ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013: NEUROERGONOMICS
AND PLACEMAKING
URBAN DESIGN AND
MAKING A SPACE A
PLACE
Menno Cramer and Katie Don...
SPACE TO PLACE
Social Interaction
Social Comfortability
PersonalisationPersonalisation
THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
DELIVERS STIMULI WHICH INFLUENCES
USERSUSERS.
Knowledge of this allows for appropriate
design dec...
PLACES SHOULD EVOLVE
NATURALLY AND ORGANICALLY
“sound appreciation of the context of a projectsound appreciation of the co...
SYSTEMS THINKING
Minton A 2009 Ground Control:Minton, A., 2009. Ground Control:
Fear and Happiness in the twenty-pp y
first-century city.
T...
Lefebvre, H., 1961. The Social Text.
D i l t bi d ith lt d thDesign elements combined with culture and the
experience of t...
De Certeau M 1974 Walking in theDe Certeau, M., 1974. Walking in the
City.
The design of a public space should enhance
soc...
Foucault, M., 1969. Archaeology of
Knowledge.
Governance of Space
Example:
Th P tiThe Panopticon
Natural Surveillance
CCTV...
Thwaites, K. and Simkins, I., 2007., , ,
Experimental Landscape: an
approach to people place andapproach to people, place ...
Gehl, J., 2011. Life between
buildings: using public space.buildings: using public space.
It is important to ha e spaces i...
Policy as a Restriction?
or policy as an opportunity?
o cy as a est ct o
p y pp y
POLICY FRAMEWORK
Policy predefines the necessity for certain characteristics to
be present and others not to be, it predef...
THE USER
The user should be at the center of the design,
it is through the user and their use of spaceg p
that one may cre...
MAGNETS
Magnets are more than simply landmarks,
because they embody meaning and elicit anbecause they embody meaning and e...
MAGNETS
SEMIOTICS
Individuals - a part of the production of space
Signs - elements we attach meaning to
Symbols - elements which h...
PSYCHOLOGY
Places are crucially significant in the satisfaction of
biological, social, psychological and cultural needs th...
THE RELATIONSHIP
It is the sum of the physical design of a public space, the
users, their activities, the social and cultu...
Place
Space
Place
Design
SemioticsSemiotics
Sociology PerceptionSociology Perception
Social
Individual
Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY
Meyers-Levy, 2007
PHYSIOLOGY
https://dl-
web dropbox cweb.dropbox.c
om/get/Camer
a%20Uploads/
2013-07-
2%2012 08 152%2012.08.15
.jpg?w=AABR
Vf4xeoBF98T...
CaveCad
Neuromarketing
Perfection
PhD, ultimate space
task vs environment
user vs nature
Study
How the built environment can contribute to the
attenuation of a stress response?
stress:stress:
stimulus content
st...
Sensory stimuli
- Sight/ Perception
- Hearing/ AuditoryHearing/ Auditory
- Smell/ Olfactory
T t / G t t- Taste/ Gustatory
...
Brain...
Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it
deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the...
Valence
a - b
You - MeYou Me
SOME EXAMPLESSO S
HALLE ESQUILLAN
http://www.spp
ef.fr/wp-
content/uloads
2012/11/Fontai
nebleau-
halle8.jpg
CHILDREN IN THE BUILT
ENVIRONMENT
CHILDREN IN THE BUILT
ENVIRONMENT
SHEFFIELD VS MIDDELBURG
ARTENA
Artena
Familiar place
positive or negative
Reflect on how this feeling emerges.
How to alter this?
WORKSHOP
Elements in spaces you are familiar with which
make you feel good?y g
(mood, state, physical, physiological)
WORKSHOP
Elements in spaces you are familiar with which
make you feel good?y g
(mood, state, physical, physiological)
What...
WORKSHOP
Decision making - what tools can you use?Decision making what tools can you use?
(conscious, unconscious)
WORKSHOP
URBAN DESIGN AND MAKING A SPACE A PLACE by Menno Cramer and Katie Donaghy
URBAN DESIGN AND MAKING A SPACE A PLACE by Menno Cramer and Katie Donaghy
URBAN DESIGN AND MAKING A SPACE A PLACE by Menno Cramer and Katie Donaghy
URBAN DESIGN AND MAKING A SPACE A PLACE by Menno Cramer and Katie Donaghy
URBAN DESIGN AND MAKING A SPACE A PLACE by Menno Cramer and Katie Donaghy
URBAN DESIGN AND MAKING A SPACE A PLACE by Menno Cramer and Katie Donaghy
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URBAN DESIGN AND MAKING A SPACE A PLACE by Menno Cramer and Katie Donaghy

