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Landscape and Urban History leading to the Detection of Hidden Codes for Contemporary Urban Sprawl. Is this the Way Forward for the 21st Century Urbanism? by Eleni Tracada
 

Landscape and Urban History leading to the Detection of Hidden Codes for Contemporary Urban Sprawl. Is this the Way Forward for the 21st Century Urbanism? by Eleni Tracada

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For many years as a student at first and later as an architect, I had the opportunity to observe and study on specific areas inside the city of Florence, Italy. ...

For many years as a student at first and later as an architect, I had the opportunity to observe and study on specific areas inside the city of Florence, Italy.
Several interesting elements emerged from that research and also offered me the opportunity to discover ‘hidden’ paths and agendas in the development of special urban fabric; these strong indexical elements enable from time to time architecture to act as an originator of infinite solutions to a variety of public uses and demands.
Ongoing conversions inflicted to buildings for several centuries did not manage to make them loose specific qualities and identities at all.
Entire historical blocks in urban central areas continued to preserve their positive vigour in spite the efforts of being utterly altered by negative synergies, which were solicited by wrong policies and at the wrong times of history. Thus, rundown and abandoned areas had included for centuries these wonderful ‘hidden seeds’ which managed to emerge and recreate lost links; they became regeneration cells and also managed to guarantee further positive sprawl of the entire urban structure.
Architectural complexes managed to offer again new directions for new roles of the historical fabric; it was thought that we had lost them and/or erased from ordinary life in a city by changing their identity and uses. They managed to be finally freed and return to what it was thought to be their primordial destiny dictated by architecture and social synergies.

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    Landscape and Urban History leading to the Detection of Hidden Codes for Contemporary Urban Sprawl. Is this the Way Forward for the 21st Century Urbanism? by Eleni Tracada Landscape and Urban History leading to the Detection of Hidden Codes for Contemporary Urban Sprawl. Is this the Way Forward for the 21st Century Urbanism? by Eleni Tracada Presentation Transcript

    • I.S.B. Summer School, 21/28 July 2013 Neuroergonomics and Urban PlacemakingNeuroergonomics and Urban Placemaking Biourbanism for a Human-Centered Sustainability and Effectiveness
    • Faculty of Arts, Design & Technology Landscape and Urban History leading to the Detection ofLandscape and Urban History leading to the Detection ofp y gp y g Hidden Codes for Contemporary Urban Sprawl.Hidden Codes for Contemporary Urban Sprawl. Is this the Way Forward for the 21Is this the Way Forward for the 21stst Century Urbanism?Century Urbanism? P t ti bP t ti b El iEl i T dT dPresentation byPresentation by EleniEleni TracadaTracada On 26On 26thth July 2013July 2013On 26On 26thth July 2013July 2013
    • ‘Urban fabric and emergent architectureg following the rules of social historical indexes– hidden agenda in urban sprawl’ Personal research based uponPersonal research based uponPersonal research based uponPersonal research based upon field work in Florence led to:field work in Florence led to: Analysis of case studies of the phenomenaAnalysis of case studies of the phenomena encouraging ongoing and harmonious urban sprawlencouraging ongoing and harmonious urban sprawl (concealed energetic lines of paths forming a hidden(concealed energetic lines of paths forming a hidden(concealed energetic lines of paths forming a hidden,(concealed energetic lines of paths forming a hidden, unremitting agenda for future urban growth)unremitting agenda for future urban growth)
    • For many years as a student at first and later as an architect, I had the BackgroundBackground y y , opportunity to observe and study on specific areas inside the city of Florence, Italy. Several interesting elements emerged from that research and also offered me the opportunity to discover ‘hidden’ paths and agendas in the development of special urban fabric; these strong indexical elements enable from time to time architecture to act as an originator of infinite solutions to a variety of public uses and demands. Ongoing conversions inflicted to buildings for several centuries did not manage to make them loose specific qualities and identities at all. Entire historical blocks in urban central areas continued to preserve their positive i i it th ff t f b i tt l lt d b ti i hi hvigour in spite the efforts of being utterly altered by negative synergies, which were solicited by wrong policies and at the wrong times of history. Thus, rundown and abandoned areas had included for centuries these wonderful ‘hidden seeds’ which managed to emerge and recreate lost links; they became‘hidden seeds’ which managed to emerge and recreate lost links; they became regeneration cells and also managed to guarantee further positive sprawl of the entire urban structure. Architectural complexes managed to offer again new directions for new rolesArchitectural complexes managed to offer again new directions for new roles of the historical fabric; it was thought that we had lost them and/or erased from ordinary life in a city by changing their identity and uses. They managed to be finally freed and return to what it was thought to be their primordialto be finally freed and return to what it was thought to be their primordial destiny dictated by architecture and social synergies.
