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Towards Biourbanism by Antonio Caperna

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The urban body is composed of several interconnected layers of dynamic structure, all influencing each other in a non-linear manner. This interaction results in emergent properties, which are not …

The urban body is composed of several interconnected layers of dynamic structure, all influencing each other in a non-linear manner. This interaction results in emergent properties, which are not predictable except through a dynamical analysis of the connected whole. This approach therefore links Biourbanism to the Life Sciences

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  • 1. Gazi University, Department of Architecture EWTA 2011International Design Workshops on Tourism and Architecture T i d A hit tElective Course for Architectural Last Year Students 6/18 June, Aycalik (Turkey) Dr. Arch. Antonio Caperna, PhD E-mail: antonio.caperna@yahoo.it Antonio Caperna, PhD
  • 2. BIOURBANISMTOWARDS AN HUMAN ORIENTED DESIGN
  • 3. PART ONEArchitecture and context: XX centuryi. paradigmii. Policies, economy and societyiii. Architecture and urbanismPART TWOIntroduction to Biourbanism
  • 4. GENERAL OVERVIEW History, philosophy, policy, religion, science,CITY etc. Philosophy / culture XVII Shift Scientific revolutionCentury paradigm Industrial revolution ECONOMY ENERGY UNSUSTAINABLE SYSTEM CITY Ξ Pollution, waste, Pollution waste social and economical divide, urbanization, globalization, … POLICIES
  • 5. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORGThe Cartesian-Newtonian paradigm contends that thep yphysical world is made up of basic entities with distinct pproperties distinguishing one element from another.Isolating and reducing the physical world to is most basicentities, its separate parts, provides us with completelyknowable, predictable, and therefore controllable physicaluniverse. . . ni erse.The Cartesian Newtonian paradigm contends that the physical The Cartesian-Newtonianuniverse is governed by immutable laws and therefore isdetermined and predictable, like an enormous machine. Inprinciple,principle knowledge of the world could be complete in all itsdetails. (De Jong) Antonio Caperna,
  • 6. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORGAccording to Descartes, our world is:-The machine metaphor - universe asclockwork- Ph Phenomena can b reduced t simple be d d to i lcause & effect relationships governed bylinear laws- possible to comprehend it thought itsparts- formed by objects- relationships are not important
  • 7. Cultural, economical, Environmental and Architectural pattern.
  • 8. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORGGlobal Policy since 1950 has been an emphasis on:1. faster1 f t economic growth “growth fetish” i th “ th f ti h”2. the pursuit of economic growth is a sole measure of national success3.3 Increasing power in f I i i fewer hands h d4. Profit motive bottom line of corps5. lack of true cost accounting--environmental costs not included--it is treated t t d as public good and th exploited bli d d thus l it d6. Unregulated economic globalization without concern for social and environmental consequences7.7 Economic growth is measured by real rate of growth in a countrys total gro th meas red b gro th co ntr s output of goods and services or real GDP8. Elite powerbrokers/nations erected new politics, ideologies, and institutions predicated on these ideas/principles9. Harnessing fossil fuels played a central role in widening int’l wealth & power
  • 9. B I O URBANISM“Instead of an existentially grounded plastic andspatial experience, architecture has adopted thepsychological strategy of advertising and instantpersuasion; buildings have turned into imageproducts detached from existential depth andsincerity” (J. Pallasmaa)
  • 10. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORGMOBILITY’S IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT30% of the world’s energy consumption is used by the transport sector;People spend 10% of their time in transportMobility is critical for the functioning of our society
  • 11. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORGPeak oilSource: Energy Information AdministrationTheTh way i which cities and gadgets shall b d i in hi h iti d d t h ll be designed i th future shall d in the f t h llbe directly affected by the availability of fuels and resources.Will technology be the catalyst that allows us to deal with a resourceshortage?Is the rate at which our society progresses sustainable when our mostimportant primary resource is running out?
