. <br />
  15. 15. The limitations of technology<br />Medieval books were hand written and rare.<br />Few books means the reading were limited to a few people.<br />But they were very nice with nice pictures<br />
  16. 16. There were no tools and no science<br />Without the right tools there is no science: magister dixit was enough<br />
  17. 17. Bibliografia<br />http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/agexed/aee501/augustine.html<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contradictions<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dialectical_reasoning<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dispositio<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elocutio<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethos<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inference<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inventio<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logos<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memoria<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medieval_university<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pathos<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pronuntiatio<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhetoric<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scholasticism<br />http://www.getty.edu/art/exhibitions/making/<br />http://perseus.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/GreekScience/Students/Tom/AristotleAstro.html<br />http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magister_dixit<br />