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Colchicine Systematic (IUPAC) name N-[(7S)-1,2,3,10-tetramethoxy-9-oxo-5,6,7,9- tetrahydrobenzo[a]heptalen-7-yl]acetamideCAS number 64-86-8 A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (periodic disease)
IdentifiersCAS number 64-86-8ATC code M04AC01PubChem CID 6167IUPHAR ligand 2367DrugBank DB01394ChemSpider 5933UNII SML2Y3J35TKEGG D00570ChEBI CHEBI:27882ChEMBL CHEMBL107 Chemical dataFormula C22H25NO6Mol. mass 399.437SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Oral colchicine has been used for many years as an unapproved drug with noprescribing information, dosage recommendations, or drug interaction warningsapproved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). On July 30, 2009 theFDA approved colchicine as a monotherapy for the treatment of three differentindications: familial Mediterranean fever, acute gout flares, and for the prophylaxisof gout flares, and gave URL Pharma a three-year marketing exclusivityagreement in exchange for URL Pharma doing 17 new studies and investing $100million into the product, of which $45 million went to the FDA for the applicationfee. URL Pharma raised the price from $0.09 per tablet to $4.85, and the FDAremoved the older unapproved colchicine from the market in October 2010 both inoral and IV form, but gave pharmacies the opportunity to buy up the olderunapproved colchicine. Colchicine in combination with probenecid has been FDAapproved prior to 1982.
References^ a b "Colchicine for acute gout: updated information about dosingand drug interactions". National Prescribing Service. 14 May 2010.Retrieved 14 May 2010.^ a b "FDA Approves Colchicine With Drug Interaction and DoseWarnings". July 2009.^ a b  FDA Orange Book; search for colchicine^ Questions and Answers for Patients and Healthcare ProvidersRegarding Single-ingredient Oral Colchicine Products
Several experiments have shown that the biosynthesis of colchicine involves the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine as precursors. Indeed, the feeding of Colchicum autumnale with radioactive amino acid, tyrosine-2-C14, caused the latter to be partially incorporated in the ring system of colchicine. The induced absorption of radioactive phenylalanine-2-C14 by Colchicum byzantinum, another plant of the Colchicaceae family, resulted in its efficient absorption by colchicine. However, it was proven that the tropolone ring of colchicine resulted, in essence, from the expansion of the tyrosine ring. Further radioactive feeding experiments of Colchicum autumnale revealed that Colchicine can be synthesized biosynthetically from (S)-Autumnaline. That biosynthesic pathway occurs primarily through a para-para phenolic coupling reaction involving the intermediate isoandrocymbine. The resulting molecule undergoes O- methylation directed by S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM). Two oxidation steps followed by the cleavage of the cyclopropane ring leads to the formation of the tropolone ring contained by N-formyldemecolcine. N- formyldemecolcine hydrolyzes then to generate the molecule demecolcine, which also goes through an oxidative demethylation that generates deacetylcolchicine. The molecule of colchicine appears finally after addition of acetyl-Coenzyme A to deacetylcolchicine.,
Colchicine inhibits microtubule polymerization by binding to tubulin, one of the main constituents of microtubules. Availability of tubulin is essential to mitosis, and therefore colchicine effectively functions as a "mitotic poison" or spindle poison. The mitosis inhibiting function of colchicine has been of great use in the study of cellular genetics. To see the chromosomes of a cell under a light microscope, it is important that they be viewed near the point in the cell cycle in which they are most dense. This occurs near the middle of mitosis, so mitosis must be stopped before it completes. Adding colchicine to a culture during mitosis is part of the standard procedure for doing karyotype studies. Apart from inhibiting mitosis (a process heavily dependent on cytoskeletal changes), colchicine also inhibits neutrophil motility and activity, leading to a net anti-inflammatory effect.
