Curriculum and instruction


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Curriculum and instruction

  1. 1.  The whole body of courses offeredby an educational institution or one ofits branches. Any particular body of courses setfor various majors. All planned school activitiesincluding courses of study, organizedplay, athletics, dramatics, clubs,and home-room program.
  2. 2. “A course ofstudy offered by a school”
  3. 3.  1.Franklin Bobbit (1876-1956)- presented curriculum as a science that emphasizes on students need. 2. Werret Charters (1875-1952) -considered curriculum also as a science which is based on students need, and the teachers plan the activities.
  4. 4.  3. William Kilpatrick (1871-1965) - viewed curriculum as purposeful activities which are child-centered. 4. Harold Rugg (1886-1960) - emphasized social studies in the curriculum and the teacher plans the lesson in advance. 5. Hollis Caswell (1901-1989)- sees curriculum as organized around social functions of themes, organized knowledge and earners interests.
  5. 5.  A detailed plan The approach in providing learning is achieved by laying down a detailed plan of how the different components will achieve the specified goals.
  6. 6.  Curriculum design is an aspect of the education profession which focuses on developing curricula for students. The practice of organizing curriculum— activities, environments, goals, knowledge, student and teacher interests, social conditions, technologies, and values.
  7. 7.  Curriculum designs lend form to, and chart provisions for, the processes of learning and teaching and become concrete and operational at various stages of educational practice. Curriculum designs provide varied qualities and powers of experience and knowledge.
  8. 8. CURRICULUM Macro Curriculum Micro Curriculum generic specific-Has a broad scope.-It can be termed generic because it -is for a particular school. is common to all schools in the -Micro Curriculum is like the specific or country. branded versions of the generic-Macro curriculum is the general medicine . course of studies mandated for - Micro curriculum refers to what all the Philippine schools. It is learning expectations schools made up of subject areas include in the prescribed subject required of students to complete areas. and earn credentials corresponding to a school level, for instance, basic education.
  9. 9.  SEDP Secondary Education CurriculumObjectives: To strengthen the Ministry of Sciences and Technology Education and Culture. To develop the quality and coverage of basic non-formal education and secondary education Fortify Science and Technology.Characteristics: “work-oriented” More practical arts and vocational course were offered to students.
  10. 10.  The Features of 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum The 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum has the following strengths/ advantages: It focuses on essential understandings. It sets high expectations (standards-based) expressed in terms of what students should know and the quality of the skills that they are expected to demonstrate as evidence of learning. It is rich and challenging as it provides a personalized approach to developing the students’ multiple intelligences. It develops readiness and passion for work and lifelong learning.
  11. 11.  NSEC The New Secondary Education Curriculum Started in S.Y. 1988-1989Objectives: Aims to upgrade secondary education which has been considered as the weakest link in the school system. It strengthen the students’ preparation for work or tertiary education.Characteristics: Cognitive-Affective-Manipulative based consisting of 8 subject areas such as English, Filipino, Social Studies, PEHM, Values Educ., Mathematics, and Science programmed in 40 minutes daily schedule.
  12. 12.  BEC Basic Education CurriculumObjectives: Aims to produce more functionally literate students by empowering them with the life skills. Promote ideal teachers hat will perform collaborative teaching and transcending knowledge in a non-authoritative way of instructing.Characteristics: It has reduced the number of subjects from an average of 8-5 focusing ENGLISH, SCIENCE, MATH, ENGLISH, and MAKABAYAN subjects that intend to develop a personal and national identify through adequate knowledge of Philippine History. (Sec. 3 Article XIV) MAKABAYAN instructs complete learning students. Will prepare the students for global competitiveness.
  13. 13.  RBEC Revised Basic Education Curriculum Year 2004 when this BEC curriculum later RBEC was presented to teachers. We were instructed to implement RBEC with Makabayan subjects and other tool subjects. We were provided with lesson guides and other materials for the implementation. When Roco left DepED and other officials take the seat, the DepEd improves the curriculum. We were instructed to follow teaching methods suited for the curriculum The RBEC has been drawn from various studies, particularly that of the Committee on Information Technology, Science and Mathematics, Education and Technologies. This committee is under the Presidential Commission on Education Reforms. Called the laboratory of life, Makabayan will be the practice environment for the tool subjects. It is designed to help the students develop better interpersonal skills, empathy will cultures, vocational efficiency and problem-solving and decision-making skills.
  14. 14. WHATIS K-12?
  15. 15. Briefer on the Enhanced K to 12 Basic EducationProgramWhat is K to 12?K to 12 means Kindergarten and the 12 yearsof elementary and secondary education.Kindergarten refers to the 5-year old cohort that takesa standardized kinder curriculum.Elementary education refers to primary schooling thatinvolves six or seven years of educationSecondary education refers to high school.
  16. 16. Features of K 6-4-2(1) Kindergarten and 12 years of quality basic education is a right ofevery Filipino, therefore they must be and will be provided bygovernment and will be free.(2) Those who go through the 12 years cycle will get an elementarydiploma (6 years), a junior high school diploma (4 years), and a seniorhigh school diploma (2 years). eventually be required for entry intotertiary level education (entering freshmen by SY 2018-2019 or sevenyears from now).(3) A full 12 years of basic education will eventually be required for entry intotertiary level education (entering freshmen by SY 2018-2019 or seven years from now).