    • Natural genesis of the built environmentNatural genesis of the built environmentNatural genesis of the built environmentNatural genesis of the built environment • Lines, grids and energetic geometries • Line Performance and Actions/Emergence of the flows and spaces inflicted and affectedthe flows and spaces inflicted and affected by flaws • Built Environment as a complex system of manifestations of life genesis and growthmanifestations of life genesis and growth
    • Lines and Paths ‘O l th‘O l th h ih i ii h ih i ’ (K B tt 1980)’ (K B tt 1980)‘Only the‘Only the ever changingever changing isis never changingnever changing’ (Krome Barratt, 1980)’ (Krome Barratt, 1980)
    • Line Act/Performance/Flow/MovementLine Act/Performance/Flow/Movement ActAct ∧∧ AkAk-- Ak(c)Ak(c)--isis ∧∧ Edge, boundary & ruleEdge, boundary & rule Line pointing+piercing+penetrating into a spaceLine pointing+piercing+penetrating into a spaceLine pointing+piercing+penetrating into a spaceLine pointing+piercing+penetrating into a space ∧∧ Explosion of cosmic lines = Space/Explosion of cosmic lines = Space/ChCh‐‐orosoros ∧∧ Core of energetic flowsCore of energetic flows
    • Spaces are created by geometries and space for the artists becomes their real obsession. Artists, designers and architects have been fascinated at all times by geometries generated by pathlines’ mysticalfascinated at all times by geometries generated by pathlines mystical forcefulness able to create primordial shapes, cells and complex forms; ‘form comes to the real world when line moves along a creative f i Th i l l i f fperforming process. There is always an everlasting performance act of lines which penetrates space and defines it as a telic art.’ (Tracada, 2008) Space is without doubt related to everything concerning human life. Space into vocabulary has been related to time and duration as well,p y , whereas space denoting area or extension is a linear distance or interval between two or more points or objects. An exceptionally interesting aspect of space can be found in the ancient Greek word ch-interesting aspect of space can be found in the ancient Greek word ch òros, which contains the root òros (= edge, boundary, but also rule).
    • Pathlines and flows Energies of FormEnergies of Form –– Line GrowthLine Growth –– From Pictorial to 3DFrom Pictorial to 3D (P l Kl(P l Kl(Paul Klee(Paul Klee The thinking eye: NotebooksThe thinking eye: Notebooks--Volume 1Volume 1))
    • Complex geometriesComplex geometries –– gridsgrids –– cracking patternscracking patterns
    • Linear Tensions and NodesLinear Tensions and Nodes SnakeSnake--pathspaths (P l Kl(P l Kl Th thi ki N t b kTh thi ki N t b k V l 1V l 1))(Paul Klee(Paul Klee The thinking eye: NotebooksThe thinking eye: Notebooks--Volume 1Volume 1))
    • Undulating WaveUndulating Wave lines: Dramalines: DramaUndulating WaveUndulating Wave--lines: Dramalines: Drama Difficult Journey ThroughDifficult Journey Through by Paul Kleeby Paul Klee (1927)(1927)(1927)(1927)
    • HorizontalHorizontal--Vertical LineVertical Line--pathspaths Italian CityItalian City by Paul Klee (1928)by Paul Klee (1928)Italian CityItalian City by Paul Klee (1928)by Paul Klee (1928)
    • ‘Pathways drawn through landscape and enclosed into urban fabric‘Pathways drawn through landscape and enclosed into urban fabricPathways drawn through landscape and enclosed into urban fabricPathways drawn through landscape and enclosed into urban fabric may be considered as powerful elements of uninterrupted urbanmay be considered as powerful elements of uninterrupted urban development of every town and city around the globe We may beardevelopment of every town and city around the globe We may beardevelopment of every town and city around the globe. We may beardevelopment of every town and city around the globe. We may bear in mind that paths are nothing else than lines defined by geometricalin mind that paths are nothing else than lines defined by geometrical ti d l id d i d i l l t thti d l id d i d i l l t thconventions and also considered as indexical elements; they areconventions and also considered as indexical elements; they are strictly controlled by human performance inside both natural andstrictly controlled by human performance inside both natural and artificial or built environment.artificial or built environment. How can human beings motivated by emotions be soHow can human beings motivated by emotions be so rationalrational toto follow lines and also perform along these powerful elements in suchfollow lines and also perform along these powerful elements in such an intensive manner that art and architecture spiral out of them atan intensive manner that art and architecture spiral out of them at any moment ofany moment of everyday lifeeveryday life?? (Tracada, 2007)(Tracada, 2007)