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Katie Donaghy
BA in Sociology and Anthropology and MA in Town and Regional Planning, Katie devotes her research to understand how humans interact in public spaces and how these spaces contribute to this.


Menno Cramer
BSc in Neuroscience and Medicine, Menno is achieving his PhD in Neuroscience and Design on how the brain responds to design, and how we can change design to influence behavioural outcomes.

Published in: Technology, Real Estate
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URBAN DESIGN AND MAKING A SPACE A PLACE by Menno Cramer and Katie Donaghy

  1. 1. ISB SUMMER SCHOOL 2013: NEUROERGONOMICS AND PLACEMAKING URBAN DESIGN AND MAKING A SPACE A PLACE Menno Cramer and Katie Donaghyg y
  2. 2. SPACE TO PLACE Social Interaction Social Comfortability PersonalisationPersonalisation
  3. 3. THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT DELIVERS STIMULI WHICH INFLUENCES USERSUSERS. Knowledge of this allows for appropriate design decisionsdesign decisions
  4. 4. PLACES SHOULD EVOLVE NATURALLY AND ORGANICALLY “sound appreciation of the context of a projectsound appreciation of the context of a project site or area. This includes its history, its existing townscape and appearance itsexisting townscape and appearance, its planning status and its social and economic role both current and potential The contextrole – both current and potential. The context should also include the client’s objectives for the site or area” (Tibbalds 2001 p 20)the site or area” (Tibbalds, 2001, p.20).
  5. 5. SYSTEMS THINKING
  6. 6. Minton A 2009 Ground Control:Minton, A., 2009. Ground Control: Fear and Happiness in the twenty-pp y first-century city. Today spaces are governed by those who own the spacesthe spaces Spaces are constructed for economical profit d t f thand not for the user
  7. 7. Lefebvre, H., 1961. The Social Text. D i l t bi d ith lt d thDesign elements combined with culture and the experience of the individual create spaces (Lefebvre, 1961).
  8. 8. De Certeau M 1974 Walking in theDe Certeau, M., 1974. Walking in the City. The design of a public space should enhance social comfortability whereby individuals willsocial comfortability, whereby individuals will feel more comfortable and will be more likely t i t t i ll (D C t 1974)to interact socially (De Certeau, 1974).
  9. 9. Foucault, M., 1969. Archaeology of Knowledge. Governance of Space Example: Th P tiThe Panopticon Natural Surveillance CCTVCCTV Perceived Safety
  10. 10. Thwaites, K. and Simkins, I., 2007., , , Experimental Landscape: an approach to people place andapproach to people, place and space. Assigning labels to places according to whoAssigning labels to places according to who frequents it and what happens there creates places hich become their rep tation ratherplaces which become their reputation rather than existing as a separate entity (Thwaites d Si ki 2007)and Simkins, 2007).
  11. 11. Gehl, J., 2011. Life between buildings: using public space.buildings: using public space. It is important to ha e spaces in cities that areIt is important to have spaces in cities that are on a small scale that people can relate to, th th thi b i t l f thrather than everything being too large for the individual to handle and to become a part of (Jan Gehl, 2011).
  12. 12. Policy as a Restriction? or policy as an opportunity? o cy as a est ct o p y pp y
  13. 13. POLICY FRAMEWORK Policy predefines the necessity for certain characteristics to be present and others not to be, it predefines a margin of what the built environment will look like subject to development objectives and funding opportunitiesdevelopment objectives and funding opportunities. P li d i h d i d d hPolicy drives the way spaces are designed, and the outcome of that design affects the way people behave and the subsequent amount of social cohesion whichand the subsequent amount of social cohesion which can occur.
  14. 14. THE USER The user should be at the center of the design, it is through the user and their use of spaceg p that one may create places. The human is the designers tool - Jan Gehl