  • 12. Since 1979, the size of the summer polar ice cap has shrunk more than 20 percent.(Illustration from NASA) (http://www.nrdc.org/globalWarming/qthinice.asp)
  • 13. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORGWhat will Climate Change mean?Rising sea levels gincreased flooding and droughthotter summerswetter wintersmore freak weather eventsmillions of people on the move inAfrica and Asia -hunger, unrest, homelessness, diseaseconflict - water, food, resources
  • 14. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORGThe 20th Century Model Increased Consumption More Waste Generation Worldwide fossil fuel consumptionquintupled since 1950 Freshwater consumption doubledsince 1960
  • 15. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORGI. More environmental degradation than any pt in historyII. More inequality between humans than any pt in historyIII. More complexity to problems themselvesIV. Ideology that technology is part of “progress” that will save day; abstraction of natureV. massive population increase: both from increased consumption of earth’s resources and our ecological footprint (straining earth’s carrying capacity)VI. rapid technological innovation: permits massive extraction and exploitation of resources pVII. an explosion in energy use: 1 & 2 facilitate energy use, complemented by elite discourse promoting consumptive behaviorVIII. 4) economic integration: promoted through globalization (Fordism) led to mass consumerism and the “growth imperative” i ti ”
  • 16. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  • 17. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG essential problems of architecture1. There are issues of value, that cannot be separated from the main task of servingfunctional needs. Thus, aesthetics—dismissed as subjective in much contemporaryscience—lies at the core of architecture.2. There is the issue of context—a building grows out of, and must complement, theplace where it appears.3. There is the issue of design and creation - processes capable of generating unity.4.4 There is the issue of human feeling: since of course no building can be considered since, course,if it does not connect, somehow, to human feeling as an objective matter.5. There is the issue of ecological and sustainable and biological connection to theland.land6. There is the vital issue of social agreement regarding decision making in regards toa complex system: this arises naturally when hundreds of people need to makedecisions together – often the case in the human environment environment.7. There is the issue of emerging beauty of shape, as the goal and outcome of allprocesses.
  • 18. BIOURBANISM: A GENERAL OVERVIEW City form PolicyDemocratic (Bottom- Green Buildings up) processes ENERGY Renewable energies Societal, Grid energy system glo-cal e-gov e-democracy P2P urbanism BIO HUMAN ORIENTED DESIGN NETWORK URBANISM Reinforcement of life systems Biophilia Hypothesis Participatory Design Morphogenetic Design Environmental Psychology Change of Patterns Neurophysiology Cultural SHIFT PARADIGM Sensory Urbanism Economical Complex approach Educational
  • 19. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG BIOURBANISM MANIFESTO Antonio Caperna, Alessia Cerqua, Alessandro Giuliani, Nikos A. Salingaros, Stefano SerafiniBiourbanism focuses on the urban organism, considering it as a hypercomplexsystem, according to its internal and external dynamics and their mutualinteractions.interactionsThe urban body is composed of several interconnected layers of dynamic structure,all influencing each other in a non-linear manner. This interaction results in emergentp ope t es,properties, which are not predictable except through a dynamical analysis of the c a e ot p ed ctab e e cept t oug dy a ca a a ys s o t econnected whole. This approach therefore links Biourbanism to the Life Sciences,and to Integrated Systems Sciences like Statistical Mechanics, Thermodynamics,Operations Research, and Ecology in an essential manner. The similarity of p gy yapproaches lies not only in the common methodology, but also in the content of theresults (hence the prefix “Bio”), because the city represents the livingenvironment of the human species.Biourbanism recognizes “optimal forms” defined at different scales (from the purelyphysiological up to the ecological levels) which, through morphogenetic processes,guarantee an optimum of systemic efficiency and for the quality of life of theinhabitants. A design that does not follow these laws produces anti-natural, hostileenvironments, which do not fit into an individual’s evolution, and thus fail to enhancelife in any way.
  • 20. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG BIOURBANISM MANIFESTOThe aim of Biourbanism is to make a scientific contribution towards:(i) the development and implementation of the premises of DeepEcology on social-environmental grounds;(ii) the identification and actualization of environmentalenhancement according to the natural needs of human beings andthe ecosystem in which they live;(iii) managing the transition of the fossil fuel economy towards anew organizational model of civilization; and f(iv) deepening the organic interaction between cultural and physicalfactors in urban reality (as, for example, the geometry of socialaction, fluxes and networks study, etc.).
