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EXTRASHADE, LLC. produces daily defense maximum broad spectrum sun protection for optimal skin health and total wellness. Our sunscreen combines advanced formulations infused with vitamins, botanical …

EXTRASHADE, LLC. produces daily defense maximum broad spectrum sun protection for optimal skin health and total wellness. Our sunscreen combines advanced formulations infused with vitamins, botanical extracts, essential antioxidants and high-grade protective ingredients to restore and strengthen your skin.

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  • 1. TABLE OF CONTENTSI. The Right Sunscreen for Rich Complexions ............................................................ 3 A. All-year Round Sun Safety Tips ........................................................................ 3 B. Understanding SPF ............................................................................................ 4 C. Using the Right Sunscreen Effectively .............................................................. 4II. Mystifying Cases of Melanoma and Skin Cancer .................................................... 6 A. Rich Complexions Sun Problem 1: Photo Aging and Photo Damage ....................... 7 B. Rich Complexions Sun Problem 2: Melanin and How It Affects Scars .................... 8 C. Rich Complexions Sun Problem 3: A Great Lifestyle Inevitably Revolves Around the Sun ........................................................................................................................ 8III. EXTRASHADE: Superior Broad Spectrum Sunscreen with Unique Technology . 11 The Promise of Sun Protection for Rich Complexions ................................................ 11 The Sunscreen that Provides More than Just Sun Protection ...................................... 12 Full Protection Full Nourishment ............................................................................... 14 Discover the Calming Effect of Pomegranate............................................................. 15IV. The Harmful Effects of Sustained Exposure to UV Radiation ............................... 16 A. Understanding your skin .................................................................................. 16 B. Premature Aging of the Skin ........................................................................... 17 C. The Prevalence of Melanoma, Its Risk Factors and Ramifications ................... 18 D. Non-Melanoma Skin Cancers .......................................................................... 18 E. How to Protect Your Skin and Help Reverse Signs of Damage ........................ 20V. What is Known Today About the Risks of Ultraviolet Radiation? ......................... 22 A. UV Rays and How They Harm Humans .......................................................... 22 B. Getting Bombarded with UVR Even on a Rainy Day ...................................... 22 C. Is ozone thinning still a threat? The Latest Authoritative Word on the Ozone Layer.. ....................................................................................................................... 23 References ................................................................................................................. 24 2 © 2010
  • 2. I. The Right Sunscreen for Rich Complexions Healthy Sun protection begins with the right knowledge. The first step is to learn the most relevant and helpful eye-openers about Sun Care for Rich Complexions. A. All-year Round Sun Safety Tips Safety Tip # 1: The sun is up 365 days a year, summer and winter, on clear andcloudy days both. Every minute of exposure adds to your total lifetime dose of UVradiation. This is what counts toward your potential skin cancer quotient. Safety Tip # 2: Safety Tip # 2: If much of your workday is spent outdoors, layon the sunscreen every day. You need to shield yourself from UVR even if you are beingchauffeur driven to meetings all day long. Notice how you tan progressively and you getsquint lines from the sun’s glare? Along with visible light, you’re getting UV rays, too. Safety Tip # 3: Fun in the sun has its perils. Sunscreen is not just for the ratherinfrequent times you hit the pool or go to the shore with friends or family. Even if muchof your day is spent in the classroom, inside the house or at your desk in the office, bewary of your sports, hobbies and other leisure time activities. You may be wearing a hatwhile pottering around in the garden but did you notice that a good deal of your face,neck, chest, legs and arms are sunlit? The risk is much greater in the playing field.Remember how often ―just half an hour‖ of basketball, tennis, or flag football turns intohours and hours of sheer fun? Slather on the sunscreen beforehand and you won’t besorry years or decades later. Safety Tip # 4: Sure, jogging, trekking and biking help fulfill your cardioworkout quota. Surfing is healthy for forcing you to swim so much. So are skiing andtobogganing in winter. Make it all even healthier by armoring yourself against UV rays.Even if you think you’ll be outdoors for just 15 minutes. Remember how all thosereflective surfaces bounce back more UVR at you and effectively double your harmfuldose. Safety Tip # 5: The Skin Cancer Foundation couldn’t say it more bluntly, ―Thereis no such thing as a healthy tan.‖ No matter how you cheated with a sun bed, went south 3 © 2010
