Driving Forces in Educational Technology By Jeannine Miller Student ID: A00232202 [email_address] Submitted May 21, 2011
Evolutionary Technology Red Queens Increasing Returns Disruptive Technologies Science Fiction Rhymes Of History Six Forces Of Emerging Technologies
The idea that a new technology is a progression or growth of a previous technology Evolutionary Technology
The emergent technology of the SMART board is an evolutionary technology. One that replaced the white dry erase board in education. The white dry board was an evolutionary technology for the traditional blackboard that used chalk and prior to that was the slate board. http://www.ehow.com/how_4603323_eliminate-chalkboards.html This article talks about the progression from blackboard to white dry erase boards to now SMARTboards.
<ul><li>Dry erase white board </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Used as a visual aide </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetized </li></ul><ul><li>Replaced traditional black chalkboard </li></ul><ul><li>Accepted by teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Served its purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Ink would fade </li></ul><ul><li>Erasure marks </li></ul>
<ul><li>SMART Board </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Internet capabilities including use of internet, maps and Skype among other programs </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive </li></ul><ul><li>Write, trace type </li></ul><ul><li>No longer use of dry erase white board </li></ul><ul><li>Engages students </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodating to teachers, teachers love it </li></ul><ul><li>Training is provided </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Notebook software to save lesson plans </li></ul><ul><li>Tool kit provides drag and drop </li></ul><ul><li>Use with SMART response clickers to test for mastery or survey students </li></ul><ul><li>Use with wireless airliners (tablets/slates) </li></ul><ul><li>3D capabilities on the horizon </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Technology glitches </li></ul><ul><li>Down network </li></ul><ul><li>Links don’t work </li></ul><ul><li>Software crashes </li></ul><ul><li>Projector problems </li></ul><ul><li>http://www2.smarttech.com/NR/rdonlyres/2C729F6E-0A8D-42B8-9B32-F90BE0A746D8/0/Int_Whiteboard_Research_Whitepaper_Update.pdf </li></ul>
Rhymes of History A new technology that is an emergence based on a previous technology
The dry erase whiteboard was used along with either the overhead projector or lcd projector these being the technologies that the SMART board integrate. It is considered to be a rhyme of history.
Science fiction allows us to understand and experience our past, present, and future in terms of an imagined future. Kathryn Cramer, The Ascent of Wonder (1994) http://www.conknet.com/~fullerlibrary/ReadersAdvisory/SCIENCE%20FICTION%20READER/Introduction.htm A new technology that is based upon a science fiction novel or movie And gives force to future technologies. I could not find an example that either the dry erase white board or SMART board are examples of Sci-Fi
Disruptive Technologies A new technology that emerges that obsoletes another emerging technology because it provides more beneficial qualities than the one it obsolete. According to e-school news “the SMART board is a sustaining upgrade to the chalkboard and overhead projector, not a disruptive one. Most integrated technologies sustain, and do not disrupt”.
Increasing Returns There are many companies that offered both a dry erase white board. The SMART board is a brand name for an interactive white board. These are not examples of Increasing returns because although there may be a preference for the SMART board, The other companies have not disappeared as of today. http://rmtc.fsdb.k12.fl.us/tutorials/whiteboards.html#brands one is chosen and the other disappears Between two competing technologies
Red Queens Two technologies that are so competitive that they cause other competition to fall behind or obsolete. SMART Interactive whiteboards may very well be considered a Red Queen. According to edweek.org “companies such as SMART Technologies and Promethean, based in Alpharetta, Ga., are two of the largest producers of interactive whiteboards for the K-12 market”. http://www.edweek.org/dd/articles/2007/09/12/02board.h01.html
Evaluation 1)Was either of the two forces you analyzed in this module useful for explaining why this obsolete technology originally emerged? The dry erase whiteboard is not an example of an Increasing Return nor a Red Queen. a)If not, why weren’t these forces useful in explaining why this technology originally emerged? I suppose when the dry erase whiteboard was introduced there were many companies who offered it and it was not a technology that offered many different features making one more desirable from the other. All seemed to have the dry erase option (hence the name) and magnetic capability. 2)Of the two forces explored in this module, was either of them useful in explaining why the replacement technology emerged? The SMART board is considered one of the top producers of interactive white boards so it could be a Red Queen, it is not an example of Increasing Return. Why is the SMART board one of the top producers? Perhaps because of the software as well as the features which includes the ability to help those students with different learning needs and styles.
3)Then, summarize your evaluation by sharing how McLuhan’s tetrad and the “six forces” explain why your obsolete technology was originally adopted and was later replaced by your emerging (or emerged) technology. The dry erase white board obsolete the traditional black chalkboard because of added interactivity of the SMART board. It was introduced and willingly adopted as a 21 st century tool. It is clear from my analysis that the SMART board has much more advantages than the dry erase white board. McLuhan tetrad and the six forces are predictors of how technologies emerge and evolve. These are important in the evolution of future technologies.
Speculation on the Future of Your Emerging Technology 1)What function does it provide? As seen in my analysis there are many more advantages and features that the SMART board provide than the dry erase white board. 2)What need does it fulfill? It fills the need of interactivity, engagement, collaboration in the 21 st century of learning. 3)What’s next? The next integration along with the SMART board would be the use of 3D technology and eventually holographic technology. 4)How long do you think it will take for this emerging technology to end up in the supply closet? I believe the SMART board is going to be around for decades as the traditional blackboard was. 5)What kind of technology might obsolete the current emerging technology (third generation)? It is unknown at this time.
