LINUX COMPLETE BEGINNER GUIDE
BY ANTHONY LE GOFF
#CHAP 1. WHY I SHOULD INSTALL LINUX ?
Many people have heard of Linux, know if it may be useful to you then
becomes yet another reality that it is possible to imagine in terms of
productivity and security as a workstation.
#CHAP 2. CHOICE THE GOOD LINUX TO YOU
Want to test Linux is already a big step. This is also the beginning to
explore what "distro" is made depending on your needs.
#CHAP 3. INSTALL LINUX ON YOUR PERSONAL COMPUTER
Once you have selected your "linux distro" we will have take a bit of
time to install on your computer. Here you have to learn how to start an
operating system on a USB live, to partition your hard drive and then
start the installation.
#CHAP 4. BOOST THE HARDWARE & SOFTWARE COMPATIBILITY
At last install on your Linux system, and sometimes there is a hardware
that does not work natively. It is a fact, frequently wi-fi, 3D card or
wireless mouse. Some ideas to fix the problems of a "fresh install"
#CHAP 5. SOFTWARE INSTALL, APPS & CYBERSECURITY
Your Linux OS running, you can begin to customize his appearance,
desktop, startup, in graphical or command line.
#CHAP 1 .Why I Should install Linux ?
Curious to change the operating system, but yet you
have no background in computer science. The command
line scares & coding is not your thing and yet tired
failures of other operating systems? I mean the blue
screen of Windows such as fatal. This can be a start to
migrate to Linux.
Linux is not (always) elegant, this is not a Mac Book Pro or Air. However Apple or Windows
have an irritating tendency to have non custom user environments and constrained, it is a
fact: geeks are on Linux. Linux on your computer is not the computer Mr. or Mrs.
everybody. It's yours, customize according to your computing needs, you take control of
your computer. This should be the main reason to migrate.
The computer changes with cloud
computing and it is more difficult to
understand the different layers of
abstraction, what a computer is and how
it works with the "all connected" and
"smart object" starting invade us by
smartphones and drones. Approach
Linux allows you to better understand
the whole problem and therefore the
security of your data on the web.
Android runs on a Linux kernel, 75% of
smartphones, 92% of supercomputers
run on Linux, and only 1.97% of personal
computer are on a Linux system around
This is totally free, you don't pay license
Last update of Windows 8 completely fresh with his new writing Metro and you must pay
the license. It was Christmas and you change your computer, workstation Mac, you go
crazy for the latest Mac Book Pro, which cost you a trip to Bora Bora. And maybe then you
would have preferred to go made in French Polynesia.
This was just the beginning. You have to go buy some
software. The latest Office suite and license $ 150. You are a
crazy photoshop and also buy the license. Train in offering
you also pay for the updates contained you are unsure use.
Apple offers the latest OSX, a small update and a few $ more
for the maintainability of your personal workstation. Updates,
service packs, software suites, it is a budget.
Linux is completely free, whether on a computer or a 3000
Machines and open source software included about 30,000
packages in Debian in deposits. You install the distribution, some automatic updates and
you are on a complete operational system software suite, web browser included,
Updrade the system for a new & old computer
Want to recycle a computer, or switch a laptop under a light system to ensure that it heats
up a bit too much. The heart and kernel of linux running on thousands of servers
worldwide operate by engineers who need resource stable production. This is the same
kernel that you will find on your personal and lighter than Windows or Mac system.
Modify the system as you wish
If you browse a bit on blogs and websites specializing in Linux it is
impossible not to notice hackers on their system. Customize the
system is second nature with Linux. Want to change the color of
windows, no problem. You do not like the splash screen of the
computer? This party is to give some freshness. This icon looks like
nothing? Change it! Need a script to start a program, let's go.
Everything is modifiable, find the file system configuration and launch you to customize
your computer. If you have a little fear there are some tools like Ubuntu Tweak for example
in software repositories. If you are imaginative and creative on your computer you've
found your place.