  • 3. for spring break or want to show off your Caribbean cruise, a tan is your skin’s silent reminder that you had an overdose of UV radiation.B. Understanding SPF It’s more than about the sunburn protection factor (SPF) since single rated SPFs only defends against UV-B, rays that land on the skin’s outer part that cause sunburn when in fact UVA penetrates deep down to inflict damage. To round out your protection, bear these in mind: SPF Knowhow #1: SPF-loaded sunscreens are only part of your defense against the cumulative harm that UVR causes. Wearing hats, wraparound sunglasses and bright- colored, fairly thick fabrics actually offer more protection against the possibility of burning and DNA damage that could lead to melanoma in the future. SPF Knowhow #2: Chief medical officer Otis Brawley of the American Cancer Society cautions that SPF ratings are just averages. If you burn easily and have otherwise sensitive skin, an SPF 30 product may give the equivalent of just SPF 10 protection. For a skin Type VI, melano-protected person, on the other hand, the same sunscreen might be equal to SPF 50 in sunburn protection. SPF Knowhow #3: Both the Skin Cancer Foundation and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) agree that SPF 50 is about the best that science can reliably test and measure. Anything higher is probably marketing hype.C. Using the Right Sunscreen Effectively Sunscreen Rule #1: Use at least SPF 15. The American Academy of Dermatology prefers to err on the side of caution, suggesting that both adults and children use a sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30. Sunscreen Rule #2: Choose a brand or formulation that has broad spectrum protection or screens both UV-A and UV-B. Sunscreen Rule #3: Make sure to apply enough. Down to bare essentials at the beach or pool, the sensible adult knows to apply at least an ounce to cover up from face to toes. That’s the equivalent of a shot glass. Using less is the same as going for lower SPF. Sunscreen Rule #4: Re-apply when the SPF limit has been reached. If you know you start to burn after just ten minutes outdoors when you don’t have sunscreen on, SPF 15 has a theoretical protection limit of 15 times your ten-minute safety limit. In this case, that’s 150 minutes or two and a half hours. Spending all day at the beach, golf course or basketball court means you should apply at least four times. Sunscreen Rule #5: Re-apply more frequently, as often as necessary, in fact. Going into the water washes sunscreen off. So do sweating on the playing court and toweling off for any reason at all. Better safe than sorry later in life. 4 © 2010
  • 4. Sunscreen Rule #6: Apply everywhere. At the beach, it’s easy to overlook your feet andthe back of your legs. Protect your lips, ears, nape, hands, and around the eyes, too. Gottoo much testosterone? Put some on that bald spot, too.Sunscreen Rule #7: Shop for the right sunscreen type. Children and adults withsensitive skin should use fragrance-free variants. Outdoorsmen and playing field―gladiators‖ may be pleased to learn about stick, water and sweat resistant or other sportsvariants. As a general rule, use the product format that makes it easy for you to stayprotected from UV (Skin Cancer Foundation, 2010). Figure 1: The New Sunscreen Label to look for should conform to the latest FDA sunscreen standards 5 © 2010
  • 5. II. Mystifying Cases of Melanoma and Skin CancerIn Rich Complexions hose with Rich Complexions don’t believe they need to wear sunscreen. TrueT enough, most rich complexions such as the Asian, Latinos African Americans and Pacific Islanders, among others, are less likely to be afflicted with skin cancer. Butthey are not cancer-proof. When melanoma and other forms of skin cancer do show up,they can be deadlier than for Caucasians. Case #1: In 2008, a 69-year-old Hispanic lady was seen at the Department ofDermatology, Mount Sinai Hospital in New York for treatmentof the left fourth toe. After the loss of the nail three monthspreviously, the nail bed refused to heal. The initial biopsy Not even theindicated that what looked like a freckle was a melanoma Darkest Skinalready 4.8 mm. deep. The patient was in luck because the Tone is Skin-skin cancer had not metastasized (spread to other parts of herbody). However, the toe had to be amputated. Subsequently, Cancer Proofthe pathologist found that the melanoma had alreadypenetrated 11 mm. into the bone marrow of the toe(Kleinerman, Kriegel, Amir, Emanuel, & Markinson, 2010). Case #2: A 48-year-old African American male went tothe Dallas VA Medical Center after experiencing months of fatigue, fevers, and weightloss of 50 pounds. At the same time, he had a massively swollen abdomen. Despite theabsence of any skin marks or lesions (or early signs of tumor), a CT scan and biopsyconfirmed that the palpable lumps in the lower abdomen was metastatic malignantmelanoma (Dowell, Shen, Harford & Lai, 2005). Case #3: An even younger 41-year-old African American man also reported to theDallas VA Medical Center complaining of fatigue and dark stools experienced beginninga week earlier. No masses could be felt on external physical examination nor did theupper endoscopy, colonoscopy, and a small bowel series discovered what the source ofbleeding might be. On the other hand, the more thorough capsule endoscopy, followedby exploratory surgery, showed sizeable lesions at several places in the small intestine.On biopsy, these were confirmed as metastatic malignant melanoma. Thoroughexamination of skin, nails, eyes, and mucous membranes yielded no primary site wherethe melanoma might have originated. Here is one more case where the rich, darkcomplexioned person may well have “protected” him from superficial melanoma. By thetime he sensed something wrong with himself, though, the cancer had already spread tothree sites in the small intestine (Dowell, Shen, Harford & Lai, 2005). 6 © 2010
