Anthony Richards Unit 7 Printing Production Research There are three types of print production – hand, mechanical and digital Hand Techniques Technique What Is It? Advantages Disadvantages Etching Using acid on It is very detailed. The acid is toxic and untreated may burn through metal to metal. create pattern. Linocut Cutting a It can be The image is design into a duplicated with reversed, making it sheet of lino, ease. difficult to correct creating a and it involves lots reverse image of tools and then pressing it into fabric or wood. Screen Print Using a wire It is relatively quick Stencils can be mesh as a compared to other inaccurate and can stencil and hand printing fade, making it transferring techniques. The difficult to achieve ink through stencils are cheap fine detail. It is also the gaps to to create and can slow, which makes create a be used with a mass production design. wide variety of difficult. materials. Woodcut An image is It produces an It requires specialist carved into a accurate image equipment e.g. block of wood and is 3D. It can printing press and and the areas also be wood and is time – not being used reproduced many consuming. are cut away. times and the Ink is then wood is long- rolled over the lasting. design,
Anthony Richards Unit 7 colouring the image. Lithography A method of It produces a good The surface must be printing using quality image, level. It is also time- a completely unlike some other consuming and smooth stone hand printing requires a high level or piece of techniques. It’s of skill. metal. An extremely image is economical if used etched into a for short periods coating of wax of time. and then coated in ink and transferred onto a printed page. Mechanical Technique What Is It? Advantages Disadvantages Letterpress Letterpress is a It is mechanical It takes longer type of relief and therefore than other printing. Movable needs less human mechanical type is locked into effort. printing the bed of the techniques. printing press, then inked and pressed onto a sheet of paper, producing the image. Gravure Gravure printing The image has a It is expensive is a technique photographic because of the that uses quality, with cost of the plates. engraving to bright colours. It is only produce the The engraved economical if image. The image plate means it can used over a long is engraved onto be used lots of period of time. a cylinder and a times.
Anthony Richards Unit 7 sheet of paper is rolled under it, pressing the image onto the paper. Screen Process A screen of wood or aluminium with a fabric mesh stretched over it. The mesh is covered with an emulsion which closes the holes. Photographic film is then exposed to UV light. The emulsion is washed away and the mesh is dipped in ink. Digital Technique What Is It? Advantages Disadvantages Photocopying A cylindrical drum They produce lots They are heavy is charged of documents and take up large electrostatically. extremely fast amounts of space. The drum is and don’t wear Images lose a lot coated in a out quickly. It of detail in the photoconductive copies both copying process. material. A bright images and text in It only picks up lamp lights up the relatively high bold lines. original image. quality. The areas of the drum that are exposed to light become conductive and the areas that aren’t become
Anthony Richards Unit 7 negative. This creates an electrical image. A toner is applied to the drum to develop the picture and the toner is applied to a piece of paper, which is melted together to create the image. Laser Printing This is a method It uses the same Laser printers can of digital printing printing press as release particles that produces other digital that cause high-quality methods. Laser respiratory illness images quickly. It printers are fast, and they also uses an analogue reliable and produce a small printer, but it economical. amount of ozone uses the direct which damages scanning of a the atmosphere. laser beam across They are more the printer’s costly than inkjet photoreceptor. printers. Inkjet Printing Inkjet is a method Inkjet printers are Prints are wet at of computer common and first and need printing that fires relatively cheap. time to dry. drops of ink onto They produce Printing is slower paper. The good quality and is not principle is also images when designed for high used to directly used with special volume printing. put ink onto papers. Most are materials. relatively compact, so save on space.
Anthony Richards Unit 7 Examples of HandPrinting Techniques Linocut Woodcut Examples of Mechanical Printing Techniques Letterpress Gravure Photocopying Laser Printing
Anthony Richards Unit 7 Desktop Desktop Most are included They are Publishing publishing with a standard however, programs create computer expensive and print material via package, but are they need a standardised designed to knowledge of the format. produce software. professional images.It allows a wide range of people to access methods of publishing e.g. menus and leaflets.