Learn in depth IT skills
Whether a beginner or advanced level, Linux allows you to learn the computer step by
step, using modern functions, command line or GUI to explore the functions of the
computer. For example, you can learn to do handling in different forms:
Check the access permissions work
Knowing the commands currently running with the function top
"Mount" a USB storage drive or an external hard drive with mount
What is the rsync and how to use it to backup your data
Become a master of your data with the commands grep, tail or find.
Modify & play with effects on Linux
Linux is highly customizable and you can change
the system to give effects to your desktop, add
additional zones of work and other things to
increase your productivity while having a cool and
stylish office or more extravagant as an array
airplane and indicator on the operating state of the
An example with the desktop Gnome Shell
The dock in Ubuntu: Unity, to manage your applications and automatic document search
on your computer. It is also possible to run a Windows system for Linux applications by
virtualizing the system with VirtualBox or applications with wine.
#CHAP 2. Install linux on your computer
You have decided to take the step and you run Linux or start attempt after a few years of
interruption for X reasons. It is time to prepare a distribution Linux "distro" that you will be
installing on a USB Live (CD is out of date) to enter the world of Linux.
To create a USB key you will have to use a Windows software called Linux Live USB creator
or Lili for intimate with this software available for download.
A second solution is to install the system in VirtualBox virtualization machine for testing
safely on your current operating system with this tutorial.
A small overview of various popular Linux distributions that you can test according to your
needs and desires. To install it by Live USB and restart your PC to the USB key. Some
distributions are made to start while others are for advanced users see informed (Arch
Linux and Kali). You can download the image file in. Iso each site distributions or via
Ubuntu : The most popular « for human being »
Ubuntu is developed through the company Canonical by an entrepreneur named Mark
Shuttleworth. He had a dream to create a distro accessible to everybody. This is a
relatively new distro. It extends from the Ubuntu release with Touch for Smartphone and
tablet. The Ubuntu user community is very important and reactive forums in case of
problems, see sponsorship. This is a simple solution to start focusing on simplicity of use.
This is the distribution or you will be less hardware problem during installation, often with a
high material compatibility support.
Ubuntu started with the beginner's guide to apprehend the system. Documentation of the
Ubuntu wiki it's also very powerfull
You will find variations of desktop such as Gnome-Shell, KDE or XFCE. Ubuntu comes in
very intrusive Unity environment with research on Amazon, Ebay. Distributions change
name depending on the desktop: Gnome remix, Kubuntu, Xubuntu.
Ubuntu offers a cloud service named Ubuntu One by default.
Linux Mint : The new distro for beginner
Linux Mint is based on simplicity and elegance. It is a derivative of Ubuntu and therefore
robust distribution. There are two desktop environments either Cinnamon or Mate. To
migrate from Windows without being too lost on the interface is a good choice because the
bar and the menu are placed in the same manner. A smooth migration. Everything you
need in a default OS is: office suite, tools, internet, browser, flash player, MP3, DVD. To
start in Mint you can follow this user guide.
Mageia : The french alternative system
Mageia is a French project born from the death of Mandriva in 2010. The distribution is
based on the creation of IT governance stable of collaborative work by a community of
passionate. You can find the documentation on this page. The default desktop is KDE. It is
also the first distribution to be built as free format MariaDB management system database
instead of MySQL.
Fedora : Solid Alternative
Fedora is developed by Linux Red Hat enterprise. The system is robust and different from
Ubuntu package management (based on Debian. Deb on Ubuntu) RPM. Rapidly developing
supports a variety of hardware and PowerPC oriented. Fedora is also used on the server
side and system administration.
Arch Linux : The corner of bearded men experts
Arch Linux is not the distribution that installs following two, three drinks and you begin to
remake the world. But it is well to rebuild your computer operating system from scratch. To
learn Linux and IT "like a pro" is what you need and also a lot of coffee or tea at hand. You
start with nothing and build your system. There's no updates every 6 months but only
updates as needed. If the computer and the command line does not scare you begin this
installation guide edited by the community (or in this link by Lifehacker) in Virtual Box for
Kali : Offensive 127.0.0.1
Kali formerly Linux Back | Track is an offensive cyber penetration project on computer
networks. Debian-based distribution for very informed on IT risk user, network auditing etc
... It is definitely not for beginners, but it is well known in the Linux world. Not looking to
get help for use on forums, you will not.
