Designing a City for all senses. By Antonio Caperna


Published on

Universal design and urban environment
• Theoretical aspect
• Technical aspect
• examples

Published in: Education
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Designing a City for all senses. By Antonio Caperna

  1. 1. International workshop Sensing the City Gdensk, Poland (18/10/2009 – 31/10/2009)COORDINATORGdansk University of Technology - Politechnika Gdańska – Polandà degli Studi Roma Tre – Italy, www.pism.uniroma3.itUniversidad de Alcala’ - Spain Alcala www.uah.esUniversità degli Studi dell’Aquilla – Italy
  2. 2. Università degli Studi Roma Tre - Dipartimento di Studi Urbani i i 3 it Dr. Antonio Caperna, PhD
  3. 3. Dr. Antonio Caperna, PhDantonio.caperna@yahoo.itantonio caperna@yahoo it Designing a city for all (senses)
  4. 4. CONTENTS1. General overview about disabilities2. Universal design and urban environment • Theoretical aspect • Technical aspect • examples p
  5. 5. Disability:Medical a d Soc a model ed ca and Social ode
  6. 6. Disability: Medical and Social modelA disabled person is onewho has a condition called adisability that interferes withhis or her ability to performone or more activities ofeveryday living.For example, locomotion(indoors and going outside),(i d d i id )getting dressed,communicating with others
  7. 7. Disability: Medical and Social modelForm of disabilitiesDisability may involve physical impairment, sensoryimpairment, cognitive or i t ll t l ii i t iti intellectual impairment, mental i t t ldisorder, or various types of chronic disease.
  8. 8. Disability: Medical and Social modelDifferent problems, different needs Multisensorial design Multiply M lti l approach h To take into account multiply options and combine it
  9. 9. Disability: Medical and Social modelBUT….“disabled” is an identitythat one is not necessarilyborn with, as disabilitiesare more often acquiredthan congenital.e.g. TAB, Temporarily Able-Bodiedmany people will develop disabilities at some point in yp p p ptheir lives, due to accidents, illness (physical, mentalor emotional), or late-emerging effects of genetics.
  10. 10. Disability: Medical and Social model…..Disability refers to thesocial effects ofp ys ca , e ot o a ophysical, emotional ormental impairment We can talk about “social model of “ i l d l f disability”
  11. 11. Disability: Medical and Social model the real issue is the societal response to disabilityif a community: allows physical, architectural, ll h i l hit t ltransportation, and other barriers toremain in place, society is creatinghandicaps that oppress individualswith disabilities. removes those barriers, persons barrierswith disabilities can function at muchhigher levels
  12. 12. UniversalUni ersal design principles
  13. 13. Universal design principlesUniversal designis an approach to the design ofproducts, services andenvironments to be usable by asmany people as possibleregardless of age ability or age,situation.It links directly to the politicalconcept of an inclusive societyand its importance has beenrecognized b governments, i d by tbusiness and industry.
  14. 14. Universal design principlesPrinciples developed by the Centre for Universal Design, North CarolinaState UniversityPrinciple 1: Equitable Use p qPrinciple 2: Flexibility in UsePrinciple 3: Simple and Intuitive UsePrinciple 4: Perceptible InformationPrinciple 5: Tolerance for ErrorPrinciple 6: Low Physical EffortPrinciple 7: Size and Space for Approach and Use
  15. 15. Universal design principles
  16. 16. … To transform the constrains into opportunityUniversal Design and urban environment
  17. 17. Ethics, Social WHY/WHAT / inclusion, inclusionUNIVERSAL HOW? Change DESIGN paradigm WHERE Industrial design Web design Urban Environment …. URBAN ENVIRONMENT
  18. 18. Universal Design and urban environment Problem concern Indoor Outdoorenvironment environment Theoretical aspect Houses Flats work-place Technical aspect public offices… Existing spaces New spaces
  19. 19. UD and Urban Environment Universal Design and urban environment Urban Environment Problem concernHistorical modern cities cities
  20. 20. architectural barriersphysical obstructions h i l b t ti
  21. 21. architectural barrierssafety,safetyhierarchy and clear differencesfrom pedes a spaces a d o pedestrian andvehicular traffic,paving,ppedestrian crossing, gsignals
  22. 22. architectural barriersinformationlack of signals or too much info that allowthe o e a o a d the recognizability o e orientation and e ecog ab y ofthe places and the sources of danger
  23. 23. Universal Design and urban environment Realization of “informational modules” or tactile maps in tube station, bus stop, public buildings, etc.
  24. 24. architectural barrierssituation of discomfort, discomfortabsence of accessible toilettes,information points,abse ce of public service or green areas,absence o pub c se ce o g ee a eas,etc.
