Aed1061

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Aed1061

  1. 1. Information Processing Approach<br />
  2. 2. Contents<br />Overview of the information processing approach<br />Memory systems<br />Information processing in the child<br />
  3. 3. Overview<br />Human mind is like a computer<br />Limited capacity associated with ‘hardware’ and ‘software’<br /> - Eg. Hardware of the mind  nervous system, software  strategies, mental ‘programmes’ that affect information processing<br />Emphasizes basic mental processes involved in attention, perception, memory, and decision making<br />
  4. 4. Memory systems<br />
  5. 5. Memory systems<br />
  6. 6. Sensory Register<br />Logs information for about a fraction of a second as a kind of afterimage<br />Much information disappears without further processing<br />If the need to remember is sensed it will be moved into short-term memory<br />
  7. 7. Short-term memory<br />Hold limited amount of information for several seconds<br />Passive and active (working memory)<br />Working memory: temporarily stores information while working on it<br />To be remembered for any length of time, information must be moved from short-term memory into long-term memory<br />
  8. 8. Long-term memory<br />Relatively permanent store of information <br />Information retrieved from long-term memory<br />
  9. 9. Process of learning and remembering<br />
  10. 10. Process of learning and remembering<br />Encoding – getting the information into the system<br />Consolidation – information is processed and organized in form suitable for long term storage<br />Storage – holding of information in long-term memory<br />Retrieval – process of getting information out when needed<br />
  11. 11. Retrieval<br />Can be accomplished in several ways<br />Recognition memory <br />Eg. Multiple choice questions<br />Recall memory<br />Eg. Open ended questions<br />Cued recall memory<br />Eg. Open ended questions with hint or cue to facilitate retrieval<br />
  12. 12. Information Processing in the Child<br />
  13. 13. Memory Development<br />Four major hypotheses to explain improvements in learning and memory<br />1. Changes in basic capacities<br />2. Changes in memory strategies<br /> 3. Increased knowledge about memory<br />4. Increased knowledge about the world<br />
  14. 14. Memory Development<br />Changes in basic capacities<br />Neural advancement in their brains  more working memory space  ability to process information faster<br />Changes in memory strategies<br />Learned and consistently use effective methods for putting information into long-term memory and retrieving it when they need it<br />
  15. 15. Memory Development<br />Increased knowledge about memory<br />Know more about memory, eg. Which strategy fits what task<br />Increased knowledge about the world<br />Knowledge makes material to be learned more familiar and easier to learn and remember<br />
  16. 16. Memory Strategies<br />Rehearsal<br />Repeating of items to be learned and remembered<br />Organisation<br />Classifying items into meaningful groups<br />Elaboration<br />Actively create meaningful links between items to be remembered<br />
  17. 17. Phases of using memory strategies<br />Mediation deficiency<br />Cannot spontaneously use or benefit from strategies despite being taught how<br />Production deficiency<br />Can use strategies taught but do not produce their own strategies<br />Utilisation deficiency<br />Spontaneously produce strategy but task performance does not benefit from strategy<br />Effective strategy use<br />
  18. 18. The End!<br />

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