    • Impact of flowsImpact of flowsImpact of flowsImpact of flows against boundariesagainst boundaries –– explosion ofexplosion of increasing linesincreasing lines Deflection through an angleDeflection through an angle (Paul Klee,(Paul Klee, The thinking eye:The thinking eye: NotebooksNotebooks Volume 1Volume 1))NotebooksNotebooks--Volume 1Volume 1))
    • Impact of flowsImpact of flows i t b d ii t b d iagainst boundariesagainst boundaries –– explosion ofexplosion of increasing linesincreasing linesincreasing linesincreasing lines Increase and decreaseIncrease and decrease (P l Kl(P l Kl Th thi kiTh thi ki(Paul Klee,(Paul Klee, The thinkingThe thinking eye: Notebookseye: Notebooks--Volume 1Volume 1))
    • StefanoStefano Buonsignori’sBuonsignori’s map of Florencemap of Florence (1584)(1584)(1584)(1584) RenaissanceRenaissance urban sprawl:urban sprawl: the first signs ofthe first signs of urban patternsurban patterns andand fractalfractalandand fractalfractal growthgrowth
    • Florence centre: core of flowsFlorence centre: core of flows The Second Third and FourthThe Second Third and Fourth Ring WallsRing WallsRing WallsRing Walls
    • P f Pi S l i’ t di (i th 1970 )P f Pi S l i’ t di (i th 1970 )Prof. Piero Sanpaolesi’s studies (in the 1970s) onProf. Piero Sanpaolesi’s studies (in the 1970s) on movements of pathlinesmovements of pathlines
    • The SS. Annunziata Piazza inThe SS. Annunziata Piazza in Florence: a popular andFlorence: a popular and successful open public spacesuccessful open public spacesuccessful open public spacesuccessful open public space until today.until today.
    • Th S ti i A i tTh S ti i A i tThe Santissima AnnunziataThe Santissima Annunziata Complex and the FibbiaiComplex and the Fibbiai streetstreet (the ‘river’ flows through an(the ‘river’ flows through an exex-- flood planflood plan-- now a piazza)now a piazza) (St d d i b E T d )(Study drawings by E. Tracada)
    • The Mugnone river’s course through Via del Castellaccio,The Mugnone river’s course through Via del Castellaccio, FlorenceFlorence
    • Main AxisMain Axis--line between the SS.line between the SS. Annunziata Church, the Cathedral andAnnunziata Church, the Cathedral and the ‘Signoria’ and Pitti Palacesthe ‘Signoria’ and Pitti Palaces Centre of FlorenceCentre of Florence
    • Geometric study of theGeometric study of the Santissima AnnunziataSantissima Annunziata SquareSquare--explosion of pathlinesexplosion of pathlinesSquareSquare explosion of pathlinesexplosion of pathlines (Study drawing by E. Tracada)
    • The SantissimaThe SantissimaThe SantissimaThe Santissima Annunziata Complex andAnnunziata Complex and The Innocenti Hospice:The Innocenti Hospice: S f l th lS f l th lSuccessful growth alongSuccessful growth along energetic pathsenergetic paths (Study drawings by E. Tracada)
    • The SantissimaThe SantissimaThe SantissimaThe Santissima Annunziata ComplexAnnunziata Complex and the Innocentiand the Innocenti H i (fi l d i )H i (fi l d i )Hospice (final design)Hospice (final design) (Study drawings by E Tracada)(Study drawings by E. Tracada)
    • The Santa Maria Nuova Hospital in Stefano Buonsignori’s Map (1584)The Santa Maria Nuova Hospital in Stefano Buonsignori’s Map (1584)
    • Successful growth alongSuccessful growth along energetic pathsenergetic pathsenergetic pathsenergetic paths Crossroads and internalCrossroads and internal diagnosis of growthdiagnosis of growth Plan of the complex of thePlan of the complex of the Santa Maria Nuova HospitalSanta Maria Nuova Hospital Florence (the ‘hidden’ pathFlorence (the ‘hidden’ pathFlorence (the ‘hidden’ pathFlorence (the ‘hidden’ path continues)continues)
    • Plan of the complex ofPlan of the complex of the Santa Maria Nuovathe Santa Maria Nuova H it l FlH it l FlHospital FlorenceHospital Florence (the ‘hidden’ path(the ‘hidden’ path continues, spreads incontinues, spreads in grids and starts newgrids and starts newgrids and starts newgrids and starts new expansions)expansions) The ‘hidden’ path inside the Santa Maria Nuova HospitalThe ‘hidden’ path inside the Santa Maria Nuova Hospital