  • 6. What is Essential to High Quality Living for Rich ComplexionsIt has everything to do with shunning the sun. Deadly cases of Melanoma, non-Melanoma skin cancers, premature-aging, hyperpigmented, highly irritated dull, dry, ashyskin are a great fraction of hindrances in living life to the fullest and one thing these allhave in common—they can all be traced to mindless sun exposure.A Ruthless Risk Factor – Rich Complexions have a poorer survival rate when battling Melanoma because of the delayed prognosisThe threat of Skin Cancer Alone is already enough to Practice Sun Protection but thereare more problems ahead after inconsiderably facing the sun. A. Rich Complexions Sun Problem 1: Photo Aging and Photo Damage Photo aging can occur earlier in life. Owing to reckless exposure to UV radiationfrom the sun, the areas that are usually exposed – face, neck, hands, arms, the décolletéarea – become less supple and flexible. This is the sign that UV-A has penetrated deep todamage the collagen fibers in the deepest layers of the epidermis. When the damage issevere, sagging occurs prematurely. Figure 2: Common signs of photoaging Figure 3: Sun damage occurred on the side of include mottled skin with various the face (A) that was exposed to the UVA light pigmented spots and general loss of skin coming through the window. The other side of tone in sun-exposed areas as seen in this her face (B) was not exposed to window light woman in her forties - Canadian (Source: Moulin G, Thomas L, Vigneau M, et Dermatology Association. (CNW al. A case of unilateral elastosis with cysts and Group/Canadian Dermatology comedones: Favre-Racouchot syndrome. Ann Association) Dermatol Venereol. 1994;121:721-723. 7 © 2010
  • 7. B. Rich Complexions Sun Problem 2: Melanin and How It Affects ScarsMelanin is a tough built-in defense but it’s not perfectly invincible against the sun. Thedownside even is that a sun-activated melanin triggers an attack of acne flare-ups or othermoderately-inflamed wound. Regardless of how much time you spend outdoors orbasking in a tanning bed, melanin can cause ―Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation‖(PIH). PIH is our body’s natural reaction to inflammation, leaving behind discolorationthat ranges from pink (for the very light-skinned) to red, purple, brown or black,depending on your skin tone and depth of the discoloration. PIH is especially common inRich Complexions. The discoloration is caused by excessive melanin being produced inreaction to the inflammation. This side-effect always discolors by darkening, affectingmen and women alike. Figure 4: Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation on a brown-  skinned Pacific Islander American Melanin is a tough built-in defense but it’s not perfectly invincible against the sun.  C. Rich Complexions Sun Problem 3: A Great Lifestyle Inevitably Revolves Around the Sun Rich Complexions represent a great variety of ethnic groups in every sizeable city. Outdoor life is just as enjoyable and necessary for all young and old alike. Figure 4: The Most Striking Variations in Child and Adult Skin Colors. From Left to Right: Central/South African, Indian, Mediterranean and North European 8 © 2010
  • 8. Baby Boomers Now Face the Problem of Youth Unwisely Spent Under the SunThe ―Baby Boom‖ generations in all ethnicities are now in their 50s, struggling tocope with the onset of degenerative conditions such as hypertension, cardiovasculardiseases, rheumatoid and other signposts of middle age. Another major problemevery baby boomer has to face is the inevitable aging of their skin.For Rich Complexions, this is the critical stage in the life cycle when vitamin Ddeficiency on one hand and decades of irresponsible exposure to UV radiation on theother can cause unpleasant surprises. True, their melanin-rich status protects RichComplexions from the high incidence that assaults the pale-complexioned. Still, itdoes not shield them from that earlier physical aging brought about by earlier days ofreckless sun exposure.Moreover, this is the time to be wary about skin cancer showing up even in areas ofthe body normally covered up and not directly subject to UV radiation. Annualcheck-ups should include thorough inspection of the skin from scalp to sole. As wehave seen from the case studies that introduced this e-book, melanoma can show upon nailbeds where the discoloration may be disguised by unkempt toenails. Fromthere, skin cancer can invade nearby bones or migrate to vital organs. Figure 5: Life Outdoors for the Baby Boomers 9© 2010