Tails : Anonymously
Tails is a distribution based on Debian 6 "Squeeze" to surf the internet anonymously with
Tor & bypass censorship. You do not let a trace, while learning to use tools such as
You can turn to the guardian project for tools such as Jitsi and ChatSecure for instant
messaging “Off-The-Rrecord” and sms TextSecure for which should be integrated natively
on Android devices with CyanogenMod in future versions.
Tails installation guide.
#CHAP 3. Install linux on your personal computer
You decide to give Linux a chance and you just found the distro made for your needs. So
here we go for installation via a live USB. You going to need some knowledge about disk
partitioning also cohabitation system and boot / Multiboot.
You should not need this guide during installation because you will not have it at hand.
Whatever print it to keep it close to hand in case of a system panic / / Kernel Panic / / or
your own cold sweat.
Burning a Live USB
There are several methods to burn a Linux distro . The CD is obsolete now uses the USB
especially since ultrabooks have no CD / DVD drive.
As I mentioned before you need to go the Linux Live USB Creator software to do this on
Windows. Mac the method is a bit more complex, and I advise you to search a little on
As an example we will burn the latest version of Linux Mint available in this download
page. Allow the 64-bit version if you > = 4GB of memory on your computer. Otherwise go
to the 32 - bit case . Choose the environment Mate or Cinnamon .
You can then select a download mirror live from . Iso , ie your image file or torrent link via
You install Lili USB Creator and your USB stick 2GB (at least) is ready to burn the image of
Linux Mint comes finish this download . You have a few functions to the software  :
1. Select the USB key to be used
2. Select a location for the image of Linux Mint, namely ISO
3. Leave persistence mode on the live CD keeping the settings on your USB key
4. Format the USB key if necessary FAT
5. Click the flash to start the burning process
USB ready to go need to restart your PC, and bored begin. This is a good sign you are not
to learn? Normally your PC is not set to boot from an operating system on a USB stick. This
requires change the BIOS of your PC. The BIOS is specific to each computer manufacturer,
and to enter you must know the combination code. The first screen that appears for a
short time is normally your bios with the combination to enter. Most of the time the delete
touch: del, then see F8. You to discover and explore your computer to change the
parameter reading external drive .
If all goes well your USB stick it will start the loading screen and the Linux Mint system will
Picture 2: BIOS H20 by Sony - Activation Boot sequence for running on External Boot device
(USB) priority of Internal Hard Disk Drive
Picture 3: Bootloader Linux Mint Live USB
The installation may be slightly different between the distributions. If you are installing
Linux for the first time on your computer and it Windows is already on the hard drive there
is a good chance that you did not want to begin by removing your old operating system. In
this case you will make the two systems coexist (dualbooting) on the same computer. It is
possible to choose at boot screen either Windows or Linux.
Hard Drive Partitioning
You will start the installation process by clicking Install Linux Mint on the desktop
computer. You get to the partition screen or it is also possible to integrate with Windows.
Remember for dualboot first install Windows Linux Then to get better compatibility
In case this installation we will automatically install the system on an LVM logical volume
and encrypt the hard disk entirely AES with dm-crypt. Things to do if you choose to remove
Windows [after backup] for compatibility.
You will then be asked for a strong password for your encrypted hard disk. Preferably a
good password disk: 16 alphanumeric characters mini coupled with special characters and
do not form a known word.
Choose thereafter your username (login) and password login name. Do not encrypt the
home folder, you have already encrypt hard drive. Note: if you keep Windows, encrypted
by the personal file systems to coexist.
Partitioning and installation was totally transparent, but what art what my computer?
