Analyzing pronunciation error of the second semester student in stain parepare in producing dental sound
ANALYZING PRONUNCIATION ERROR OF THE INTERMEDIATE 2 STUDENTS IN IEC( INTERNATIONAL ENGLISH COURSE ) PAREPARE INPRODUCING DENTAL FRICATIVES SOUND [ θ ] and SOUND [ð ] Small project CREATED BY: FITRIANTI 09.093.037 ENGLISH EDUCATION PROGRAME STATE ISLAMIC COLLAGE (STAIN) PAREPARE 2010
A. TITLE “ ANALYZING PRONUNCIATION ERROR OF THE INTERMEDIATE 2 STUDENTS IN IEC ( INTERNATIONAL ENGLISH COURSE ) PAREPARE IN PRODUCING DENTAL FRICATIVES SOUND [ θ ] AND SOUND [ð ]“B. BACKGROUND Pronunciation is one of the most important to master when learning English. The pronunciation system of English words is unique. That is the reason why many people say that Pronounciation in English is often very difficult for non native speaker of English. The way we pronounce English words depends on how the words are heard in our ears. Therefore, it is important to listen to the right pronunciation of English. According to Webter’s comprehensive dictonary in English sound is the sensation of hearing. Sound or speech produced by speakers of the English language is a primary goal. It’s important because in english pronunciation errors will cause a false sense of the word well. as a result, the message that we want to convey will not be received clearly. Sound devided into two parts are consonant sounds and vowel sounds. Consonant and vowel sounds are two different qualities of sounds that are found almost in all languages of the world. Consonats are defined as the sounds articulated by temporary obstruction in the air stream which passes through the mouth. Vowels are the sounds that are produced with an approximation without any obstruction in the air passage. Consonant is speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of vocal track. In consonants there is points of articulation and manner of articulation. In points of articulation, there are seven primary points, they are Bilibial, Labio-dental, dental, Alveolar, palatal, valar, and Glottal. And in manner of articulation, there are seven the action of the vocal
apparatus as a sound is being produced, they are stops, affricatives,fricatives, liquids, nasal, Glides, and Sibilants. In English, there are 24 parts consonant sounds, there are [p], [b], [t],[d], [k], [g], [f], [v], [ch], [j], [sh], [zh], [s], [z], [l], [r], [m], [n], [ŋ], [θ], [ð], [h],[w], [y]. all of this consonant sounds have difference each other, but there aresome consonants have similarity when we pronounced them. For example,[v] and [f], [ch] and [j], [sh] and [zh], [s] and [z], [l] and [r], [θ],and [ð].Sometimes we are difficult to distinguish those similarity consonant sounds.In particular, consonant sound θ and ð or dental fricatives. The writer interested to take dental fricative sound [ θ ] and sound [ð] as a title in this small project, because many people do error in pronouncingdental fricative sounds. So, The writer takes the intermediate 2 students inIEC ( International English Course ) Parepare, because the writer realizes theintermediate 2 students still can not pronounce dental fricatives well. In thiscase, the students that can not pronounce it, if they pronouncing words orsentence or read a text will occur misunderstanding between the speakerand listener. Based on problem above, there are two problem statements whichwill the writer explain, they are : 1. How does the second semester student produce dental fricative sounds ? 2. What error do the intermediate 2 students make dental fricative sounds ?
