Planning and Writing
an Argumentative Essay
Elena González Rivera, Ed. D.
March 7, 2014
Objectives
• Discuss assessment criteria used to evaluate a
critique or argument essay
• Refresh the 4 basic principles of...
Reference
• Kaplan. (2011). 7th Ed. New Kaplan GRE
Verbal Workbook. New York: Kaplan
Publishing. pps. 329-352.
GRE Scoring Guide: Analyze an Argument
A score of 6
A 6 paper presents a cogent, well-articulated
critique of the argument...
GRE Scoring Guide: Analyze an Argument
Score 4
A 4 paper presents a competent critique
of the argument and conveys
meaning...
Four Basic Principles of GRE Writing
• Demonstrate control of language
• Value simplicity
• Not worried about making minor...
Demonstrate Control of Language
• Superior language control
– Grammar – rules of English
– Concise not wordy
– Direct
– Pe...
What You Need to Do
• Discuss how sound the argument is by
examining “the line of reasoning”
• Pay attention to
a. Conclus...
Do’s and Don’ts
Not being asked to do
• Do not discuss if the
arguments are true or
accurate
• Do not agree or disagree
wi...
HOW
• Apply Kaplan’s 5 Step Method to an Argument
Essay
1. Take the argument apart (2 minutes)
2. Select the points you wi...
5-Step Method for GRE Writing
• Step 1. Take the issue/argument apart (2 minutes)
– Deconstruct* an argument
• First, iden...
Step 1: Take it Apart
• Prompt: Taken from Kaplan verbal workbook 2011 ed.
“This year, in view of our pledge to be more en...
Step 1: Take it Apart
• Prompt: Taken from Kaplan verbal workbook 2011 ed.
“This year, in view of our pledge to be more en...
Step 2: Select the Points You Will Make
Analyze the use of evidence in the argument.
(Look for things that have not been d...
Step 2: Select the Points You Will Make
Analyze the use of evidence in the argument.
(Look for things not discussed.)
• Wh...
Step 2: Select the Points You Will Make
• Analyze the use of evidence in the argument
(to make the argument stronger)
• 1....
Step 2: Select the Points You Will Make
Analyze the use of evidence in the argument
(Determine what types of evidence woul...
Step 3: Organize Your Essay (2 min.)
Use Kaplan’s Argumentative essay template
• Paragraph 1: paraphrase the argument (The...
Outline of Your Essay
Use Kaplan’s Argumentative essay template
• Paragraph 1:The memorandum from the city council exempli...
Step 4: Type your Essay
• (20 minutes)
Step 5: Proofread Your Essay (2 min.)
• Take a few minutes to re-read your essay and
eliminate obvious errors.
– A few min...
Criterion
• Go to Criterion through Google
• Log in Criterion as a student
Access Username is the first art of your email
...
Prompt
• Discuss how well reasoned you find this argument.
• The following is taken from a memo from the advertising direc...
Presentation argumentative essay
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Presentation argumentative essay

321 views

Published on

Published in: Career, Technology, Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
321
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
5
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Presentation argumentative essay