Illustration 4: Partionning scheme LVM+DM-CRYPT One hard disk
The installation needed to partition for installing critical system components:
> The "root" root filesystem is on / and format in the format ext4 <10GB
> An area of memory swap the same size as your RAM
> The bootloader to boot the system or make multi-boot with Windows using Grub2
On reboot after ejecting the USB key, the GRUB Bootloader appears to select the system to
boot. If you coexist with Windows: The information displayed:
• Name Distribution (ie Linux Mint)
• His version (ex: 16)
• Its core [kernel] (ex: 184.108.40.206-generic)
• The partition mount (eg / dev/sda2)
• A test of the RAM, hardware fault
• Other systems (Windows)
Be careful when re-installing Windows and you lose the GRUB boot Multi-Boot. In this case
it will install GRUB for example with a USB LIVE online procedure by selecting / boot
It is easier to install Windows before Linux to avoid problems with GRUB.
Everything should work out-of-the-box. If you have no luck, it is possible that some
materials has not been recognized such as Wi-Fi and your associated network card. In this
case you need to go a few settings manually.
#CHAP 4. Boost the hardware & software compatibility
Most of the material in circulation works perfectly under Linux. It happens in some cases
there is some problems on the exotic material. For example the case of hybrid cards on
Sony Vaio and "dock" laptops. If your computer is new, latest generation drivers have not
been compiled for Linux.
To avoid problems of compatibility some hardware manufacturer are "Linux friendly" as HP,
Lenovo or Dell. Include sale of computers natively on Ubuntu with Dell XPS for example
and you save Windows license.
Computer Compatibility list on Ubuntu : http://www.ubuntu.com/certification/desktop/
Relapsing scare, my WI-FI does not work
This is the most common case. Everything works except the WLAN card, ie Wi-Fi normally
already in the Live USB on your mobile you saw the sign that some things wrong and it
should fix the problem. The first reflex is “to google” your problem and see if other people
do not have a solution for the same hardware.
A first attempt is possible from the command line [alt + F2 and enter:
terminal or Applications > Accessories > Terminal] with ifconfig & iwconfig or nm-tool
(ie : fn+F2 for activate wifi connexion on laptop)
You miss probably this :
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 81:23:2b:69:95:1c
inet adr:192.168.0.2 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Masque:255.255.255.0
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
Packets reçus:90109 erreurs:0 :0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:56301 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 lg file transmission:1000
Octets reçus:121710992 (121.7 MB) Octets transmis:10722558 (10.7 MB)
Test with this command :
sudo ifconfig wlan0 up
Diagnostic equipment, you need to know the manufacturer's name, the best chipset and
bus (pci, pci-e, usb). Under Windows you can retrieve the information then go to the
Command line : lsusb if your WI-FI card is on USB Socket & lspci if the card is on internal
pci ou pci-e chipset
sudo lspci -v
This should already refer you to a solution if you're not specify "red" ie a blacklisted card.
Secondly you can also go to the Ubuntu Documentation website
If nothing works you Could use driver under Windows. You'll have to to retrieve and export.
Install package ndisgtk then to add the windows driver under Linux. To download the
software to use an ethernet cable temporarily.
Also HOWTO for Windows drivers
Most of the material is open source as Intel and other manufacturers. Sometimes it
happens that the driver or owner (Nvidia, AMD ATI, Broadcom ...), especially the graphics
card or some network adapters and maybe your Wi-Fi In this case it is possible to install it
via a tool simple: Driver Manager (available in Ubuntu Software Center or already installed
System > Administration > Driver Manager
Generally after a fresh install of Ubuntu Linux, check if there are no proprietary drivers to
Others : DVDs, MP3s, Video, flash, fonts etc..
Linux Mint installing default software and proprietary format like MP3. Ubuntu which is
based on open source is not configured by default. It is very simple to configure this by
installing the package: ubuntu-restricted-extras by apt-get command or in Ubuntu
sudo apt-get install ubuntu-restricted-extras libavformat-extra-53
Then for DVD compatibility
sudo apt-get install libdvdread4
Other distributions have other packages in restricted deposits. Look manager such as YUM,
Synaptic based on "mp3" format, "avi" "Windows Media" etc ...