    • Decisions of change and new growthDecisions of change and new growthDecisions of change and new growthDecisions of change and new growth •• What happens when the built environmentWhat happens when the built environment faces sudden destruction and unwantedfaces sudden destruction and unwanted alterations?alterations? •• How does Urbanism see ‘healing’How does Urbanism see ‘healing’ processes?processes?processes?processes? •• Is there any life after death of parts ofIs there any life after death of parts of urban growth?urban growth?gg
    • Florence:Florence: 1 Th ff t d b th i i 19441 Th ff t d b th i i 19441. The areas affected by the mines in 19441. The areas affected by the mines in 1944 2. The areas before and after the demolition2. The areas before and after the demolition
    • 1. The Por Santa Maria area.1. The Por Santa Maria area. 2 People using rubble as2 People using rubble as2. People using rubble as2. People using rubble as bridge.bridge.
    • 1. South Ponte Vecchio area:The Ridolfi tower1. South Ponte Vecchio area:The Ridolfi tower 2. 1950s: The Borgo S. Jacopo area2. 1950s: The Borgo S. Jacopo area
    • Giovanni Michelucci’sGiovanni Michelucci’s modern Florence that wemodern Florence that we shall never see.shall never see. Urban diagnosis shows startUrban diagnosis shows startUrban diagnosis shows startUrban diagnosis shows start for new elements of growth:for new elements of growth: pathlines and new visualpathlines and new visual referencesreferencesreferencesreferences
    • Giovanni Michelucci referring to what ideal design ob buildings and cities should be:buildings and cities should be: ‘la possibilità di tradurre murando, le mie sensazioni e riflessioni,‘la possibilità di tradurre murando, le mie sensazioni e riflessioni, l’ammirazione o il piacere o lo stupore che provo in un racconto magaril’ammirazione o il piacere o lo stupore che provo in un racconto magaril ammirazione o il piacere o lo stupore che provo, in un racconto magaril ammirazione o il piacere o lo stupore che provo, in un racconto magari una favola per chi ancora credendo nella possibilità di far rivivere unauna favola per chi ancora credendo nella possibilità di far rivivere una società all’interno di una società condannata, non ha perduto tutto dell’società all’interno di una società condannata, non ha perduto tutto dell’ infanzia, la scoperta quotidiana del mondo e le sue speranze’infanzia, la scoperta quotidiana del mondo e le sue speranze’ (=the opportunity of translating(=the opportunity of translating --by means of a buildingby means of a building-- my feelings andmy feelings and reflections, my admiration or love or surprise, in some sort of narrative;reflections, my admiration or love or surprise, in some sort of narrative; maybe some sort of dream, for people like me who still believe in themaybe some sort of dream, for people like me who still believe in the likelihood of a society’s revitalization inside a damned world; may be forlikelihood of a society’s revitalization inside a damned world; may be forlikelihood of a society s revitalization inside a damned world; may be forlikelihood of a society s revitalization inside a damned world; may be for people who did not loose entirely touch with their childhood and newpeople who did not loose entirely touch with their childhood and new everyday discovery of a world of hope)everyday discovery of a world of hope) (Giovanni Michelucci, 1962,(Giovanni Michelucci, 1962, L’Architettura. Cronache e storia)L’Architettura. Cronache e storia)(Giovanni Michelucci, 1962,(Giovanni Michelucci, 1962, L Architettura. Cronache e storia)L Architettura. Cronache e storia) As an architect and researcher today, my hope should be to recover andAs an architect and researcher today, my hope should be to recover and make factual use of all these hidden codes in historical city context; mymake factual use of all these hidden codes in historical city context; mymake factual use of all these hidden codes in historical city context; mymake factual use of all these hidden codes in historical city context; my main aim should be to read through these core messages to be able tomain aim should be to read through these core messages to be able to propose new frameworks for future successful development. Masterpropose new frameworks for future successful development. Master planning should be a responsible work based upon active, ongoingplanning should be a responsible work based upon active, ongoing historical research on architect re And th s I am no in ol ed ith thehistorical research on architect re And th s I am no in ol ed ith thehistorical research on architecture. And thus, I am now involved with thehistorical research on architecture. And thus, I am now involved with the International Society of BIOURBANISMInternational Society of BIOURBANISM
