An Taisce Biodiversity Training Seminar  European Nature Legislation Andrew Jackson [email_address] 9 October 2010
Overview <ul><li>Introduce two Directives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Habitats Directive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birds Direc...
1.  Introduction to EU nature conservation <ul><li>Two main pieces of EU nature conservation legislation </li></ul><ul><ul...
2.  EU protected areas <ul><li>Member States  must  identify, designate and protect conservation areas for certain habitat...
3.  Natura 2000 network “ The largest coherent network of protected areas in the world ”  (European Commission 2008a) Netw...
4.  Site designation <ul><li>Establishing the network has been tortuous process. </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of EU legal cases:...
5.  Why tortuous? <ul><li>Birds Directive : SPAs required for Annex I species (rare/vulnerable) and for regularly occurrin...
6.  SPA network – how is Ireland doing? <ul><li>Not very well (though  some improvement recently )!  Network of SPAs shoul...
7.  SAC network – how is Ireland doing? Source: European Commission 2010
7. SAC network –  how is Ireland doing?, cont. <ul><li>State of progress by Member States in reaching sufficiency for the ...
8.  Why the Directives matter <ul><li>Concentrate minds in government: European Commission = supranational enforcement bod...
9. Natura 2000 viewer http://natura2000.eea.europa.eu/
References <ul><li>Birds Directive (79/409/EEC; consolidated version):  http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?...
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European Nature Legislation

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Session 2 Plans Strategies and legal instruments
EU nature Legislation
Andrew Jackson
TCD and Friends of the Irish Environment

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European Nature Legislation

  1. 1. An Taisce Biodiversity Training Seminar European Nature Legislation Andrew Jackson [email_address] 9 October 2010
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Introduce two Directives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Habitats Directive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birds Directive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explain how Ireland is doing in terms of complying with its site designation obligations under the Directives. </li></ul><ul><li>Siobhan will be talking about site protection separately. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why the Directives matter (legally and practically). </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1. Introduction to EU nature conservation <ul><li>Two main pieces of EU nature conservation legislation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Birds Directive (1979): wild birds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Habitats Directive (1992): certain plants and animals (other than birds); certain habitat types and habitats of certain species </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both Directives adopted unanimously by Member States (so ignore politicians who blame ‘the EU’!). </li></ul><ul><li>Protections in the Directives are divided between site protection provisions and species protection provisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrate on site protection here. </li></ul>
  4. 4. 2. EU protected areas <ul><li>Member States must identify, designate and protect conservation areas for certain habitat types and for the habitats of certain species. </li></ul><ul><li>Special Protection Areas ( SPAs ) under Birds Directive; Special Areas of Conservation ( SACs ) under Habitats Directive. </li></ul><ul><li>SPAs and SACs together form Natura 2000 network . </li></ul><ul><li>Many conflicts across EU between developments and Natura 2000 sites (e.g. this year alone: Sligo airport; Galway outer bypass; Dublin port expansion). </li></ul>
  5. 5. 3. Natura 2000 network “ The largest coherent network of protected areas in the world ” (European Commission 2008a) Network goes “ far beyond what individual Member States had done at national level in this area ” ( Krämer 2007, p.206) >25,000 protected sites c.17% of EU territory
  6. 6. 4. Site designation <ul><li>Establishing the network has been tortuous process. </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of EU legal cases: (1) designation stage (not enough sites); (2) protection stage. </li></ul>http://ec.europa.eu/environment/ legal/law/statistics.htm
  7. 7. 5. Why tortuous? <ul><li>Birds Directive : SPAs required for Annex I species (rare/vulnerable) and for regularly occurring migratory species not listed in Annex I (Art. 4(1) and (2)) </li></ul><ul><li>SPAs and their boundaries must be selected solely on basis of ornithological criteria (ECJ decision in 1993: Santona Marshes, case C-355/90 ) ; no account can be taken of socio-economic considerations in selecting sites and boundaries (ECJ decision in 1996: Lappel Bank case C-44/95) </li></ul><ul><li>Habitats Directive : SACs required for Annex I habitats and Annex II species; again, no account can be taken of socio-economic considerations in selecting SACs and their boundaries (ECJ in 2000: First Corporate Shipping case, C-371/98) </li></ul>
  8. 8. 6. SPA network – how is Ireland doing? <ul><li>Not very well (though some improvement recently )! Network of SPAs should have been completed by 1981. European Commission pursuing Member States via European Court of Justice. Dec ‘07: C-418/04 (Ireland). </li></ul>Source: European Commission 2010
  9. 9. 7. SAC network – how is Ireland doing? Source: European Commission 2010
  10. 10. 7. SAC network – how is Ireland doing?, cont. <ul><li>State of progress by Member States in reaching sufficiency for the Habitats Directive’s Annex I habitats and Annex II species (marine area excluded, as at June 2008) – Source: European Commission 2010 </li></ul>
  11. 11. 8. Why the Directives matter <ul><li>Concentrate minds in government: European Commission = supranational enforcement body. </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimate risk of a fine from ECJ (e.g. France: €20m lump sum and €57.7m for every 6 months of continuing non-compliance with ECJ judgment: C-304/02). </li></ul>Proceedings for fines http://ec.europa.eu/environment/ legal/law/statistics.htm
  12. 12. 9. Natura 2000 viewer http://natura2000.eea.europa.eu/
  13. 13. References <ul><li>Birds Directive (79/409/EEC; consolidated version): http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CONSLEG:1979L0409:20070101:EN:PDF </li></ul><ul><li>European Commission (2008). Nature & Biodiversity. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/index_en.htm </li></ul><ul><li>European Commission (2010). Natura 2000 Barometer. </li></ul><ul><li>http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/natura2000/barometer/index_en.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC; consolidated version): http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CONSLEG:1992L0043:20070101:EN:PDF </li></ul><ul><li>Krämer, L. (2007). EC Environmental Law . Sixth Edition. Sweet & Maxwell, London. </li></ul>

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