C. REVIEW LITERATUR DEFINITION OF FRICATIVE A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as /t/, /d/, /n/, and /l/. Dentals are primarily distinguished from sounds in which contact is made with the tongue and the gum ridge. Point of articulation of dental is The upper teeth and the tip of the tongue. Dental sound are made by placing the tongue tip between the teeth. Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. Fricatives are consonant with the characteristic that when they are produced, air escapes through a small passage and makes a hissing sound. The manner of articulation fricatives, in producing fricatives sound, one of the articlution is brought close to one of the points of articulation, creating a narrow opening. When the air stream is forced through this opening, a turbulence or frinction is created. Fricatives are therefore noisy sounds. They occur at four points articulation : dental θ and ð, labio-dental f dan v, alveolar s dan z, and alveo-palatal ∫ and ʒ . Notice that in one sense fricatives pattern with the stops : they both occur in voiced and voiceless pairs. CATEGORIES OF FRICATIVES Fricatives consists of some parts, they are: 1. Alveolar fricative There is a pair of fricatives produced with the blade of the tongue close to the alveolar ridge. These alveolar fricatives are /s/ as voiceless and /z/ as voiced. This pair has one other characteristic distinguishing them; they are produced with the tongue slightly grooved. Notice that in pronouncing /θ/, the blade of the tongue is quite flat, but in pronouncing /s/, the sides of blade are curled up slightly, forming a groove in the center. Failure to form the groove is responsible for certain types of lips. In the front teeth are missing, the are will not have to pass by some route, and a lass sibilant
fricative sound is produced: an attempt to articulate /s/ produces a /θ/- like sound, which identified as a lips.2. Bilabial fricative Where the friction occurs between the two lips, have symbols taken from the Greek alphabet: for the voiceless bilabial fricative the symbol is ϕ or (f). And the voiced bilabial fricative is β or (v). These sounds do not regularly occur in English, except in certain context as variant sounds for labio-dental fricative. This means that the small passage through which the air must pass is formed with the teeth and the lip. The upper teeth and lower lip are used in English.3. Dental fricative In English, there are two fricative sounds produced with the tongue and the teeth. In some dialect regions, the tongue is placed behind the front teeth. For some speakers the tongue tip actually protrudes between top and bottom teeth, and these sounds are sometimes called interdental fricatives. In either case, the sounds produced is the same. This is the sound we spell th (θ). We do not distinguish in spelling between the voiced and voiceless cognates, but they are pronounced differently. The voiceless variant occurs in the words “thin”, “thought”, and “both”. The voiced variant occurs in the word “the”, “this”, and “there”. It is transcribed with a symbol ð.4. Glottal fricative The sound /h/, as in “house”, is usually classified as a fricative. It is different from the other fricatives in that the vocal tract is wide open, so there is little fiction. Also /h/ is voiceless, and there is no voiced cognate for it. For these reasons, /h/ is classified as a glottal fricative.5. Alveopalatal fricative The alveopalatal fricatives are articulated by bringing the blade of tongue close to part of the roof of the mouth where the alveolar ridge and the hard palate join. These are sometimes called palatoalveolar, or not very accurately, palatal fricative. Unlike alveolar fricatives,
there is no grooving of the tongue; is more or less flat at the point of restriction. For this reason, they are called slit fricatives. The voiceless alveopalatal fricative is usually spelled sh in English is it the sound in the word “shore, bush, sugar nad position” there are two symbols used to transcribe this sound: /š/,/ʃ/. Either symbol can be used, but it is important to be consistent in using one or the other. The wedge over the s is called hachek; it is borrowed from the Czech alphabet. The voiced alveopalatal fricative is less common in English, it is the sound that occurs in the words “measure”, “version”, and “leisure”. It is transcribed either of two ways: /Ʒ/, and /ž/. DENTAL FRICATIVE Dental fricative is the friction occurs between the tongue tip and the back of the front teeth. The dental fricatives have sometimes been described as if the tongue was actually placed between the teeth, and it is common for teachers to make their students do this when they are trying to teach them to make this sound. In fact, however, the tongue is placed inside the teeth, with the tip touching the inside of the lower front teeth and the blade touching the inside of the upper teeth. The air escapes through the gaps between the tongue and the teeth. As with f and v, the fricative noise is weak. Dental fricatives consists of two categories, they are: a. Voiceless dental fricative The voiceless dental fricative is a type of consonantal sound, is used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is θ. The dental fricatives are often called interdental because they are often produced with the tongue between the upper and lower teeth, and not just against the back of the teeth, as they are with other dental consonants.
The voiceless dental fricative is the sound denoted bythe letters “θ” in words “think” and “bath”. It is different fromthe “ð” in words “this” and “the”, which is the voiced dentalfricative. The articulation of voiced dental fricative is The vocalcords do not vibrate, and the velum is raised. The tip of thetongue is raised very close to the upper front teeth. The sidesof the tongue touch the upper side teeth. Friction is producedas the air passes through the narrowing at the tongue-tip. Voiceless dental fricative (θ) Features of this consonant: Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence. Its place of articulation is dental which means it is articulated with the tongue on either the lower or the upper teeth, or both. Its phonation type is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth.