  • 21. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORGSHIFT PARADIGM Complexity science is a science of understanding changeù A loosely bound collection of ideas, principles and influences from a number of other bodies of knowledge, including chaos theory fractal geometry cybernetics y complex adaptive systems postmodernism systems thinking Discovery of similar patterns, processes and relationships in a wide variety of phenomena related to the nature and dynamics of change
  • 22. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORGComplex systems Collection of parts, which collectively parts have a range of dimensions Parts share an physical or symbolic environment / space Action by any part can affect the whole E.g. individuals, families, communities, cities, markets, societies populations economies, markets societies, populations, economies nations, planets
  • 23. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG… it includes a passage from: the part to the whole structure to process objective science to epistemology building to network as metaphor for knowledge truth to approximate descriptions Shifting Attitudes about the Environment Things versus Relations between Things Economy and Ecology versus Integration Techno-development versus Eco-development
  • 24. Complexity also means that systems need to be understood at different scales y y Communities Atom Organisms Molecule Tissue Cell Organs
  • 25. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG RECENT STUDYStress (Ulrich, 1993)heart rate blood pressure, relax muscle rate, pressuretension, increase alpha waves thatassociated with relaxation. (Ulrich et al.,1991)immune system functioning (Parsons,1991)a ety, ea , anger, aggression andanxiety, fear, a ge , agg ess o a dincreased feelings of well begin arecommon responses to natural settings((Ulrich, 1979, Hartig, Mang, & Evans, , , g, g, ,1991)Interaction in natural environments alsoincrease problem solving, creativity,capacity to concentrate and focus(Ulrich, 1993, Katcher& Wilkins, 1993)Enhances feelings of awe, mystery,spiritual transcendence (Besthorn&Saleeby, 2003)
  • 26. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORGMorphogenetics Design Process (MDP)
  • 27. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG MORPHOGENESYS The process can be seen clearly in embryogenesis where the whole embryogenesis, organism is going through a continuous transformation that preserves the whole, but also articulates new structures. And the process is clearly coded according to simple chemical operations at the molecular scale – but operations that quickly become vastly complex and interactive at larger scales.Comparison of bat and mouse limb embryogenesis – a process of stepwise differentiation ofwholes with new parts – but always preserving the whole
  • 28. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORGfractals in typical Ethiopianvillage architecture… organisms, computerprograms, buildings,neighbourhoods, andcities share the samegeneral rules governing acomplex hierarchicalsystem.
  • 29. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORGGloucester, cathedral, chiostro Granada : Alhambra
  • 30. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORGTraditional urbangeometry ischaracterized byfractal interfaces(Batty and Longley, Cobweb1994; Bovill, 1996;Frankhauser, 1994).Frankha ser 1994)The simplest definition Aerialof a fractal is a view ofstructure that shows Chinesecomplexity at any townmagnification
  • 31. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORGMusei Vaticani, Rome
  • 32. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG Nodes: chemicals (substrates)Metabolic Network Links: bio-chemical reactions Neuronal Network Music Internet
  • 33. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG P2PURBANISMP2P urbanismDefinition prepared by the “Peer-to-peer Urbanism Task Force” consisting of Antonio Caperna, Michael Mehaffy, GeetaMehta, Federico Mena-Quintero, Agatino Rizzo, Nikos A. Salingaros, Stefano Serafini, and Emanuele Strano
  • 34. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG RECENT STUDYStress (Ulrich, 1993)heart rate blood pressure, relax muscle rate, pressuretension, increase alpha waves thatassociated with relaxation. (Ulrich et al.,1991)immune system functioning (Parsons,1991)a ety, ea , anger, aggression andanxiety, fear, a ge , agg ess o a dincreased feelings of well begin arecommon responses to natural settings((Ulrich, 1979, Hartig, Mang, & Evans, , , g, g, ,1991)Interaction in natural environments alsoincrease problem solving, creativity,capacity to concentrate and focus(Ulrich, 1993, Katcher& Wilkins, 1993)Enhances feelings of awe, mystery,spiritual transcendence (Besthorn&Saleeby, 2003)
  • 35. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORGBIOPHILIAis the innately emotional affiliation ofhuman beings to other living organisms “Wilson and other Biophilia theoristsassert that human beings not onlyderive specific aesthetic benefits frominteracting with nature but that the nature,human species has an instinctive,genetically determined need todeeply affiliate with natural settingand life-forms.” (Besthorn& Saleeby,2003)
  • 36. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG What is Biophilia?“For human survival and mental health andfulfillment, we need the natural setting in whichthe h h human mind almost certainly evolved and in i d l i l l d diwhich culture has developed over these millionsof years of evolution ” evolution. An intersection between psychology and biology the p y gy gyconnection is genetic – it resides in the commonparts of our DNA
  • 37. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG BENEFIT FROM BIOPHILIC DESIGNWhat role does Green Space play in the Urban Environment? a o do pa p ay U ba o• Environmental• Psychological• Neurophysiological• Physical Health• Social
  • 38. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG• Contact with nature has been foundto enhance healing and recovery g yfrom illness and major surgicalprocedures, including direct contact(e.g., natural li h i( l lighting, vegetation), as i )well as representational and symbolicdepictions of nature (e g pictures) (e.g., pictures). Photos courtesy of Legacy Health System
  • 39. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG• Contact with nature has beenlinked to cognitive functioning g gon tasks requiring concentrationand memory.• Healthy childhood maturationand development has beencorrelated with contact withnatural features and settings. g• The human brain respondsfunctionally t sensory patternsf ti ll to ttand cues emanating from thenatural environment. environment
  • 40. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG• Communities with higher-qquality environments reveal ymore positive valuationsof nature, superior qualityof life, greater f lifneighborliness, and astronger sense of placethan communities of lowerenvironmental quality. q yThese findings also occurin poor urban as well asmore affluent and suburban ffl t d b bneighborhoods.