  17. 17. An open and consultative process will be adopted in thedevelopment and implementation of K to 12.Change is two-fold: (a) curriculum enhancement and (b) transitionmanagement.What is Senior High School?2 years of in-depth specialization for students depending on theoccupation/career track they wish to pursueSkills and competencies relevant to the job marketThe 2 years of senior HS intend to provide time for students toconsolidate acquired academic skills and competencies.The curriculum will allow specializations in Science andTechnology, Music and Arts, Agriculture and Fisheries, Sports,Business and Entrepreneurship.
  18. 18.  The 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum still patterned the content of the curriculum to the 2002 Restructured Basic Education Curriculum. It still includes the five major learning areas: 1.English 2.Filipino 3.Science 4.Mathematics 5.Makabayan a.Araling Panlipunan b.Technology and Livelihood Education c.Music, Arts, Physical Education and Health d.Edukasyon sa Pagpapahalaga The Values Education (VE) is integrated throughout the different learning areas.
  19. 19. CurriculumBasic Education CurriculumPhilippine Elementary Learning Competencies (PELC)  The PELC is a listing of expected outcomes in all academic subjects in elementary education. English Edukasyong Pagpapakatao Edukasyon sa Pagpapalakas ng Katawan Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan Filipino Mathematics Musika Science and health Sining biswal Sibika at kultura
  20. 20.  The act of giving knowledge Emphasis is on breaking down the instruction according to the different learning domains (CAP) and activities that will promote learning .
  21. 21. ”Phase of curricular process that is concerned with theorganization of the learners, the learning environment, and theexperiences of learning in orderto optimize learning outcomes.”
  22. 22.  A detailed plan The approach in providing learning is achieved by laying down a detailed plan of how the different components will achieve the specified goals.
  23. 23.  Called ISD or Instructional System Design The Philosophy, methodology, and approach used to deliver information. The practice of creating instructional experiences which make the acquisition of knowledge and skill more efficient effective, and appealing.
  24. 24.  Is the intentional facilitation of learning toward identified learning goals. Instructional Design is the systematic development of instructional specifications using learning and instructional theory to ensure the quality of instruction. It is the entire process of analysis of learning needs and goals and the development of a delivery system to meet those needs. It includes development of instructional materials and activities; and tryout and evaluation of all instruction and learner activities.
  25. 25.  Instructional Design is the systematic development of instructional specifications using learning and instructional theory to ensure the quality of instruction. It is the entire process of analysis of learning needs and goals and the development of a delivery system to meet those needs. It includes development of instructional materials and activities; and tryout and evaluation of all instruction and learner activities.
  26. 26. oCognitivismoBehaviorismoConstructivism
  27. 27.  Robert Gagné classified the types of learning outcomes. To identify the types of learning, Gagné asked how learning might be demonstrated. These can be related to the domains of learning, as follows: Cognitive DomainVerbal information - is statedIntellectual skills - label or classify the conceptsIntellectual skills - to apply the rules and principlesIntellectual skills - problem solving allows generating solutions or proceduresCognitive strategies - are used for learning Affective DomainAttitudes - are demonstrated by preferring options Psychomotor Domainskills - enable physical performance
  28. 28.  According to Gagné, learning occurs in a series of learning events. Each learning event must be accomplished before the next in order for learning to take place. Similarly, instructional events should mirror the learning events: Gaining attention: To ensure reception of coming instruction, the teacher gives the learners a stimulus. Before the learners can start to process any new information, the instructor must gain the attention of the learners. This might entail using abrupt changes in the instruction. Informing learners of objectives: The teacher tells the learner what they will be able to do because of the instruction. The teacher communicates the desired outcome to the group. Stimulating recall of prior learning: The teacher asks for recall of existing relevant knowledge. Presenting the stimulus: The teacher gives emphasis to distinctive features.
  29. 29.  Presenting the stimulus: The teacher gives emphasis to distinctive features. Providing learning guidance: The teacher helps the students in understanding (semantic encoding) by providing organization and relevance. Eliciting performance: The teacher asks the learners to respond, demonstrating learning. Providing feedback: The teacher gives informative feedback on the learners performance. Assessing performance: The teacher requires more learner performance, and gives feedback, to reinforce learning. Enhancing retention and transfer: The teacher provides varied practice to generalize the capability.
  30. 30.  ADDIE process Perhaps the most common model used for creating instructional materials is the ADDIE Model. This acronym stands for the 5 phases contained in the model (Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate).
  31. 31.  Analyze – The first phase of content development begins with Analysis. Analysis refers to the gathering of information about one’s audience, the tasks to be completed, and the project’s overall goals. The instructional designer then classifies the information to make the content more applicable and successful. Design – The second phase is the Design phase. In this phase, instructional designers begin to create their project. Information gathered from the analysis phase, in conjunction with the theories and models of instructional design, is meant to explain how the learning will be acquired. For example, the design phase begins with writing a learning objective. Tasks are then identified and broken down to be more manageable for the designer. The final step determines the kind of activities required for the audience in order to meet the goals identified in the Analyze phase.
  32. 32.  Develop – The third phase, Development, relates to the creation of the activities being implemented. This stage is where the blueprints in the design phase are assembled. Implement – After the content is developed, it is then Implemented. This stage allows the instructional designer to test all materials to identify if they are functional and appropriate for the intended audience. Evaluate – The final phase, Evaluate, ensures the materials achieved the desired goals. The evaluation phase consists of two parts: formative and summative assessment. The ADDIE model is an iterative process of instructional design, meaning at each stage, the designer can assess the projects elements and revised them if necessary. This process incorporates formative assessment, while thesummative assessments contain tests or evaluations created for the content being implemented. This final phase is vital for the instructional design team because it provides data used to alter and enhance the design.
  33. 33. 2 teach + 2 learn____________ 4 ever
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