    • Diagnosis and growthDiagnosis and growthg gg g
    • Energetic power ofEnergetic power of crossroadscrossroadscrossroadscrossroads
    • Why I am involved in:Why I am involved in:Why I am involved in:Why I am involved in:
    • Definition prepared by the “Biourbanism Task Force” consisting of Antonio Caperna Alessia Cerqua Alessandroconsisting of Antonio Caperna, Alessia Cerqua, Alessandro Giuliani, Nikos A. Salingaros, Stefano Serafini http://www.biourbanism.org/ Biourbanism focuses on the urban organism, considering it as a hypercomplex system, according to its internal and external dynamics and their mutual interactions. The urban body is composed of several interconnected layers of dynamic structure, all influencing each other in a non-linear manner. This interaction results in emergent properties, which are not predictable except through a dynamicalg p p p p g y analysis of the connected whole. This approach therefore links Biourbanism to the Life Sciences, and to Integrated Systems Sciences like Statistical Mechanics, Thermodynamics, Operations Research, and Ecology in an essential manner. The similarity of approaches lies not only in the common methodology, but also in the content of the results (hence the prefix “Bio”), because the city represents the living environment of the human species. Biourbanism recognizes “optimal forms” f ff (f )defined at different scales (from the purely physiological up to the ecological levels) which, through morphogenetic processes, guarantee an optimum of systemic efficiency and for the quality of life of the inhabitants. A design that does not follow th l d ti t l h til i t hi h d t fit i tthese laws produces anti-natural, hostile environments, which do not fit into an individual’s evolution, and thus fail to enhance life in any way.
    • Fractal coupling forcesFractal coupling forces ‘Traditional urban geometry is characterised by fractal interfaces’fractal interfaces (Batty & Longley, 1994; Bovill, 1996; Frankhauser, 1994; Salingaros 2005)1994; Salingaros, 2005) Maps of Florence, Italy
    • Fractal coupling forcesFractal coupling forces • Fractal is a structure that shows complexity at any magnification;g ; • Continuous straight-line or plane boundaries and edgesg p g dividing one region from another are an exception rather than a rule in living cities; • ‘A successful urban interface resembles either a permeable membrane with holes to allow for interchange or a folded curtain with an edge that looks like a meandering river on a plan ’ (Salingaros 2005)meandering river on a plan. (Salingaros, 2005)
    • Fractal coupling forcesFractal coupling forces • Figure 4: Colonnades, arcades, rows of houses and shops with gaps for cross-paths correspond to fractal surfaces/porouscorrespond to fractal surfaces/porous membrane filters. • Perforations or gaps are useful when they occur on the scales 1metre – 3 metresoccur on the scales 1metre – 3 metres corresponding to the size and physical movements of a pedestrian (Urban coherence on the human scale) • Figure 3: Urban interfaces tend to be convoluted; an impermeable building edge couples by interweaving with its adjoining space Convolution or folding provides aspace. Convolution or folding provides a greater contact area, encouraging human events to take place (filtered pedestrian movement in the marketplace and humanp contact and interchange occurring in the folds of a building’s edge up to the urban folding that creates a semi-enclosed plaza).
    • Empty regions/modules • A minimalist design for buildings prevents urban geometrical h b th ll tcoherence, because the smallest scale influences the largest scale; • Regions that contain nog information cannot couple among themselves; • Empty modules can only couple• Empty modules can only couple with other elements having internal geometric properties • ‘Coupling is achieved by totally surrounding a void with a structured boundary on the samey scale, like putting a substantial frame on a mirror’ (Alexander, 2002) This happens in Figure 72002). This happens in Figure 7.