  • 9. Baby boomers or not, spending time outdoors to enjoy family activities, sports orleisure is one of the best ways to pass aday. The main problem:Most engage in outdoor activities as it fittheir lifestyles. Many are unmindful of the Rich complexions lovelong hours they spend ―soaking up rays‖ outdoor activitiesfrom overhead or that both UV-B and UV- blissfully unaware thatA do harm to skin even on cloudy days. they compound theirThey forget how the sea and some surfaces risk of getting skinreflect sunlight upwards, compounding the cancer that is morepotential damage to DNA close to thesurface of their faces, arms and bare legs. deadly for their multi- cultural heritage. Figure 6: Common Activities Spent in the SunTotally avoiding the sun is not the obvious moral lesson here but only the fact thatRich Complexions need proper sun care just as much as anyone else. There is a needto strike the balance between a fulfilling lifestyle and healthy sun protection. 10© 2010
  • 10. III. EXTRASHADE: Superior Broad Spectrum Sunscreen with Unique Technology The CHALLENGE: The facts say it all. We have already witnessed how and why people of multi-cultural heritage are at greater risk for Skin Cancer and Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation (PIH). Those of brown skin ethnicity are also afflicted by sensitive, easily irritated skin, get blemishes more readily, suffer uneven skin tone, and PIH. Most Americans with brown skin are of Latino, multi-racial, South Asian, South Pacific, Filipino and/or Native Indian ancestry. Broadly speaking, therefore, the multi-cultural Rich Complexions around the world have uncommonly sensitive complexions that require specialized sun care solutions. The Promise of Sun Protection for Rich Complexions EXTRASHADE is a premium sun care brand with the primary focus on sun safety awareness and to protect adults and children from the UV rays of the sun. Sun Protection for Rich Complexions provides multi-functional protection for the health and wellness of people with tan to olive to dark skin tones. Sun Protection for Rich Complexions are formulated with select ingredients to defend daily against damaging UV-A and UV-B rays while helping maintain a smooth and even skin tone.  Protects your skin from harmful UVA and UVB rays that cause premature aging, Hyperpigmentation and skin cancer  Helps eliminate free radicals to noticeably minimize fine lines, wrinkles, freckles and brown spots and lessen the look of blotchy, uneven skin tone.  Ideal for highly reactive and PIH-prone skin with a completely non-irritating formula 11 © 2010
  • 11.  Used regularly, EXTRASHADE even helps prevent dark spots from reappearing  Enhances your looks, nourishing and hydrating skin to keep it smooth, supple, and young beyond your years. Figure 7: Beyond sun care, Sun Protection for Rich Complexions specializes in controlling Hyperpigmentation as seen on the varying cases The Sunscreen that Provides More than Just Sun ProtectionEXTRASHADE Daily Defense Hydrating Sunscreen SPF 30Great for everyday use, greater for skin in the long run—this is an ultra-gentle, uniquelyphoto stabilize sunscreen for superior broad spectrum protection with continuoushydration in one formula. This formulation comprehensively shields you from UVA andUVB rays and helps improve the health of your skin at the same time because it is richwith antioxidants.This hydrating sunscreen provides maximum face and body protection for activelifestyles by resisting water for long lasting defense. Daily Defense Hydrating SunscreenSPF 30 protects and enhances your rich complexion three more ways: by reducing 12 © 2010
  • 12. irritation and inflammation; combating free-radicals before they do you damage; anddeeply hydrates your skin to leave it soft and radiant without leaving a greasy or chalkyresidue. Figure 8: Who Stands to BenefitEXTRASHADE Protect and Nurture Sunscreen SPF 30 For Young Sensitive Skin—the young and gentle youth skin needs all the protection and nourishment it can get. The very same melano-protection advantage of Rich Complexions adults also works for their children. This is fortunate because over- exposure to UVR early in life is an important risk factor for skin cancer in middle age or later. Specially formulated for the unique needs of sensitive skin, this is an ultra-gentle product with superior broad spectrum protection. Carrying the EXTRASHADE promise, Protect and Nurture Sunscreen hasan SPF 30 that helps protect and defend against UVA and UVB rays while nurturing theirskin without leaving any harsh effects, greasy or chalky residue. Its unique photo stabilityprovides maximum face and body protection by resisting water for long-lasting defense. 13 © 2010