  25. 25. architectural barriersdifferences of levels, slopesdistances
  26. 26. Universal Design and urban environment Outdoo e Outdoor environment o e tA practical and Theoretical tool
  27. 27. Universal Design and urban environment Identification of the needs piazza Navona (Rome)
  28. 28. site Universal Design and urban environment
  29. 29. Universal Design and urban environmentWe must consider all aspects of the outdoor environment:■ street network, shape and type; t t t k h dt■ open space;■ junctions;■ materials and kerbs;■ street/footway widths; y■ street furniture, including seating and signage Cultural and Architectural heritage
  30. 30. Universal Design and urban environment GOAL Urban space should have certain qualities if it is to be responsive to human feelings and sensibilities gA legible environment - hierarchy of street types, Entrances to places and buildings are clearlyvisible and obviousA distinctive environment - Urban and building form is varied There is a variety of landmarksincluding historic and civic buildings, distinctive structures andplaces of activity, Architectural features are in a variety of styles colours and materials activity styles,A safe environment - Bicycle lanes are separate from footways, Paving is flat, smooth and non-slip, Street lighting is adequate for people with visual impairments, Level changes are clearlymarkedPhysical and mental health - Opportunities for exercise and access to fresh airMobility - Ease of access to facilities/amenities and open space (inc. with assistive technology); (incwayfinding ability and ability to go outSense of community - Belonging and social support networksAutonomy and control - Independence, self-actualisation, self-esteem, and self-efficacy….
  31. 31. Basic Access refers to people’s ability to access goods, services andactivities that society considers particularly important (also called essentialor lifeline).Basic Access typically includes: Emergency services (police, fire, ambulances, etc.) Public services and utilities Health care Basic food and clothing Education and employment (commuting) Mail and package distribution Freight delivery A certain amount of social and recreational activities
  32. 32. Application
  33. 33. ANALYSIS Universal Design and urban environment
  34. 34. Universal Design and urban environment Buildings (public or private) Ministry of Culture Municipality others Source. Prof. Arch. Fabrizio Vescovo, Progetto pilota per il centro storico
  35. 35. Universal Design and urban environment Road network Parking areas Pedestrian a eas edest a areas Small roads Bus stop Taxi t ti T i station Source. Prof. Arch. Fabrizio Vescovo, Progetto pilota per il centro storico
  36. 36. Universal Design and urban environment services Religious building Public offices Cultural buildings Health H lth services i Commercial roads Source. Prof. Arch. Fabrizio Vescovo, Progetto pilota per il centro storico
  37. 37. Universal Design and urban environment Architectural heritage A hit t l h it Source. Prof. Arch. Fabrizio Vescovo, Progetto pilota per il centro storico
  38. 38. Universal Design and urban environmentROADS Source. Prof. Arch. Fabrizio Vescovo, Progetto pilota per il centro storico
  39. 39. Universal Design and urban environmentPROBLEM IDENTIFICATION• Obstacles and protruding elements in the path of travel• Low overhanging signs• Lack of warning signs around obstructions• Sidewalk narrow• Rubbish skips• Car C parkingki• disconnected road is cause of danger• Absence of blind guide• Communication at bus stop bus-stop• Sidewalk• Paving of the road improve the sound of the traffic• Car/motorbyke parking• Low level of communication Source. Dr. Antonio Caperna, Accessibilità nel Rione Monti di Roma
  40. 40. Universal Design and urban environmentTheoretical and technical Suggestion
  41. 41. Universal Design and urban environmentGoalReinforcement ofNodesConnectionsHierarchy
  42. 42. Universal Design and urban environment Primary ways Secondary roads Main d M i nodes Secondary nodes Services Reserved parking Informational points Electric cars or scooters Electric busses Blind guide Source. Prof. Arch. Fabrizio Vescovo, Progetto pilota per il centro storico
  43. 43. Universal Design and urban environmentObstructions• include street furniture, traffic signs, signs direction signs street signs, Overhanging signs in plans, bollards, plants, trees, accessible pathways should shop awnings and advertising be mounted at a minimum clear height of 2.00m to allow signs, etc. signs etc a sightless person to pass• should be placed outside the safely path of travel wherever possible. ibl• in the pathway should be easy to detect, and if possible, should be placed along one continuous line Overhanging vegetation• The minimum width of a clear should be clipped to a unobstructed path should be minimum clear height of 0.90 m 2.00 m
  44. 44. Universal Design and urban environmentPATHWAYSPLANNING PRINCIPLETo provide clear, obstruction-free, level and wide pathways for theconvenience of all usersPROBLEM Uneven curbs with obstacles and holes. Inconvenient or dangerous interruptions in the p g p path of travel. Insufficient width. Changes in level.CONSIDERATIONSStreet pavements,pedestrian passages in open spaces and recreational areas,pedestrian underpasses and overpasses are all considered pathways orramps.…
  45. 45. Universal Design and urban environmentQuestions (check-list) Is the pathway clear of obstructions? Is the path of travel free of steps or stairs? Is the path of travel easy to detect? Is the pathway at least 0.90 m wide? Is the surface, level, smooth and non-slip? Does the pathway have a different colour and texture than the adjacent surfaces? Are manholes placed outside the pedestrian path of travel? Is grating flush with the surface of the pathway? Are the grating openings narrow, not more than 13 mm? Are the edges of raised pathways protected? Are the plant varieties used obstructive to the pathway? ……