6)As a professional who is beginning to think like a futurist, how might you plan for the next generation of technology that might replace your emerging technology? The only thing I can think of that may obsolete the SMART board is the opening of more virtual schools where the learning takes place in a online distance environment. Other than that the holographic technology that I spoke of. http://www.eschoolnews.com/2010/01/18/opinion-virtual-schools-are-a- critical-piece-of-educations-future/ 7)How do you prepare the end users for the obsolescence of a technology they are now using in preparation for its replacement? If schools were to close completely is the only way that the obsolescence of the SMART board would occur. Seeing how instructors were excited about the SMART board if something came along that included more technology with the use of holographic and possible time re-occurrence than I believe educators would be excited as well.
Interview Consent Form Course name and number: EDUC-7108-2/EDUC-8848-2 Emerging and Future Technology Assignment name and number: Module 2 Assignment- TetradsMillerJ I, Melissa Gaffney/ Andrea Clinkscales, understand that I am being asked to participate in an interview that is part of Jeannine Miller’s required coursework in the above-noted Walden University Instructional Technology course. It is my understanding that this interview will cover the following subjects or topics: . The classroom whiteboard becoming an obsolete technology. . The SMART Board being the emerging technology that replaces it. . The direction the Jackson County School Board is taking in regards to this technology. . My thoughts on the whiteboard being replaced. . Any concerns I may have with the SMART Board. I have been given some general information about this project and the types of questions I can expect to answer. I understand that the interview will be conducted at a place and time that is convenient to me, and that it will take approximately 20 minutes of my time. I understand that my participation in this project is completely voluntary. I understand that, with my permission, this interview may be audio (or video) recorded and that any information I provide during the interview will be kept confidential, used only for the purposes of completing this assignment. I will also be provided with a copy of the student assignment at my request. I have read the information above. By signing below and returning this form, I am consenting to participate in this project via telephone/ face-to-face interview/email exchange as designed by the below-named Walden University student. Participant name (please print): _______________________________________ Signature: _______________________________________________ Date: _______________________________________________ Please keep a copy of this consent form for your records. If you have other questions concerning your participation in this project, please contact me at: Student name : Jeannine Miller Telephone number: 678-776-8885 email address: Jeannine.firstname.lastname@example.org Thank you for agreeing to participate in my project.
<ul><li>Interview Questions </li></ul><ul><li>April 13, 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Melissa Gaffney, Instructional Technologist </li></ul><ul><li>Andrea Clinkscales, Media Specialist </li></ul><ul><li>East Jackson Middle School Commerce, Georgia </li></ul><ul><li>What purpose did the Whiteboard serve in the educational classroom? </li></ul><ul><li>Was the Whiteboard something that teachers accepted willingly at the time? </li></ul><ul><li>Were there any disadvantages of the Whiteboard? </li></ul><ul><li>In conjunction with McLuhan’s tetrad; </li></ul><ul><li>What does the SMART board do that is new? </li></ul><ul><li>What does it obsolete? </li></ul><ul><li>What does it rekindle from the past? </li></ul><ul><li>What does it represent for the future technologies of this kind? </li></ul><ul><li>5. What purpose does the SMART board serve? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some of the advantages the SMART board provides? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the features of the SMART board? </li></ul><ul><li>How do teachers feel about this technology? </li></ul><ul><li>What are benefits and disadvantages of this technology? </li></ul><ul><li>In what way are they provided with information and lessons for this technology? </li></ul><ul><li>What other technologies work with the SMART board? </li></ul><ul><li>What direction is Jackson County taking in regards to this technology? </li></ul>
Interview with Melissa Gaffney, Instructional Technologist
Interview with Andrea Clinkscales, Media Specialist
References Contributing Writer. (1998-2011). How to Eliminate Chalkboards. In www.ehow.com. Retrieved May 5, 2011., from http://www.ehow.com/how_4603323_eliminate-chalkboards. Kathryn Cramer. (1994). Introduction to Science Fiction. In www.conknet.com. Retrieved May 5, 2011., from html.http://www.conknet.com/~fullerlibrary/ReadersAdvisory/SCIENCE%20FICTION% 20READER/Introduction.htm . Michael Simonsen. (January 18, 2010). Opinion: Virtual schools are a critical piece of education’s f uture. In www.eschoolnews.com. Retrieved May 7, 2011., from http://www.eschoolnews.com/2010/01/18/opinion-virtual-schools-are-a-critical-piece-of-educations-future/ Michelle Davies. (September 12, 2007). Whiteboards Inc.. In www.edweek.org. Retrieved May 15, 2011., from http://www.edweek.org/dd/articles/2007/09/12/02board.h01.html . Resources Materials and Technology Center for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing . (October 27, 2010). Interactive Whiteboards in the Classroom. In http://rmtc.fsdb.k12.fl.us. Retrieved May 7, 2011., from http://rmtc.fsdb.k12.fl.us/tutorials/whiteboards.html#brands . SMART Technologies. (March 2006). Interactive Whiteboards and Learning. In www.2smarttech.com. Retrieved May 7, 2011., from http://www2.smarttech.com/NR/rdonlyres/2C729F6E-0A8D-42B8-9B32- F90BE0A746D8/0/Int_Whiteboard_Research_Whitepaper_Update.pdf .