Ecosystem Services : An example using pollination Dara Stanley  PhD Researcher, Simbiosys Project School of Natural Scienc...
Biodiversity <ul><li>=  all life on earth </li></ul>Biological diversity  the  variability  among living organisms from al...
Biodiversity & ecosystem services Biodiversity Within species (genetic) Among species Among habitats Ecosystem functions H...
Supporting Services
Provisioning services www.irishdigest.com www.coillte.ie www.irishdigest.com www.wastercooler.ie
Regulating services www.nature.com www.plantandsoil.unl.edu www.stri.org www.waterlinkinternational.com
Cultural and Spiritual Services
Biodiversity & ecosystem services Biodiversity Within species (genetic) Among species Among habitats Ecosystem functions H...
Value of Ecosystem services <ul><li>17 ecosystem services in 16 biomes – Constanza et al. 1997 </li></ul>Valued at U$33 tr...
Pollination
<ul><li>85% flowering plants  </li></ul><ul><li>1 in 3 bites of food </li></ul><ul><li>39 of 57 leading crops </li></ul><u...
Value of Pollination in Ireland  € 53 million pa € 220-500 million pa Bullock et al., (2008) Bullock et al. 2008
<ul><li>101 bee species </li></ul><ul><li>20% social </li></ul><ul><li>20 Bumblebee species </li></ul><ul><li>1 honeybee <...
Sunday Times, Feb. 2009
Pollinator decline Butterflies  – 9% Threatened Bees  – 40% Threatened
Pollinator decline  Reduced crop production Reduced seed set in wild plants Changes in natural plant communities Impacts o...
Threats to pollination <ul><li>Major threats include:  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-  habitat fragmentation </li></ul></ul><...
The future <ul><li>Awareness: public and political </li></ul><ul><li>The Economics of Ecosystems  </li></ul><ul><li>and Bi...
Simbiosys <ul><li>Investigating sectoral impacts on biodiversity and associated ecosystem services in Ireland </li></ul>3 ...
<ul><li>Ecosystem services – crucial to human wellbeing </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem services can be a way forward for cons...
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Pollination case study

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Session 1 Irish Ecosystems services
Pollination case study
by Dara Stanley TCD