It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by allowing the airstream to flow over the middle of the tongue, rather than the sides. The airstream mechanism is pulmonic egressive, which means it is articulated by pushing air out of the lungs and through the vocal tract, rather than from the glottis or the mouth.b. Voiced dental fricative The voiced dental fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ð, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is D. The voiced dental fricative occurs in English, and it is the sound denoted by the letters "th" in this and the. It is different from the "th" sound in thing and bath, which is the voiceless dental fricative. The dental fricatives are often called "interdental" because they are often produced with the tongue between the upper and lower teeth, and not just against the back of the teeth, as they are with other dental consonants. Features of this consonant: Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence. Its place of articulation is dental which means it is articulated with the tongue on either the lower or the upper teeth, or both. Its phonation type is voiced, which means the vocal cords are vibrating during the articulation.
It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth. It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by allowing the airstream to flow over the middle of the tongue, rather than the sides. The airstream mechanism is pulmonic aggressive, which means it is articulated by pushing air out of the lungs and through the vocal tract, rather than from the glottis or the mouth.The pronunciation of (θ) is almost the same with (ð). But thecontact between the tongue tip and the teeth should be looseenough to permit the voiced breath stream to pass out of themouth between the tongue and the teeth. (ð) is similar to (θ),except that. (ð) is voiced and (ð) is pronounced with much lassof frinctionlike quality heard in (θ). Thus, the main differencebetween these sounds is that (θ) is voiceless in which the vocalcords are wide apart so that air passes freely between them,there is no vibration. While, (ð) is voiced in which the vocalcords are drawn together, the air from the lungs repeatedlypushes them apart as it passes through, creating a vibrationeffect.Both (ð) and (θ) appear initially as in thick and this, mediallyas in nothing and brother, and finally as in month and bathe
D. PROCEDURE OF COLLECTING DATA 1. Respondent The respondents of this research is the intermediate 2 students of IEC ( International English Course ) in Parepare, there are four respondents here, they are : Miss LI as the first respondent Miss AS as the second respondent Miss IND as the third respondent Mr. HRS as the fourth respondent 2. Instruments The writer divides dental fricative into three position, they are: Initial position 1. Thank [ θæŋk ] 6. That [ ðæt ] 2. Thing [ θIŋ ] 7. They [ ðeι ] 3. Thirsty [ θ3:.sti ] 8. Them [ðəm ] 4. Three [ θrι ] 9. Then [ðen] 5. Think [ θIŋk ] 10. Their [ðəer] Medial position 1. Truthful [ ‘tru:θ.fəl ] 6. Lather [ ‘lα:.ðə(r ] 2. Wealthy [ ‘wel.θi ] 7. Together [ tə’geð.ə(r ] 3. Nothing [ ‘nΛθ.Iŋ ] 8. Mother [ ‘mΛðə(r ] 4. Something [ ‘sam.θIŋ ] 9. Clothes [ kləυðz ] 5. Birthday [ ‘b3:θ.dei ] 10. Brother [ ‘brΛð(r ] Final position 1. Health [ helθ ] 6. Bathe [ beιð ] 2. Month [ mΛntθ ] 7. Mouth [maυð ] 3. Both [ bəυθ ] 8. Breathe [ bri:ð ] 4. Path [pα:θ ] 9. Loathe [ ləυθ ] 5. Sixth [ siksθ ] 10. Writhe [ raið ] Below, is the sentence form of those words: 1. I both need something for my throats.
2. Month of december.3. With their natural resources they are potentially a very wealthy country.4. Mother seethed when he saw these leather pants.5. Adrian goes there with his brother6. What’s that thing over there ?7. The instructor told us to breathe in deeply and then breathe out slowly.8. you need something to keep your health from a bad weather.9. They followed the path until they came to a gate.10. My father buys three clothes in the Senggol Market.11. The thick man takes a bathe his child.12. Both of them are brother.13. My brother will celebrate his birthday on sixth of month of april.14. The problem with both of these proposals is that they are hopelessly impractical.15. It would seem to be a general truth that nothing is as straightforward as it at first seems.16. I’ll just gather my things together and then we can go.17. They have got three kids and the husband’s juat lost his job – the last thing they need is another mouth to feed.18. From an early age the brothers have loathed each other.19. This is the standard model, then there’s the deluxe version which costs more.20. The pain was so unbearable that he was writhing in agony.