  1. 1. Planning and Writing an Argumentative Essay Elena González Rivera, Ed. D. March 7, 2014
  2. 2. Objectives • Discuss assessment criteria used to evaluate a critique or argument essay • Refresh the 4 basic principles of GRE writing • Apply Kaplan’s 5-Step Method for GRE Writing • Complete a 30 minute argumentative essay
  3. 3. Reference • Kaplan. (2011). 7th Ed. New Kaplan GRE Verbal Workbook. New York: Kaplan Publishing. pps. 329-352.
  4. 4. GRE Scoring Guide: Analyze an Argument A score of 6 A 6 paper presents a cogent, well-articulated critique of the argument and conveys meaning skillfully. A typical paper in this category • clearly identifies important features of the argument and analyzes them insightfully • develops ideas cogently, organizes them logically, and connects them with clear transitions • Effectively supports the main points of the critique • Demonstrates control of language, including appropriate word choice and sentence variety • Demonstrates facility with the conventions (i.e., grammar, usage, and mechanics) of standard written English but may have minor errors A score of 5 A 5 paper presents a generally thoughtful, well- developed critique of the argument and conveys meaning clearly. A typical paper in this category • Clearly identifies important features of an argument and analyzes them in a generally perceptive way • Develops ideas clearly, organizes them logically, and connects them with appropriate transitions • Sensibly supports the main points of the critique • Demonstrates control of language, including appropriate word choice and sentence variety • Demonstrates facility with the conventions of standard written English but may have minor errors
  5. 5. GRE Scoring Guide: Analyze an Argument Score 4 A 4 paper presents a competent critique of the argument and conveys meaning adequately. A typical paper in this category • Identifies and analyses important features of an argument • Develops and organizes ideas satisfactorily but may not connect them with transitions • Demonstrates sufficient control of language to express ideas with reasonable clarity • Generally demonstrates control of the conventions of written English but may have some errors Score of 3 A 3 paper demonstrates some competence in its critique of the argument and in conveying meaning but is obviously flawed. A typical paper in this category exhibits ONE OR MORE of the following characteristics: • Does not identify or analyze most of the important features of the argument, although some analysis of the argument is present • Mainly analyzes tangential or irrelevant matters, or reasons poorly • Is limited in the logical development and organization of ideas • Offers support of little relevance and value for points of the critique • Lacks clarity in expressing ideas • Contains occasional major errors or frequent minor errors in grammar, usage, or mechanics that can interfere with meaning
  6. 6. Four Basic Principles of GRE Writing • Demonstrate control of language • Value simplicity • Not worried about making minor mistakes • Remain focused on your goal
  7. 7. Demonstrate Control of Language • Superior language control – Grammar – rules of English – Concise not wordy – Direct – Persuasive – Varied and correct use of syntax – sentence structure – Careful with word choice -diction
  8. 8. What You Need to Do • Discuss how sound the argument is by examining “the line of reasoning” • Pay attention to a. Conclusions b. Evidence c. Assumptions d. The structure of the argument (transitional words help you see the structure of the argument)
  9. 9. Do’s and Don’ts Not being asked to do • Do not discuss if the arguments are true or accurate • Do not agree or disagree with the position • Do not express your own views on the topic Being asked to do • Tell us if conclusions and inferences are validly drawn • Comment on the thinking that underlies the position (the assumptions) • Evaluate the logical soundness of the argument
  10. 10. HOW • Apply Kaplan’s 5 Step Method to an Argument Essay 1. Take the argument apart (2 minutes) 2. Select the points you will make (4 minutes) 3. Organize your essay using Kaplan’s templates (2 minutes) 1. Write your essay (20 minutes) 2. Proofread your essay (2 minutes)
  11. 11. 5-Step Method for GRE Writing • Step 1. Take the issue/argument apart (2 minutes) – Deconstruct* an argument • First, identify the conclusion • Next, point out supporting evidence • Finally, infer the underlying **assumptions – Make note of ambiguous or undefined terms * “In philosophy and literary criticism, to deconstruct an idea or text means to show the contradictions in its meaning, and to show how it does not fully explain what it claims to explain” (Collins Cobuild English Dictionary for Advanced Learners, 2003). ** Assumptions are implicit or unmentioned bit of evidence, and they are unspoken and underlying conditions or beliefs necessary for the supporting evidence to validly lead to the conclusion.
  12. 12. Step 1: Take it Apart • Prompt: Taken from Kaplan verbal workbook 2011 ed. “This year, in view of our pledge to be more environmentally conscious, we will be requiring all homeowners within the city limits to recycle their glass, plastic, and paper waste. According to a recent study by Edwintown University, the volume of litter in Edwintown and its surrounding environs has increased by 20 percent over the past 15 years. The only way to combat this blight* is for our citizens to actively make an effort to recycle their trash. By enforcing recycling laws for all houses within the city limits, we will improve the aesthetics and public health conditions of our area.” (blight= something that impairs or destroys.) Conclusion: (“The point the author is trying to make”) ___________________________________________________________________________________ Evidence: (“Premises or facts offered to support the conclusion”) ___________________________________________________________________________________ Assumptions: (“Unspoken condition or beliefs necessary for the conclusion to make sense in light of the evidence.”) ___________________________________________________________________________________