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Pollination case study

  1. 1. Ecosystem Services : An example using pollination Dara Stanley PhD Researcher, Simbiosys Project School of Natural Sciences Trinity College Dublin [email_address] www.simbiosys.ie
  2. 2. Biodiversity <ul><li>= all life on earth </li></ul>Biological diversity the variability among living organisms from all sources, incl. terrestrial , marine , and other aquatic ecosystems & the ecological complexes of which they are part Bio diversity
  3. 3. Biodiversity & ecosystem services Biodiversity Within species (genetic) Among species Among habitats Ecosystem functions Human well-being Source: Millenium Ecosystem Assessment 2005 <ul><li>SUPPORTING SERVICES </li></ul><ul><li>Primary production </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of habitat </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient & water cycling </li></ul><ul><li>Soil formation & retention </li></ul><ul><li>Production of atmospheric O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>REGULATING SERVICES </li></ul><ul><li>Invasion resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Herbivory, pollination </li></ul><ul><li>Seed dispersal </li></ul><ul><li>Climate regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Pest & disease regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Natural hazard protection </li></ul><ul><li>Erosion regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Water purification </li></ul>Ecosystem services PROVISIONING Food, fuel, fibre Genetic resources Biochemicals Fresh water CULTURAL Spiritual & religious values Knowledge systems Education and inspiration Recreation & aesthetic value Sense of peace
  4. 4. Supporting Services
  5. 5. Provisioning services www.irishdigest.com www.coillte.ie www.irishdigest.com www.wastercooler.ie
  6. 6. Regulating services www.nature.com www.plantandsoil.unl.edu www.stri.org www.waterlinkinternational.com
  7. 7. Cultural and Spiritual Services
  8. 8. Biodiversity & ecosystem services Biodiversity Within species (genetic) Among species Among habitats Ecosystem functions Human well-being Source: Millenium Ecosystem Assessment 2005 <ul><li>SUPPORTING SERVICES </li></ul><ul><li>Primary production </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of habitat </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient & water cycling </li></ul><ul><li>Soil formation & retention </li></ul><ul><li>Production of atmospheric O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>REGULATING SERVICES </li></ul><ul><li>Invasion resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Herbivory, pollination </li></ul><ul><li>Seed dispersal </li></ul><ul><li>Climate regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Pest & disease regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Natural hazard protection </li></ul><ul><li>Erosion regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Water purification </li></ul>Ecosystem services PROVISIONING Food, fuel, fibre Genetic resources Biochemicals Fresh water CULTURAL Spiritual & religious values Knowledge systems Education and inspiration Recreation & aesthetic value Sense of peace
  9. 9. Value of Ecosystem services <ul><li>17 ecosystem services in 16 biomes – Constanza et al. 1997 </li></ul>Valued at U$33 trillion per year Global GNP is about U$18 trillion
  10. 10. Pollination
  11. 11. <ul><li>85% flowering plants </li></ul><ul><li>1 in 3 bites of food </li></ul><ul><li>39 of 57 leading crops </li></ul><ul><li>Crops: Fruit, nut, vegetable, forage, Oils </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. coffee, orange, mango, clover, bean, tea, olive, raspberry </li></ul><ul><li>Improves - quality, quantity </li></ul><ul><li> - seed production and viability </li></ul><ul><li> - genetic diversity </li></ul>Why is pollination important?
  12. 12. Value of Pollination in Ireland € 53 million pa € 220-500 million pa Bullock et al., (2008) Bullock et al. 2008
  13. 13. <ul><li>101 bee species </li></ul><ul><li>20% social </li></ul><ul><li>20 Bumblebee species </li></ul><ul><li>1 honeybee </li></ul><ul><li>- Regionally extinct (RE) 3 </li></ul><ul><li>- Critically Endangered (CR) 6 </li></ul><ul><li>- Endangered (EN) 10 </li></ul><ul><li>- Vulnerable (VU) 14 </li></ul><ul><li>- Near threatened (NT) 12 </li></ul><ul><li>180 Hoverflies </li></ul><ul><li>20 Butterfly species, </li></ul><ul><li>1350 moths </li></ul><ul><li>Other flies, beetles </li></ul>Pollinators in Ireland
  14. 14. Sunday Times, Feb. 2009
  15. 15. Pollinator decline Butterflies – 9% Threatened Bees – 40% Threatened
  16. 16. Pollinator decline Reduced crop production Reduced seed set in wild plants Changes in natural plant communities Impacts on herbivores and seed predators Impacts on top predators and carnivores Changes in decomposer communities, soil structure/fertility, water & nutrient cycles, erosion etc Changes in climate, atmosphere, biogeochemical cycles etc
  17. 17. Threats to pollination <ul><li>Major threats include: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- habitat fragmentation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>- changes in land use </li></ul><ul><li>- agriculture and grazing </li></ul><ul><li>- effects of herbicide and pesticide </li></ul><ul><li>- introduction of non-native species </li></ul>1:5000 1:5000
  18. 18. The future <ul><li>Awareness: public and political </li></ul><ul><li>The Economics of Ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>and Biodiversity (TEEB) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Global Economic benefits of biodiversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expertees – practical actions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Understanding </li></ul>www.teeb.org
  19. 19. Simbiosys <ul><li>Investigating sectoral impacts on biodiversity and associated ecosystem services in Ireland </li></ul>3 key sectors Impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services www.simbiosys.ie Aquaculture Road landscaping Energy Crops Invasion Resistence Carbon Sequestration Pollination Biocontrol
  20. 20. <ul><li>Ecosystem services – crucial to human wellbeing </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem services can be a way forward for conservation – re-emphasizes the links between nature and well-being </li></ul>[email_address] www.simbiosys.ie Conclusion

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