  • 13. Full Protection Full NourishmentBecause Sun Protection for Rich Complexions is created for highly reactive skin, what’sin it is just as important as what is not in it.Sun Protection for Rich Complexions is specifically formulated without fragrance,lanolin, dye, alcohol or propylene glycol, these are irritants known to stimulate theproduction of excessive melanin.Innovatively photo stabilized Octyl methocycinnamate (Octinoxate) and Avobenzonewith unique technology create superior and effective broad spectrum protection and topperformance. Here is the purpose of some of the top ingredients so you can be confidentto wear it to protect and preserve your appearance.Pomegranate: Soothes and calms inflammation that commonly affects highly reactiveskinHyaluronic Acid: Maintains hydrations levels in skin completely and gentlyHedychium Coronarium Root (White Ginger) Extract: Soothes inflammations and softensthe skinQuillaja Saponaria Bark (Soap Bark) Extract: Heals and hydrates the skin safelyActinidia Chinensis (Kiwi Fruit) Extract: antioxidant and hydrator that remarkablyreduces the appearance of fine lines, dark spots and wrinkles gentlyTocopheryl Acetate (Vitamin E) and Tertrahexyldecyl Ascorbate (vitamin C): the top suncare Vitamins to provide a healthy and radiant complexionCocos Nucifera (Coconut) Extract: antibacterial and hydratorPlantago Major Leaf (Plantain) Extract: heals wounds, renews cell and fights free radicalsPassion Flora Incarnata (Passion Flower) Extract: soothes and relaxes the skinUnlocking the Hydrating and Repairing Power of Hyaluronic AcidHyaluronic acid can dramatically improve the overall health and beauty of your skin.While many have dubbed it as the ―key to the fountain of youth‖ Extra Shade took this edge to make it a valuable skin anti-aging and hydrator. In the forefront, it is a naturally-occurring substance present in all types of human skin necessary for tissue repair and skin renewal. It has the unique amazing property of binding water up to 1,000 times its weight and as such can gently and completely hydrates even the most sensitive brown skin. 14 © 2010
  • 14. Fully absorbed, it becomes a hypoallergenic hydrator that Sun Protectionhas the ability to pull hydrants from the atmosphere andtrap it on the surface of the skin eliminating dry, dull and for Richashy skin. As such, Hyaluronic acid is the ultimate naturalhydrator to unlock a smooth skin tone. Complexions offers the Discover the Calming Effect of Pomegranate unique Pomegranates are among the top Combination antioxidants in the of Full world with shrubs originating in lands Spectrum stretching from the northwestern region of Protection India through Iran to from UV North Africa, home tomost people of Rich Complexions. radiation, safeModern Science regard the fruit as symbol to long life but emollients andit is most revered by Aryuvedic medicine for more than a hours-longcentury now by its proven miracle to restore the skin’sbalance and enhance its youthful glow. hydration.This is the perfect nourishment for rich complexions as itsrich flavanoid compounds stimulates collagen production,soothes and calms inflammation and counter act the harsheffects of oxidation and the damaging effects of the sun.All in, Sun Protection for Rich Complexions offers theunique combination of full-spectrum protection from UVradiation, safe emollients, and hours-long hydration. 15 © 2010
  • 15. Still not convinced? Let the Rest of the Facts Convince you to Wear Sun Protection, No matter your Complexion.IV. The Harmful Effects of Sustained Exposure to UV Radiation A. Understanding your skinThe skin’s protective covering comprises just four very thin layers. Below the stratumcorneum is the thinner pigment layer which contains the melanocytes. For all themelanin that characterizes people with skin of color and theoretically protect these ethnicgroups, it has a very thin shield that insufficiently protects against longer-wave UV-A(Figure 9 overleaf). The melanocytes that produce melanin and therefore impart humanskin tone as well as produce the tanning characteristic of exposure to UVR are embeddedwithin the epidermis.Figure 9: UVR and the Skin (Source: Epstein & Wang, 2010) The first sign of excessive exposure to UVR is a first-degree burn. Sunburn does not usually advance to third- degree burn because the severe redness and stinging of a second-degree burn alerts the victim soon enough to seek shade and first-aid treatment. Figure 10: Sunburn Among Rich Complexions 16 © 2010
  • 16. More than the sunburn, UVR is implicated in other health risks as suppressing the immune system and cosmetic disfigurations as wrinkles and hyperpigmentation, e.g. age spots, freckles and melasma among others.B. Premature Aging of the Skin Constant and repeated exposure to UV radiation from the sun also causes premature aging. The least damage you can experience is cosmetic. That premature aging is Over time, your complexion becomes thicker, more inevitable is a wrinkled, and leathery than is the norm for people misconception. your age, that’s why it’s called premature aging. In fact, solar radiation is reckoned to produce 90 Premature aging percent of the signs of premature aging, more than happens after an dehydration, smoking, and other poor health habits accumulation of years (U.S. EPA). and decades of reckless exposure to the sun. Perversely enough, the other type of cosmetic damage UVR does to the skin is to make it thinner. Thinner skin shows up as many fine lines and bruises very easily. Either way, thinner or thicker, skin looks prematurely old. Figure 11: Look closely and you’ll see that even Rich Complexions form freckles from over Sun exposure UV-A penetrates so deep that it also accelerates thinning in surface capillaries and major blood vessels. This forms the so-called ―spider veins‖ which makes the UVR victim look like a drunk. More dangerously, the so-called ―liver spots‖ are actually moles. The dark ones are cause for worry especially if they become irregularly shaped and textured, growing slowly through time. A dermatologist must check very thoroughly to be sure these are not the beginnings of malignant melanoma. 17 © 2010