  13. 13. Step 1: Take it Apart • Prompt: Taken from Kaplan verbal workbook 2011 ed. “This year, in view of our pledge to be more environmentally conscious, we will be requiring all homeowners within the city limits to recycle their glass, plastic, and paper waste. According to a recent study by Edwintown University, the volume of litter in Edwintown and its surrounding environmentss has increased by 20 percent over the past 15 years. The only way to combat this blight* is for our citizens to actively make an effort to recycle their trash. By enforcing recycling laws for all houses within the city limits, we will improve the aesthetics and public health conditions of our area.” (blight= something that impairs or destroys.) Conclusion: (“The point the author is trying to make”) The only way to combat the increase in litter is for citizens to actively make the effort to recycle their trash, therefore, enforcing recycling laws will improve town conditions. Evidence: (“Premises or facts offered to support the conclusion”) According to a study by Edwinton University, the volume of litter in Edwinton and its surrounding environment has increased by 20 percent over the past 15 years. Assumptions: (“Unspoken condition or beliefs necessary for the conclusion to make sense in light of the evidence.”) 1. A city-wide required program for glass, paper, and plastic recycling will help citizens become more aware of the environment. 2. The recycling program will improve upon ”the aesthetic and public health conditions” in the area. 3. The households not commerce is responsible for the increase in litter.
  14. 14. Step 2: Select the Points You Will Make Analyze the use of evidence in the argument. (Look for things that have not been discussed.) 1. 2. 3. 4.
  15. 15. Step 2: Select the Points You Will Make Analyze the use of evidence in the argument. (Look for things not discussed.) • Whether or not there had been any environmental regulations in the past • If the study showed habits that contributed to an increase in the litter volume • If residents had recycled in the past • Whether or not the type of trash produced could be recycled • Whether or not the trash has been disposed of in a way that is a risk to public health or esthetically unpleasing • Whether or not limiting the recycling program to homeowners would have a large enough impact – Why not include businesses, non-profit organizations, and government agencies.
  16. 16. Step 2: Select the Points You Will Make • Analyze the use of evidence in the argument (to make the argument stronger) • 1. • 2. • 3.
  17. 17. Step 2: Select the Points You Will Make Analyze the use of evidence in the argument (Determine what types of evidence would make the argument stronger) • Evidence indicating that the government will compensate the efforts of citizens to recycle. • Evidence of government support to citizens so that they will be able to comply with the new regulation. • Evidence of the effectiveness of the program guidelines – ex. They have been already implemented somewhere else.
  18. 18. Step 3: Organize Your Essay (2 min.) Use Kaplan’s Argumentative essay template • Paragraph 1: paraphrase the argument (The author’s conclusion and evidence). Summarize the goal of your essay, according to specific instructions. • Paragraph 2: State and evaluate the most important assumption the author makes, question to be answered, or possible alternative explanation (depending on the specific instructions). • Paragraph 3: State and evaluate another assumption the author makes, question to be answered, or possible alternative explanation (depending on the specific instructions). • Additional paragraphs as time permits: State a piece of evidence not included that would make the argument stronger. • Last paragraph: Conclude by summarizing your main points. Directly answer the task given in the specific instructions.
  19. 19. Outline of Your Essay Use Kaplan’s Argumentative essay template • Paragraph 1:The memorandum from the city council exemplifies a positive strategy for impacting the local government, but without more concrete evidence, the results predicted by the city council are speculative at best. The city council argues that recycling regulations for households will help improve the overall environment of the surrounding area. • Paragraph 2: The Edwinton University study needs to release additional details and findings. • Paragraph 3: The city council needs to describe more recycling strategies • Paragraph 4: What incentives will community members have for following the recycling program? • Last paragraph: For community support, the city council needs to release more evidence and strategies for its environmental improvement plan.
  20. 20. Step 4: Type your Essay • (20 minutes)
  21. 21. Step 5: Proofread Your Essay (2 min.) • Take a few minutes to re-read your essay and eliminate obvious errors. – A few minor grammatical errors are no problem. – A few severe grammatical errors that change the significance of the essay can affect your score. – Many grammatical errors will affect your score.
  22. 22. Criterion • Go to Criterion through Google • Log in Criterion as a student Access Username is the first art of your email Access Password is the first part of your email • Complete the essay entitled “Silver Screen Movies”. GOOD LUCK!
  23. 23. Prompt • Discuss how well reasoned you find this argument. • The following is taken from a memo from the advertising director of the Silver Screen Movie Production Company. • "According to a recent report from our marketing department, fewer people attended movies produced by Silver Screen during the past year than in any other year. And yet the percentage of generally favorable comments by movie reviewers about specific Silver Screen movies actually increased during this period. Clearly, the contents of these reviews are not reaching enough of our prospective viewers; so the problem lies not with the quality of our movies but with the public's lack of awareness that movies of good quality are available. Silver Screen should therefore spend more of its budget next year on reaching the public through advertising and less on producing new movies."

×