  • 41. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORGNeurophysiology is the study of nervous systemfunction Understand how our brain interact with urban i t t ith b environment in psychological, biological, emotional term Urban environment as communication system in physical, sensorial, psychological and biological term
  • 42. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORGEnvironmentalGardens & green space can account for 30-50% of city space andhelp mitigate many of the environmental problems associated withthe built environmentUrban ‘Heat Island’ effect Concrete & other building material absorb heat “Heat wave” in 2003 thought to cause 35,000 premature deaths incentral Europe Turf 25oC cooler than Asphalt Parks can be 5.9oC cooler at night than suburbs ‘Leafy’ suburb 2-3oC cooler than new suburb –(Wolf 2004) Trees in school playgrounds –surface temp 25oC cooler, air temp p yg p , p10oC cooler –(Moog-Soulis, 2002) 10% increase in city Greenspace–reduce temps by 4oC –(Gill et al.2007)
  • 43. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORGBuilding emulate natureThe most astonishing ventilation systems, h however, h have b been ddeveloped b l d by various species of termites. one example of sustainable architecture that uses dram atically less energy by imitat ing the successful strategies of indigenous natural syste ms. The building, the countr ys largest commercial and s hopping complex, uses the s ame heating and cooling pri nciples as a local termite mo und
  • 44. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORGBEST PRACTICES
  • 45. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORGaccess to open and/or moving water p / gThese more conventional waterfeatures are also accessible to themajority,majority are easier to maintain andcleaner than the traditional paddlingpool.
  • 46. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG Vegetable Façade• Edable fruits (e.g. Wine) (e g• Biomass production• Dust reduction• Heavy metal reduction• Thermal insulation• Energy savings• Noise reduction• Biodiversity• Evapotranspiration cooling
  • 47. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG Vegetable FaçadeCOPENHAGEN (DK) - In central Copenhagen a living map of Europe has appeared on thefacade of the European Environment Agency (EEA) offices. Designed by architect JohannaRossbach, with Mangor & Nagel Arkitektirma, the vegetative, custom-fitted screencelebrates the old continents biodiversity, with plants arranged according to theirrespective regional origins. Reflecting a burgeoning trend toward living facades in urbancontexts, the forward-thinking project stresses the use of indigenous species whenchoosing to green the urban environment, an essential step toward the preservation oflocal ecologies.
  • 48. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORGBy absorbing rainwater, the new Academy’s living roof will prevent up to 3.6 million y g y g p pgallons of runoff from carrying pollutants into the ecosystem each year (about 98% ofall storm water).Reclaimed water from the City of San Francisco will be used to flush the toilets,reducing the use of potable water for wastewater conveyance by 90%90%.