  46. 46. Universal Design and urban environment
  47. 47. Universal Design and urban environmentPEDESTRIAN CROSSINGSPRINCIPLETo facilitate the safe and independent crossing of all people.PROBLEM Uneven road surface. Lack of guide strips. Lack of warning marking for crossings. Gratings on the road surface. G i h d fCONSIDERATIONS Pedestrian P d t i crossings should b equipped with t ffi control signals i h ld be i d ith traffic t l i l Low-traffic crossings frequently used by disabled people can be controlled by apedestrian push-button system Constructing traffic islands to reduce the length of the crossing isrecommended for the safety of all road users The road surface should be firm, well-drained, non-slip and free of constructionjoints
  48. 48. Universal Design and urban environmentPedestrians should have priority to the road trafficIt is important to force the drivers to reduce their speed.This can be achieved in different ways:• Traffic islands to reduce the length of the crossing for pedestrians and the width of the roadcrossed• The road surface at pedestrian crossings can be raised to the same level as the pathway• Speed control measures: speed humps or chicanes just before the pedestrian crossings j g
  49. 49. Universal Design and urban environment Guide strips Guide strips should be constructed to indicate the position of pedestrian crossings for the benefit of sightless pedestrians A guide strip should lead to pedestrian light poles with push buttons for the benefit of the visually disabled.
  50. 50. Universal Design and urban environmentTraffic island Light, .. Source. Prof. Arch. Fabrizio Vescovo
  51. 51. Universal Design and urban environmentSTREET FURNITUREPLANNING PRINCIPLETo design accessible amenities convenient to all people, without obstructing the freepassage of pedestrians along travel routes.PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION Lack of or improper design of street furniture. Obstructed pathways. Inaccessible street facilities facilities.DESIGN CONSIDERATIONSstreet furniture includesbus stops, mail boxes, lampposts, signboards, telephone booths, public toilets, newspaperkiosks, planting tubs, garbage bins, etc.
  52. 52. Universal Design and urban environmentPark benches Source. Prof. Arch. Fabrizio Vescovo,
  53. 53. Universal Design and urban environmentOptimal di tO ti l distance between park benches b t kb h Adoption of ischial sittings Source. Arch. Fabrizio Vescovo
  54. 54. Universal Design and urban environment For outdoor parking, accessible parking spaces should be located not more than 50 m from accessible building entrances. PARKING
  55. 55. Universal Design and urban environmentRAMPS Inaccessible building entrances due to difference between indoor and outdoor levels. Inaccessible routes due to differences in level. The maximum recommended slope of ramps is 1:20. Steeper slopes may be allowed in special cases depending on p p g the length to be covered
  56. 56. Universal Design and urban environment Natural and artificial guide
  57. 57. Universal Design and urban environmentNatural orientationpointsSmelling elements such as flowerboxes with strong smelling plants,the exhaust of busses … Acoustic elements such as water (fontain), by using the grit of shells on the floor the own footsteps and those of other people can be heard what creates safety
  58. 58. Universal Design and urban environmentTangible elements such as diffrentstructures in the floo breezes, … t t e floor, b ee eTangible tiles have diffrent functions:- Give orientation and direction- Indicate danger- Symbolic value
  59. 59. Universal Design and urban environmentHandrail. tactile maps in tube station,bus stop public building, etc. stop, building etc
  60. 60. Universal Design and urban environment Train platform
  61. 61. Universal Design and urban environment ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY
  62. 62. Universal Design and urban environmentAssistive Technology for Students With DisabilitiesA i ti T h l f St d t Di biliti
  63. 63. Universal Design and urban environment PILOT LIGHT - miniradarCon il PILOT-LIGHT il non-vedente potrà:- conoscere i colori dei semafori (tutti e tre)- conoscere il numero di linea e leventuale direzione dei mezzipubblici (es. autobus numero 5 diretto alla stazione)- trovare le cabine telefoniche , sapere se sono libere od occupate- "leggere" i tabelloni-orari-partenze dei treni o degli aerei-ttrovare i bi i di partenza, posti di polizia, bi li tt i b t il tt binari t ti li i biglietterie, bar, toilette,deposito bagagli, taxi, eccetera.- visitare i musei, individuare le opere esposte ed averne ladescrizione- servirsi del Bancomat ed essere pilotato nelle varie fasi- andare a teatro ed avere la descrizione delle scene- , si sono attrezzate banche, farmacie e la stazione ferroviaria.….Blind people can:-Cross the main street because the system is connectedwith the traffic light-- which b go t th main station hi h bus to the i t ti- “read” the time table, know the platform, the policestation, ticket point, left luggage office, bar, toilette…- go to theater and have a description of the scenes g p
  64. 64. Universal Design and urban environment BEST PRACTICES
  65. 65. Universal Design and urban environment MUSEUM Museo Tattile Statale Omero Touching artUffizi quattro capolavori in rilievo per i non vedentiRitratto del Duca di Urbino di Piero della Francesca, del Ritratto di Ritratto Urbino Ritrattogiovane con medaglia di Botticelli, del Ritratto di Cosimo il Vecchio delPontormo e della splendida Madonna del cardellino di Raffaello Touch faces, bodies gestures, expressions, faces bodies, gestures expressions discover volumes and perspective with your own hands. The Museo Tattile Statale Omero was created to fill this gap in the range of cultural services for the non- non sighted, and also to offer an innovative space where artistic perception passes through multi-sense, and not just visual, stimuli.