  15. 15. MAGNETS Magnets are more than simply landmarks, because they embody meaning and elicit anbecause they embody meaning and elicit an emotional response and an action (Carmona d Ti d ll 2007)and Tiesdell, 2007).
  16. 16. MAGNETS
  17. 17. SEMIOTICS Individuals - a part of the production of space Signs - elements we attach meaning to Symbols - elements which have meaning As individuals we rely on familiar signs or symbols to transfer meaning into a space (Barthes, 1968). As users of a space we also become subjects and objectsAs users of a space we also become subjects and objects whereby we may observe the doing of others and others may observe us, and this creates the social production of space (Lefebvre, 1961).
  18. 18. PSYCHOLOGY Places are crucially significant in the satisfaction of biological, social, psychological and cultural needs they are therefore considered meaningful to the processes ofare therefore considered meaningful to the processes of self-identity (Aronson, Wilson, and Akert, 2010; Minton, 2009).2009). As users we seek the confirmation from others that whatAs users we seek the confirmation from others that what we are doing is socially acceptable (Aronson et al. 2010). Users will therefore seek places to sit or hang on2010). Users will therefore seek places to sit or hang on the edges of spaces or at other appropriate locations where they may have a decent view of the space (Bentley et al., 1985; Gehl, 2001).
  19. 19. THE RELATIONSHIP It is the sum of the physical design of a public space, the users, their activities, the social and cultural circumstances which together form a space withcircumstances which together form a space with meaning (Thwaites and Simkins, 2007). The experience of a place being influenced by culture will guide the choices user’s make in spaces through whichguide the choices user s make in spaces, through which elements of the built environment should reflect diversity in culture in order to bring people together (Israel, 2003).in culture in order to bring people together (Israel, 2003).
  20. 20. Place Space Place Design SemioticsSemiotics Sociology PerceptionSociology Perception Social Individual Psychology
  21. 21. PSYCHOLOGY Meyers-Levy, 2007
  22. 22. PHYSIOLOGY
  23. 23. https://dl- web dropbox cweb.dropbox.c om/get/Camer a%20Uploads/ 2013-07- 2%2012 08 152%2012.08.15 .jpg?w=AABR Vf4xeoBF98Tu EcqR8FWyeb BVsiiExulVq9PBVsiiExulVq9P 74qSBYg
  24. 24. CaveCad
  25. 25. Neuromarketing
  26. 26. Perfection PhD, ultimate space task vs environment user vs nature
  27. 27. Study How the built environment can contribute to the attenuation of a stress response? stress:stress: stimulus content stimulus valencestimulus valence
  28. 28. Sensory stimuli - Sight/ Perception - Hearing/ AuditoryHearing/ Auditory - Smell/ Olfactory T t / G t t- Taste/ Gustatory - Feel/ Somatosensory memory culture nature nurturememory, culture, nature - nurture psychology, physiology, physically, social, i tifineuroscientific
  29. 29. Brain... Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be atolny iprmoetnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamnsitll raed it wouthit porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Urban/architectural samples.Urban/architectural samples.
  30. 30. Valence a - b You - MeYou Me
  31. 31. SOME EXAMPLESSO S
  32. 32. HALLE ESQUILLAN http://www.spp ef.fr/wp- content/uloads 2012/11/Fontai nebleau- halle8.jpg
  33. 33. CHILDREN IN THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT
  34. 34. CHILDREN IN THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT
  35. 35. SHEFFIELD VS MIDDELBURG
  36. 36. ARTENA
  37. 37. Artena Familiar place positive or negative Reflect on how this feeling emerges. How to alter this?
  38. 38. WORKSHOP Elements in spaces you are familiar with which make you feel good?y g (mood, state, physical, physiological)
  39. 39. WORKSHOP Elements in spaces you are familiar with which make you feel good?y g (mood, state, physical, physiological) What? Why?
  40. 40. WORKSHOP Decision making - what tools can you use?Decision making what tools can you use? (conscious, unconscious)
  41. 41. WORKSHOP

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