    • Coupling at buildings' edgesp g g g ‘Edges and interfaces areg complex, fractal lines that make up a living city: theyp g y y define spaces and built structures and not the other way around. A city is made of interactive edges along whichg g much of the human interaction that makes a city “alive”y actually takes place.’ (Salingaros, 2005)( g )
    • A City’s Composition • Geometrical continuity: geometrical coupling ofgeometrical coupling of structures next to each other (on the left).(on the left). • Although here the nodes (black disks) are depicted as(black disks) are depicted as buildings, a node can also be a square a park anbe a square, a park, an interface or a pattern. • Here a line between nodes• Here, a line between nodes represents adjacency (= continuity)continuity)
    • Some types of connectivitySome types of connectivity  Geometrical continuity  Path connectivity among nodes (units)  Exchange of people Exchange of people  Exchange of information
    • A city may be decomposed in various ways, such as: 1 I t b ildi b i it d th i i t ti i1. Into buildings as basic units and their interactions via paths. 2 As a collection of paths anchored and guided by2. As a collection of paths anchored and guided by buildings (urban web). 3. As external and internal spaces connected by pathsp y p and reinforced by buildings (Alexander, 2002) 4. As the edges and interfaces that define spaces and built structures (Alexander 2002 in Complexity andbuilt structures (Alexander, 2002 in Complexity and Urban Coherence) 5. Into patterns of human activity and interaction at urban5. Into patterns of human activity and interaction at urban edges and interfaces (Alexander, 1977 in The Structure of Pattern Languages)
    • Urban modules and connective forces
    • Urban modules and connective forces
    • U b d l dUrban modules and geometrical alignment
    • Cities evolve th itheir own organic/fractal form
    • Fractal Cityy A mathematicala e a ca fractal: 1 Has str ct re1. Has structure on all levels of scale 2. Is self i ilsimilar.
    • Non-fractal modernist cityy ‘Living cities have a vastly larger number oflarger number of connections between nodes than one expects from the modernist cityfrom the modernist city. For such connections to develop naturally, they require an enormousrequire an enormous variety of nodes in close mixing. Monofunctional i th i t lzoning – the pivotal notion of CIAM urban planning – is thereby h ( th l ft) tshown (on the left) to prevent life in a city.’ (Salingaros, 2005)
    • Fractal models of planning ‘The ideal city of Le Corbusier is a purely large-scale conception hence nonconception, hence non- fractal. Its components are skyscrapers, highways, and vast paved open spaces Levast paved open spaces. Le Corbusier drew skyscrapers sitting in a giant park … t t ll i j d d h t hitotally misjudged what his “city of the future” would look like. His skyscrapers did i d d l th t diti lindeed replace the traditional urban fabric, but they don’t sit in giant parks – urban f di t t th t thforces dictate that they instead sit in huge parking lots.’ (Salingaros, 2005)
    • Fractal models of planning ‘Today, governments lay down exclusively car cities, or come in and destroy an existingin and destroy an existing pedestrian city in order to transform it into a car city pieces of the oldcity…pieces of the old pedestrian city might survive to provide at least some t f b lif (if thremnants of urban life (if the state machine is truly efficient, nothing will be left). F thi it i t lFor this reason, it is extremely difficult to transform a post- war car city or suburb into a d t i it h tpedestrian city – one has to rebuild a new pedestrian network into a car city.’ (Salingaros, 2005)
    • Connectivity and the urban web
    • References and Recommended reading • Salingaros, N. A. Complexity and Urban C h iCoherence in http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1 080/713683969 • http://zeta.math.utsa.edu/~yxk833/fractal coast.pdf • http://cybergeo.revues.org/3275
    • Recommended readingRecommended reading Pl d thi t i l ti l i th• Please, read this controversial article in the Journal of Anthropology (some points may be referring mostly to pollution); observation onreferring mostly to pollution); observation on “growth” can be considered and discussed: Hern, W. M., Urban Malignancy: Similarity in the Fractal Dimensions of Urban Morphologythe Fractal Dimensions of Urban Morphology and Malignant Neoplasms in http://www.drhern.com/pdfs/urbanmalignancy.pdfhttp://www.drhern.com/pdfs/urbanmalignancy.pdf
    • And finally article that came to myy y attention through my P2P networking:networking: Michael Mehaffy and Nikos Salingarosy g Frontiers of Design Science in htt // t li / /2011110http://www.metropolismag.com/pov/2011110 1/frontiers-of-design-science#more-21697
    • And finally this latest article thaty came to my attention through my P2P networking:P2P networking: Michael Mehaffy and Nikos Salingarosy g Frontiers of Design Science in htt // t li / /2011110http://www.metropolismag.com/pov/2011110 1/frontiers-of-design-science#more-21697
    • Many thanks for yourMany thanks for your attentionattention G i l’ tt iG i l’ tt iGrazie per l’attenzioneGrazie per l’attenzione Any questions?Any questions?y qy q Qualche domanda ora?Qualche domanda ora?