  • 17. C. The Prevalence of Melanoma, Its Risk Factors and RamificationsMore menacing, however, is the fact that UVR is responsible for nine of ten cases of skincancer. Of the three types of skin cancer, basal cell cancer is the most readily curable,squamous cell cancer is potentially life-threatening because of its propensity for growingand spreading (―metastasizing,‖ as your GP and oncologist like to say), and malignantmelanoma the most deadly.DEPA). eadly Fact # 1: Skin cancer is rampant and growing steadily. In America, 1.5 million newly-diagnosed cases each year outnumber new cases of breast, prostate, lung, and colon cancer combined (Spencer & Amonette, 1998; U.S.D eadly Fact # 2: Skin cancer is prevalent. At least one-fifth of all Americans will develop skin cancer in their lifetimes. For Americans 66 years or older, the lifetime incidence is 40% to 50% (U.S. EPA).D eadly Fact # 3: Skin cancer is deadly. Hour by hour, one American dies from some form or other of skin cancer (U.S. EPA). To these 8,750 deaths, the WHO adds another 50,000+ worldwide that die of excessive UVR exposure.D eadly Fact # 4: The single most preventable risk factor for skin cancer is exposure to UVR without shielding or protection of any kind (U.S. EPA). eadly Fact # 5: Staying indoors but resorting to tanning lamps, beds or boothsD actually makes things worse. An Australian study showed that those who began artificial tanning in their youth were 75% more likely to develop malignant melanoma years or even decades later (Clinuvel Pharmaceuticals, 2010).D eadly Fact # 6: The global death toll due to malignant melanoma is around 48,000 annually (American Cancer Society, 2009).D eadly Fact #7: According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the World Health Organization, excessive UV radiation damages the skin’s cellular DNA. The result is genetic mutations that can lead to skin cancer therefore UV is a proven human carcinogen. D. Non-Melanoma Skin Cancers True, non-melanoma skin cancers are less deadly than melanomas. Left untreated, however, they spread and create disfiguring growths everywhere. Between 40 and 50 percent of Americans who live to age 65 will have the two primary types of non-melanoma skin cancers – basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas – at least once. 18 © 2010
  • 18. Basal cell carcinomas are the most common type of skin cancer tumors. Theyusually appear as small, fleshy bumps or nodules on the head and neck, but can occur onother skin areas. This is one type of skin cancer that can penetrate to the bones and causea great deal of damage, including crippling and mutilation. Squamous cell carcinomas are tumors that appear in the beginning as nodules oras red, scaly patches. This cancer can develop into large masses, and can spread to otherparts of the body (US EPA). The non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) are very prevalent. More than a millionnew cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are discovered annually in America. Squamouscell carcinoma (SCC) turns up in from 250,000 to half a million Americans each year(Epstein & Wang, 2010). At last count, mortality for all cancers among the two largest ethnicities and, inparticular, for those where UVR is implicated were as follows:Table 1: Cancer as a Cause of Death for Ethnicities in the United States, 2007 (Source: CDC NVSS) Blacks Hispanics American Asian/ Indian/ Pacific Alaska Islander NativeAll cancers 64,049 27,660 2,561 12,326Cancers of the lip, oral cavity, 1,062 364 43 242pharynxSkin 136 194 22 45 Melanoma of the Skin Death Rates* by Race/Ethnicity and Sex, U.S., 2007 19 © 2010
  • 19. Figure 12: Skin Cancer Incidents in Rich Complexions Sun Damage is Highly Deadly but is also Highly PreventableE. How to Protect Your Skin and Help Reverse Signs of Damage By in large rich complexions don’t do enough to protect themselves from the sun. Tens of millions plainly do not take such elementary precautions as wearing a wide- brimmed hat, covering up while in the sun, seeking shade, wearing wrap-around sunglasses, avoiding the sun during the hours of 10 a.m. to 4 p.m., and using sunscreen with a sun protection factor [SPF] of 15 or higher (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007). In short, do everything you can to shield the sensitive skin on your head, neck, and around the eyes because these are the most vulnerable to sun damage. Use a sunscreen rated at least SPF15. You know what they say about caution being the better part of valor. Even if you do not intend to catch some rays and get a tan slather on the sunscreen for a stroll around the campus, jogging around the neighborhood, and cycling or trekking the trails in summer. 20 © 2010