  66. 66. Universal Design and urban environmentTiber islandAccessibility is guaranteed by liftsupported by people that help disablepeople
  67. 67. Universal Design and urban environment Coliseum
  68. 68. Universal Design and urban environmentMusei Capitolini
  69. 69. Universal Design and urban environmentMusei Capitolini
  70. 70. Universal Design and urban environment Villa d’Este (Tivoli, Rome)Terraced garden
  71. 71. Universal Design and urban environmentVilla d’Este (Tivoli, Rome)
  72. 72. Universal Design and urban environment PALATINO FORUM - ARCHEOLOGICAL AREA
  73. 73. Universal Design and urban environment PALATINO FORUM ARCHEOLOGICAL AREA
  74. 74. Universal Design and urban environment OUR CHALLENGES AS ARCHITECT changing paradigm ethical issue UD as creative challenge ti h ll Social inclusion Demographic Change in Europe, the most significantimpact will be the ageing population in Europe. By 2050 34.5 % will beover the age of 60 years old. Economic Impacts and Opportunities Preserve an make accessible the historical heritage …
  75. 75. REFERENCES Vescovo F. (1996). Progettare per tutti senza barriere architettoniche. Criteri edorientamenti per facilitare laccessibilità urbana ed il comfort ambientale. Maggioli Empler T., (1997). Progettare il confort urbano e dinterni. Guida a una progettazioneplurisensoriale.plurisensoriale Maggioli Norvegian State Council on Disability, Universal Design. Planning and Design for All,Oslo, Sweden 1997 Ostroff, E., preiser, W. F.E. ( p (eds.), Universal Design Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, ) g2001 Clarkson P.J., R. Coleman, S. Keates (2003). Inclusive Design: Design for the WholePopulation, Springer Argentin I Clemente M Empler T Eliminazione barriere architettoniche progettare I., M., T., architettoniche,per una utenza ampliata, DEI, Tipografia del Genio Civile, 2004 Laurìa A. (a cura di), Persone “reali” e progettazione dellambiente costruito.Laccessibilità come risorsa per la q p qualità ambientale, Maggioli, Rimini, 2003. ggInternetwww.progettarepertutti.org sintlucas be/did2/
  76. 76. Dr. Antonio Caperna is Senior Lecturer at Postgraduate Master Course in Interactive SustainableDesign and Multimedia - Università di Roma Tre (Italy).He has a strong background in Architecture and Urbanism, with a p g g , particular interest in sustainability, y,the digital technology (Information Communication Technology) and urban environment, and thetheory of complex systems applied to urban design.His academic experience dues in several international context (St. Lucas School of ArchitectureBrussels-Ghent, Belgium; Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute of Troy, Rome; Cornell University of , g ; y y, ; yRome; Bauhaus Universität Weimar, etc.).In 2008 he was guest lecturer during the XXIII U.I.A. world congress of Architecture (Turin 2008), andco-tutor at international workshop “Transmitting the sustainable city”.Member of several Professional Bodies (INTBAU , Arch.Net, AHARA) He’s author of numerous ( )papers and article; the latest academic work are (forthcoming book) ICTs for Urban Development andMonitoring (edited by Carlos Nunes Silva, University of Lisbon, Portugal, IGI Global Editor), andUrban Planning & Digital Technology (edited by Elena Mortola, Università di Roma Tre, Italy, AracneEditor). )