c. 1880 - 1900 - School Classroom's primary tool was the Chalkboard and Slate were developed as the primary tool for the classroom. While the slate was eventually replaced by paper and pencil at the turn of the 20th Century, chalk boards still exist in classrooms 130+ years later. It is a cheap and efficient way to put information in from of a class for students to copy into a notebook but offers little to no engagement for different styles of learning.
Early 1900s - The mass production of Paper and pencils makes the student slate obsolete. Students can take notes and preserve them on paper for later reference as opposed to committing them to memory.c. 1905 - Development of stereoscope allowed 3-D imagery to shown to students, presenting realistic images of events and people. c. 1910's - Invention of moving pictures allowed the creation of silent instructional videos for students.
1920's - Radio airwaves become a medium to broadcast lessons and information to students.1925 - Flimstrip projector. An improvement over the "magic latern" of the late 1800's, this projector uses celluloid film to provide better imagery.1930's - Overhead projector invented. The US Military eventually uses the overhead projector to assist the training of soldiers bound for battle in WWII. Ultimately, this tool makes it ways to classrooms across the country. It is still used today but has largely been replaced by digital projectors and document cameras.
1940's - The mimeograph machine made it quick and easy to hand crank copies of assignments to entire classes in just minutes. A staple in every school, until the photo copy machine replaced it.1950's - Learning Labs - spurred by their use during WWII to train the troops, learning cubicles for foreign language instruction are installed in schools across the country. c. 1957 - Skinner Learning Machine - a break-though innovation which allowed teachers to prepare lessons for student learning at a individualized pace. This educational tool and the research behind it has influenced classrooms for decades.
1960's - Educational Television begins to appear in classrooms broadcasting informative programming. The production of "Seasame Street" ushers in the age of children's television.1970's - Hand held calculator. The slide Rule is replaced by this revolutionary tool brought on by the invention of microprocessors allowed complex calculations to be completed in lightning speed. Slow to be adopted by teachers for fear of losing important math skill sets, it permitted a greater movement of students toward math and science1976 - Apple Computer founded. Eventually becomes the dominate computer platform in education but loses significant ground to Windows based PCs.
1980's - The first personal computers appear allows students to view information on CD-ROM technology which could hold an entire encyclopedia of text, audio, and images.Late 1980s - Graphing Calculator allows students to focus on the meaning of geometric equations by having the calculator display the graph of an equation instead of taking time for students to create it on paper.1987 - PowePoint introduced - The program, initially named Presenter, was released for the Apple Macintosh in 1987. In July of that year, the Microsoft Corporation, in its first significant software acquisition, purchased the rights to PowerPoint for $14 million. 1988 - First digital LCD Projector company formed. Data projectors will replace the overhead projector in many schools after the turn of the century.
1990's - First Interactive Whiteboard allows students to to touch and manipulate images on the screen.1994 - The Internet, invented by Tim Berners-Lee while working at CERN, opens the digital revolution by displaying information from computer servers around the world in a graphical manner instead of textual manner. Speed and power of personal computers increase exponentially following Moore's Law of increasing processor poser allowing for greater ability to provide rich media content, simulations and communication through the internet. The first wiki site goes live (c2.com) which allows easy ways to create web content using wiki markup to format text. 1997 – Google incorporates and is poised to make searching the web more efficient and relevant. This makes researching on the web easier than ever before.1999 - First blog site, LiveJournal, goes live ushering in the era of the "read/write" web.
Early 2000's - Laptop computers become tools for teachers and students to access the Internet for research and learning in a more mobile setting. Rich web media allows streaming of audio and video into the classroom making learning more "on demand" than with other A/V formats.Wikis begin to emerge as an easy way for teachers and students to create their own web-based content. First introduced in the 1990s, it wasn't until Internet access in the classroom allowed Schools adopt this to enable communication with stakeholders. Wikis are used as tools for students to create digital essays with images, video, and other widgets. 2005 - First "iClicker" appears allowing teachers to get quick feedback from students about their understanding of the lesson material. Companies such as SharePoint, eInstruction, and others appear in classrooms. Other companies create virtual clickers through mobile devices and cell phones.2008 - Evernote launched as a way to "remember everything" on the web. 2008 - LiveScribe "smartpen" sold to college students as a way to take lecture notes and record the lecture audio synchronously. The student can tap the special notebook paper and listen to that part of the lecture to help understand the notes. K12 schools quickly follow suit, adapting the pen for many uses other than for recording lectures.
2010 - Apple releases the first iPad tablet and is quickly adopted by schools as a cheaper,more portable platform for education. The abundance of free or low cost educational apps in the iTunes Store means greater students engagement and interaction. Other tablet devices quickly follow Apple's example. The penetration of smart phones into the average consumer increases the connectivity of students to the internet and others while in classrooms. The direction of education is taking off exponentially as newer and more affordable mobile devices come to market.
2020Wilson, C., ORELLANA, M., & Meek, M. (2010, September 15). The learning machines. Retrieved from The New York Timeswebsite: http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2010/09/19/magazine/classroom-technology.html?_r=1&Sandoval, For-Lan. (2007). History of Educational Technology [PowerPoint slides]. Retrievedfrom http://www.slideshare.net/fvsandoval/history-of-educational-technologyHistory of Mobile Phones. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved May 15, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_mobile_phonesMoores Law. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moore%27s_lawHistory of Wikis. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_wikisTimeline of LiveJournal. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved May 19, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_LiveJournalCollege of Education Blackwell Museum. (2013). Educational Communications and TechnologyCollection. http://www.cedu.niu.edu/blackwell/multimedia/. Accessed on May 19, 2013.Microsoft PowerPoint. (2013). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrievedfrom http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1491611/Microsoft-PowerPoint