In the case of keyboard and mousepad
Normally it should work by default. Tools for a little extras like the re-mapping of buttons
use xev utility and its documentation
For more help on hotkeys go to this page, or stay long press the Dash button for the
Additional help online
The Ubuntu community is a good place to start with a wiki and forum provided to
retrieve information, ask questions. The documentation is very well provided for
laptops and hardware. Ask Ubuntu also go to find answers to more advanced topics
Arch Linux wiki planned for Arch Linux users, the best wiki on the subject to learn
Linux in depth. Users under Arch no longer use apt-get package manager. Arch
linux Provide pacman as package manager
#CHAP 5. Software install, apps & cybersecurity
Here you have finished the installation and set up your distribution with functional
equipment. Your desktop is blank, so what next? Tips and tricks for a more productive OS,
and personalized according to your preferences
Install apps, softwares
Ubuntu and Mint integrate the Ubuntu Software Center to install and navigate easily to
explore applications or software. Users also give notes to it as on Android and Google Play.
If you need a further repository use, I advise you to install Synaptic for Debian-based
distros such as Ubuntu or Mint.
sudo apt-get install synaptic
For example you are looking for VLC video player, audio and internet stream. Either you
are installing the Ubuntu Software Center or via command line with:
sudo apt-get install vlc
It's as simple as that to set up Linux softwares
In the case of Chrome, the web browser:
sudo apt-get install chromium-browser
The updates that will if necessary with the update manager and ask if you want to apply
the necessary updates of the system, and security applications.
Command Line, again & again
To go further in the command line and the terminal, especially if the coincidence of your
choice, want to install a Linux server for Debian 7 & Owncloud for the private cloud on a
personal Raspberry Pi is part of your projects, it will be necessary to dress for the dives
and compile yourself.
A nice beginning with the ebook : Linux Command
Plan a fair amount of tea, coffee, or redbull for intrepid. Do not be afraid of the command
line, it can significantly shorten the tasks
A few software packages for your workstation
To complement the installation you may need:
Xchat – Messaging client IRC (Internet Relay Chat)
Shutter – Screenshot Manager
Zim – Personal wiki / notepad
gtkhash – Verify hash to image disk .iso
p7zip – Archive manager 7zip
gimp – Draw software , alternate to Photoshop
Inkscape – Vector draw sotfware
filezilla – Client FTP & SFTP
Transmission – Client Torrent
JAVA 7 – Java runtime
Virtual Box – Virtualization
Via PPAs :
Ubuntu-Tweak – computer setup, modification and customization.
Variety – random wallpapers
Keepass – Password manager
In command Line, open a terminal :
sudo apt-get install xchat shutter zim gtkhash p7zip-full gimp inkscape
filezilla transmission icedtea-7-plugin openjdk-7-jre virtualbox keepass2
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:tualatrix/ppa
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install ubuntu-tweak
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:peterlevi/ppa
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install variety
Battery power manager for laptop
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:linrunner/tlp
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install tlp
Computer security on workstation
Linux is considered more secure than Windows or Mac. However workstation is not
necessarily secure depending on your habits. It is the user that security, not the computer.
Ubuntu Unity security case
Since the Ubuntu 13.04 release includes security vulnerabilities quite annoying spyware
such as with Amazon and ebay in research and the remote desktop on the screen section
> Session protection (delete remote desktop) on Lightdm dans un terminal
> Modify Lens, the search tool in Ubuntu, delete shopping Amazon & co
gsettings set com.canonical.Unity.Lenses disabled-scopes
Security and Cloud. It is advised to keep their data in Europe since the Snowden
case under the protection of privacy. So avoid solutions such as Dropbox, Google
Drive, Box, etc. that are on American servers of U.S. companies.
Secure Cloud Solution is interesting Wuala (Swiss company), 5GB free, adopting a
client-side asymmetric encryption and data are encrypted on their servers in
Install guide : https://www.wuala.com/en/download/linux
Under management by firewall software, you can install gufw. It is easily
Management of confidential documents TrueCrypt is also available for Linux at this
Adding a OpenVPN. If you intend to buy a VPN to encrypt your connection you going to
need a supplement for network-manager to manage openvpn.
sudo apt-get install network-manager-openvpn
With this guide you can start in the world of Linux and discover computer science. It is a
thought, a philosophy quite different business giants like Apple and Windows. Surely the
best shortcut that you find to take control of your computer and your data.
Some web adresses
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PUBLICATION IT & CYBERSECURITY