  • 20. Opt for thin and light long sleeve shirts, comfortable lightweight pants.Contrary to the common propensity for wearing gauzy and light-colored clothes insummer (the better to avoid feeling sticky and sweaty), it is actually better to wear bright-or dark-colored, lustrous clothes because these reflect more UV radiation than do pastelsand bleached cottons. Even loose-fitting styles are fine if one opts for densely-wovenfabrics because these are a better barrier against UV radiation. Wear a hat when outdoors. Not a “cool” baseball cap, worn with the bill forward or reversed. A hat, with the widest brim you can find.It’s good to remember that UV-A pass through the glass with ease. Car drivers shouldfeel protected only if they have already added UV-protective film to a car’s side and rearwindows. Home, office, and store windows should similarly have tinted film that blocksup to 99.9 percent of UV radiation and lets in up to 80 percent of visible light (Epstein &Wang, 2010). Since the eyelids, nostrils, lips and inner ear do not contain pigment (the melanin that gives you your tan and protects somewhat against serious burns) and won’t tan well anyway, keep them shaded when outdoors. Finally, be sun aware. At this point when the climate is unpredictable, natural disasters are at an all time high and the rays are getting stronger more than Rich complexions can handle, it pays to know one of the disturbing culprits: the deterioration of the ozone layer. 21 © 2010
  • 21. V. What is Known Today About the Risks of Ultraviolet Radiation? A. UV Rays and How They Harm HumansAmong all other types, UVA and UVB are the forms of ultraviolet (UV) radiation that weshould be concerned about.UVB radiation are shorter than UVA which explains why it can only affect the outerlayer of the skin and cause sunburn or the sun tan while UVA radiation can go deeper tothe innermost levels of the skin. Both rays are known to cause skin cancer, suppress theimmune system and speed up the aging process, among others. Figure 13: UVA and UVB a Constant Part of Radiation from the Sun (Source: Epstein & Wang, 2010) B. Getting Bombarded with UVR Even on a Rainy Day UV rays are not confined to its natural source alone which is the sun; we areconstantly surrounded and bombarded by the artificial sources which are everywhere.Artificial tanning beds, indoor lighting, copiers, computer screens, welding equipment,germicidal and mercury arc lamps all give off UV radiation in varying levels. If you have sensitive skin and suffer from such conditions as solar urticaria, lupus,porphyria, sun rash, sun hives, photosensitivity, sun allergy, rheumatoid arthritis,xeroderma pigmentosum, albinism and other sun-related sensitivities, two hours underthe bright lights at Wal-Mart or any shopping mall can be equivalent to one hour underdirect sunlight (Support Group for Sun Sensitive People, 2006). 22 © 2010
  • 22. Low-Intensity High-Intensity Fluorescent lighting Tanning beds, lamps and booths Compact fluorescent bulbs Halogen and high intensity discharge lights Incandescent bulbs, Computer monitors Germicidal lamps Resin and paint curing lamps Arc lamps ―Black lights ―Phototherapy lamps found in Copy machines nurseries Electric/Arc welders, Ultraviolet lasers Sources: National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA), Support Group for Sun Sensitive People As early as 1992, the American Journal of Epidemiology reported that fluorescent lights radiate ―10-30 times‖ more UV-B than natural sunlight. Even worse, such lamps emit almost the same intensity of both UV-B (380 nm) and UV-A (as much as 400nm) unless, of course, the fixtures are shielded. But since these facts are not widely known, there is no agitation to install shields at home, work and in malls.C. Is ozone thinning still a threat? The Latest Authoritative Word on the Ozone Layer Getting sunburned on a cloudy day is not the surprising news; it’s the fact that it’s the result of the UV rays advancing its penetration easier on the thinning ozone layer which is more alarming. Figure 14 below shows vividly how the ozone layer over Antarctica deteriorated to the bluest part of the spectrum in a span of two decades. This period coincided with the explosion in the automobile population worldwide and industrialization in newly- developed economies such as Taiwan, Thailand, India, the Philippines and the Middle East-North Africa in general. Figure 14: The Ozone “Hole” in September 2006, nearly two decades on, the slow progress of ratification and agreed replacement rates for CFC ensured that the damage to the ozone layer continued apace. On the other hand, the ozone layer over the Arctic has begun to deteriorate as well, at least according to a United Nations report released in 2006. On the best available evidence at hand –the unstable weather patterns are the culprit for ozone degradation over the North Pole – it may be 15 years at least before Arctic ozone depletion stops. With the damaged ozone layer here to stay, EXTRASHADE will protect you to be your best against the stronger penetration of UVA and UVB rays. 23 © 2010