Colchicine (Colchicine) is the lily family dog saffron is included in, which is a nitrogen-containing compound having a skeleton with an unusual structure (tropolone) tropolone. Is a non-heterocyclic compounds that are not included in the nitrogen atom in the ring yet ring of 3, do not show because it is a basic amide addition. The typical alkaloid is not visible, colchicine is pure from the standpoint of biosynthesis genuine alkaloid which is a kind of.In the experiment using the labeled compound administration, C-5, C-6, C-7 can be derived from phenylalanine has been found to part and the A ring of colchicine. As a result, the basic skeleton unique colchicine Figure 4 is biosynthesized through oxidative coupling, dislocation phenethyl isoquinoline can be fused cinnamic acid and (tyramine) or dopamine, as shown in, the ring-expansion reaction has been estimated. (Autamnaline) actually have been isolated from related species of genus Colchicum cornigerum dog saffron Autamunarin phenethyl isoquinoline derivatives that are intermediates in this biosynthetic scheme. Phenethyl iso- quinone in the world of natural alkaloids such as colchicine is extremely rare is the presence as opposed to a relatively wide distribution benzyl isoquinoline alkaloid. Saffron seeds of dogs have been used to treat ventilation from the 17th century in Europe, it was isolated colchicine as the active ingredient of which was that of 1886. Colchicine is used as an anti-drug ventilation Even today, other unique biological activity, that inhibit the formation of spindle fibers in cell division are known. Chromosome division because it does not inhibit the other hand, can be of polyploid cells by colchicine treatment. Has been used to make, such as seedless fruit in the field of agriculture to take advantage of this
This paper presented a very neat use of RCM and quite clever strategyto construct the 7,7-fused core of colchicine.For the first time, the 7,7-fused bicyclic system could be accessedvery quickly in a single step.This main strategy is summarized in the retrosynthetic analysis below. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ ol070708j
The key reactions were formylation of 6 mediated by SnCl4 to give 7andthe synthesis of propargylic alcohol 14 which was achieved in three stepsfrom 5, using the Ohira-Bestman reagent in the last step.Next, sequential RCM reactions were performed on 14 using Grubbssecond generation catalyst (15) after the protection of the OH group withTMS.The reaction proved to be very efficient, providing the desired 16 in 74%yield from 14.
This intermediate 16 was further elaborated as shown in Scheme 4 viaoxidative rearrangement.Compound 18 could be obtained in high yield. However, going along amore well-known route of previous total syntheses of colchicine,intermediate 19 could be obtained in modest yield, along with 20, from 17.This latter route effectively constituted a formal synthesis of colchicine.The final completion of this molecule by a novel sequence is currently underinvestigation
The plant source of colchicine, the autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale), was described for treatment of rheumatism and swelling in the Ebers Papyrus (ca. 1500 B.C.), an Egyptianmedical papyrus. The use of the bulb-like corms of Colchicum for gout probably traces back to ca. 550 A.D., as the "hermodactyl" recommended by Alexander of Tralles. Colchicum extract was first described as a treatment for gout in De Materia Medica by Pedanius Dioscorides in the first century CE. Colchicum corms were used by the Persian physician ibn Sina (Avicenna) and other Islamic physicians, were recommended by Ambroise Pare in the sixteenth century, and appeared in the London Pharmacopoeia of 1618. Colchicum plants were brought to Americaby Benjamin Franklin, who suffered from gout himself and had written humorous doggerel about the disease during his stint as Envoy to France.
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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D firstname.lastname@example.org MOBILE-+91 9323115463GLENMARK SCIENTIST , NAVIMUMBAI, INDIA web link http://anthonycrasto.jimdo.com/ http://www.anthonymelvincrasto.yolasite.com/ http://www.slidestaxx.com/anthony-melvin-crasto-phdhttps://sites.google.com/site/anthonycrastoorganicchemistry/sites- --my-own-on-the-net http://anthonycrasto.wordpress.com/ http://organicchemistrysite.blogspot.com/ http://www.mendeley.com/profiles/anthony-melvin-crasto/ Congratulations! Your presentation titled "Anthony Crasto Glenmark scientist, helping millions with websites" has just crossed MILLION views.
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