  • 49. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORGFolding Bamboo Houses
  • 50. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORGufficio nei boschi realizzato dagli architetti JoseSelgas e Lucia Cano Architects
  • 51. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG
  • 52. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORGVertical Garden, Fair Street Housing, London, United Kingdom
  • 53. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORGA sensory garden: A self-contained area that concentrates a wide range of sensory experiences. The Sonic Garden Lab at "Castello del Bisarno“, Firenze
  • 54. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORGRestoration of Angelo Mai’s Garden By y Katarzyna Urbanowicz Kalina Dobija – Dziubczynska
  • 55. Angelo Mai. Courtyard and garden
  • 56. Angelo Mai. Map of diagnosis
  • 57. PATTERNSschemes and treesof the main pattrens
  • 58. PLAN A-ASECTIONS B-B
  • 59. WATER CIRCULATION all the pools and fountains are connected, water circulates using the differences of the ground levels (with a pomp in one place) LABIRYNTH This part of the garden is more natural and created as an organiclabirynth with kind of ‘theme rooms . theme rooms’
  • 60. DIFFERENT KINDS OF SEAT SPOTS
  • 61. THE POOL WITH ‘GLASS BALLS’ CENTER 2’ Antonio Caperna, PhD
  • 62. THE POOL WITH ‘GLASS BALLS’CENTER 2’ Antonio Caperna, PhD
  • 63. WATER WALL CENTER 3’ Antonio Caperna, PhD
  • 64. THE POOL WITH WOODEN-BLOCK-PATHSOn the north boundary, there is quite a big but alsovery shallow pool. Many stones or wooden blockswhich finish over the water surface create paths on h hf h h f hthe water and let people choose thair own way ofpassing. The pool has two levels and is finished with kind of steps. Antonio Caperna, PhD
  • 65. THE POOL WITH WOODEN-BLOCK-PATHS
  • 66. ROOF TERRACES
  • 67. COFFEE – BOOKSHOP TERRACE Antonio Caperna, PhD
  • 68. COFFEE – BOOKSHOP TERRACE Antonio Caperna, PhD
  • 69. ReferencesAlexander, Christopher (2000) The Nature of Order (New York, Oxford University Press). (inpress)Alexander, C., Ishikawa, S., Silverstein, M., Jacobson, M., Fiksdahl-King, I. and Angel, S. (1977) APattern Language (New York, Oxford University Press). g g ( , y )Alexander, C., Neis, H., Anninou, A. and King, I. (1987) A New Theory of Urban Design (New York,Oxford University Press).Batty, Michael and Longley, Paul (1994) Fractal Cities (London, Academic Press).Bovill, Carl (1996) Fractal Geometry in Architecture and Design (Boston, Birkhäuser). , ( ) y g ( , )Salingaros, Nikos A. (1995) "The Laws of Architecture from a Physicists Perspective", PhysicsEssays, Vol. 8 pp. 638-643.Salingaros, Nikos A. (1998) "Theory of the Urban Web", Journal of Urban Design, Vol. 3 pp. 53-71.[[Earlier version ppublished electronically by Resource for Urban Design Information in 1997 y y gSalingaros, Nikos A. (1999) "Urban Space and its Information Field", Journal of Urban Design,Vol. 4 pp. 29-49.Salingaros, Nikos A. (2000) "Structure of Pattern Languages", Architectural Research Quarterly,Vol. 4 pp. 149-161. ppSalingaros, Nikos A. and West, Bruce J. (1999) "A Universal Rule for the Distribution of Sizes",Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, Vol. 26 pp. 909-923.Caperna A., Introduction to The Pattern Language, www.archimagazine.comCaperna A., ICT per un Progetto Urbano Sostenibile, www.tesionline.it p p ghttp://www.biourbanism.orghttp://www.pism.uniroma3.it
  • 70. References Nikos Salingaros, Twelve Lectures on Architecture. Algorithmic Sustainable Design, Solingen: UmbauVerlag, 2010. Nikos Salingaros, Antonio Caperna, Michael Mehaffy, Geeta Mehta, Federico Mena--Quintero, AgatinoRizzo, Stefano Serafini, Emanuele Strano, «A Definition of P2P (Peer-To‐Peer) Urbanism», AboutUsWiki, , , , ( ) , ,the P2P Foundation, DorfWiki, Peer to Peer Urbanism (September 2010). Presented by Nikos Salingaros atthe International Commons Conference, Heinrich Böll Foundation, Berlin, 1st November 2010. Milena De Matteis, Stefano Serafini (eds.), Progettare la città a misura d’uomo. L’alternativa ecologica delGruppo Salìngaros: una città p bella e p g pp g più più giusta, Rome: SIBU, 2010. , , Joseph P. Zbilut, Alessandro Giuliani, Simplicity. The Latent Order of Complexity, New York: Nova SciencePublishers, 2007. Christopher Alexander, The Nature of Order, 4 vol., Berkeley, CA: Center for Environmental Structure,2002-2005. Grant Hildebrand, Origins of architectural pleasure, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1999. Stephen R. Kellert, Edward O. Wilson (eds.), The Biophilia Hypotesis, Washington: Island Press, 1993. René Thom, Esquisse d’une Sémiophysique, Paris: InterEditions, 1991. Antonio Lima-de-Faria, Evolution without Selection. Form and Function by Autoevolution, London – New yYork – Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 1988. Gregory Bateson, Mind and Nature: A Necessary Unity (Advances in Systems Theory, Complexity, and theHuman Sciences), Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, 1979. Conrad H. Waddington, Tools for Thought, London: Jonathan Cape Ltd., 1977. g g p Edgar Morin, La Méthode: La Nature de la Nature, Paris: Seuil, 1977. Ludwig von Bertalanffy, General System Theory, New York: George Braziller, 1968.
  • 71. WWW.BIOURBANISM.ORGWWW.BIOURBANISM.ORG