  • 23. ReferencesAmerican Cancer Society. (2009). Cancer facts and figures.Bizzozero, J. (2006). Where is the indoor tanning industry heading? Indoor Tanning: State of the Industry Report. Retrieved August 24, 2010, from www.lookingfit.com/articles/indoor_tanning/6ah3011575723017.html.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). Sunburn prevalence among adults – United States, 1999, 2003, and 2004: Editorial note. Morbidity & mortality weekly report, 56 (21): 524-528.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Key mortality statistics: Data for United States in 2007. National Vital Statistics Reports, 58 (19).Clinuvel Pharmaceuticals (2010). Sunbeds and solariums. Retrieved August 21, 2010, from http://clinuvel.com/sun-a-skin/sunbeds-and-solariums.Davis, K., Mitra, D., Kotapati, S., Ibrahim, R. & Wolchok, J. (2009). Direct economic burden of high-risk and metastatic melanoma in the elderly: Evidence from the SEER-Medicare linked database. Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, 7 (1) 31-41.Dowell, J. E., Shen, Y., Harford, W. V., & Lai, W. S. (2005). Difficult diagnostic cases: Case 1. melanoma in African Americans. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23 (15) 3622-3624. DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2005.04.132.Epstein, J. H., MD & Wang, S. Q., MD (2010). UV information: Understanding UVA and UVB. Retrieved August 21, 2010, from http://www.skincancer.org/ understanding-uva-and-uvb.html 24 © 2010
  • 24. Fischer, S. K., P. J. Hughes, P. D. Fairchild, C. L. Kusik, J. T. Dieckmann, E. M. McMahon, and N. Hobday. (1991). Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies, executive summary. Washington, D.C.: Alternative Fluorocarbons Environmental Acceptability Study and U.S. Department of Energy.Fitzpatrick Skin Type. Available at: www.nuskin.com/corp/library/pdf/charts/fitzpatrick.Fourtanier A., Moyal D. & Seité S. (2008). Sunscreens containing the broad-spectrum UVA absorber, Mexoryl SX, prevent the cutaneous detrimental effects of UV exposure: a review of clinical study results. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed., 24 (4):164-74.Kleinerman, R, Kriegel, D., Amir, I., Emanuel, P. O. & Markinson, B. C. (2010, Feb.). Osteoinvasive subungual melanoma: a case and review. Journal of Drugs in Dermatology, 9: 159-163.Kunar, V., Abbas, A, Fausto, N. & Aster, J. C. (2004). Pathologic basis of disease (8th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders/Elsevier.Lupus Foundation of America (2010). Photosensitivity. Retrieved August 22, 2010, from http://www.lupus.org/webmodules/webarticlesnet/templates/new_aboutdiagnosis. aspx?a=94&z=15&page=2.Markinson, B. C., DPM, FASPD. (2010, July 7). Recognizing amelanotic melanoma in the lower extremity. Podiatry Today, 23 (Jul 01 2010) Online journal. Retrieved August 22, 2010, from http://www.podiatrytoday.com/recognizing-amelanotic- melanoma-lower-extremity. 25 © 2010
  • 25. MedicineNet, Inc. (2010). Definition of intraocular melanoma. Retrieved August 26, 2010, from http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=40565.ONeil, D. (2009). Skin color adaptation. Retrieved August 28, 2010, from http://anthro. palomar.edu/adapt/adapt_4.htm.Painter, K. (2009, April 19). Your health: Skin color matters in the vitamin D debate.Phillpotts, B. A. MD, Sanders, R. J. MD, Shields, J. A. MD, Griffiths, J. D. MD, Augsburger, J. A. MD, & Shields, C. L. MD (1995). Uveal melanomas in black patients: A case series and comparative review. Journal of the National Medical Association, 87 (9) 709-714.Polsky, D., MD & Wang, S. Q., MD. (2010). Skin cancer facts. Retrieved August 21, 2010, from The Skin Cancer Foundation, http://www.skincancer.org/Skin-Cancer- Facts/.Sinclair, C. (2003). Artificial tanning sunbeds: Risk and guidance. World Health Organization. Retrieved August 21, 2010, from www.who.int/uv/intersun programme/activities/uvartsunbeds/en/index.html.Skin Cancer Foundation (2010). Guidelines: Year-round sun protection. Retrieved August 27, 2010, from http://www.skincancer.org/year-round-sun- protection.html.Spencer, J. M. & Amonette, R. (1998). Tanning beds and skin cancer: Artificial sun + old sol = real risk. Clin Dermatol, 16: 487-501.Support Group for Sun Sensitive People (2006). UV radiation from lighting, copiers, computer monitors etc. Retrieved September 11, 2010, from http://sun1. awardspace.com/Sun_Protection/lighting.htm. 26 © 2010
  • 26. Ullrich, S. E., Nghiem, D. X. & Khaskina, P. (2007). Suppression of an established immune response by UVA: A critical role for mast cells. Photochem Photobiol. 83(5): 1095–1100. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2007.00184.x.United Nations Environment Programme (2006). Ozone secretariat. Retrieved August 21, 2010, from http://www.unep.ch/ozone/index.shtml.U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1995). Stratospheric ozone: research on replacement chemicals to protect the earth’s fragile ozone layer. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2010, July 2). Health effects of overexposure to the sun. Retrieved August 21, 2010, from http://www.epa.gov/sunwise/ uvandhealth.html.World Health Organization (2010a). What is the difference between UVA, UVB and UVC? Retrieved August 21, 2010, from http://www.who.int/uv/faq/whatisuv/ en/index2.html.World Health Organization (2010b). Disease and injury regional estimates for 2004. Retrieved September 21, 2010, from http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_ burden_disease/estimates_regional/en/index.html. 27 © 2010

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