ER$ Consulting Services Presents For CMA  Credit Management Association Members  On Conflict Resolution August 11, 2009 We...
By Eddy A. Sumar, MBA, CCE, CICE
<ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Defining conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Handling confl...
Defining Conflict
“ Conflict means any  difference  between two or more persons growing out of some matter that one person wants from anothe...
“ When we use the term conflict, we’re referring to  perceived  incompatible differences resulting in some form of interfe...
“ We define conflict as a  disagreement  through which the  parties involved   perceive a threat  to their  needs ,  inter...
 
Reasons for Conflict
<ul><li>Pride & Prejudice </li></ul><ul><li>Greed </li></ul><ul><li>Imperfections </li></ul><ul><li>Scarce resources (wate...
<ul><li>Culture difference </li></ul><ul><li>Needs difference  [ Maslow's Pyramid ] </li></ul><ul><li>Threats </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Communication styles </li></ul><ul><li>Personality differences </li></ul><ul><li>Breach of contract </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Psychological </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological </li></ul><ul><li>Political </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-cultural </li></...
Views about Conflict
<ul><li>Traditional View:  conflict is bad and must be avoided </li></ul><ul><li>Human Relations View : conflict is natura...
Handling Conflict Styles
Five (5) Classical Styles
 
Daft
 
Daft
Avoidance:  withdrawal or suppression of conflict.  This is used when emotions are running high and time is needed to cool...
Dr. Weeks
 
Daft
Dr. Weeks
 
Daft
Johnson, 1990
 
Daft
Robbins & Coulter
Redefining Conflict Resolution
 
Introducing A New Approach
Source: Dr. Weeks, The Eight Essential Steps to Conflict Resolution Our Aim : The Top Level of the Pyramid
 
The Conflict Partnership Approach  deals with the conflict in a way that opens up possibilities for improving the relation...
An Integrative Foursquare Approach P-SAP
Integrative Approach to Conflict Resolution <ul><li>Psychological perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Sociological perspective <...
Integrative Approach <ul><li>Psychological Perspective </li></ul>
Integrative Approach <ul><li>Psychological perspective </li></ul>
Integrative Approach <ul><li>Sociological Perspective </li></ul>Perception could be based  on wrong premise
Integrative Approach <ul><li>Anthropological Perspective </li></ul>“ Anthropologically,…groups in organizations act very m...
[ Migrate & Link ] Integrative Approach
Integrative Approach <ul><li>Political Perspective </li></ul>Bargain & Negotiate
Applying the P-SAP to your conflict partner Facilitators
<ul><li>Always keep the lines of communication open </li></ul><ul><li>Show cooperation….Seek collaboration </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>D: Don’t allow yourself to lose your cool </li></ul><ul><li>E: Encourage your partner to vent his anger </li></ul>...
Key Success Factor Know the Matrix
Willing Unable Able Unwilling
Both Parties must be able and Willing to resolve it Compromise Avoiding Accommodating Competing Willing Unable Able Collab...
Both Parties must be Able and Willing to resolve a conflict Compromise 50/50 Stuck in the middle <ul><li>Avoiding </li></u...
Practical Steps to Conflict Resolution No fixed formula No one-size-fits-all
<ul><li>Confront the Opposing Party [let the other party know of the conflict] </li></ul><ul><li>Define the Conflict Toget...
<ul><li>Create an effective atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify perceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on individual and sha...
<ul><li>Foster a trusting relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss mutual and complimentary interests </li></ul><ul><li>Have...
<ul><li>Adversarial relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to persuade each other of the correctness of their positions, ...
Final Thoughts
<ul><li>Listen, listen, listen to the conflict partner </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the lines of communication open </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Look into feelings, emotions and commonalities </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on thoughts, needs & wants </li></ul><ul><l...
Wikipedia
Real Focus
What is the main objective of conflict resolution? What is the Real focus? Conclusion: An ounce of prevention better than ...
<ul><li>C : Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>O : Options </li></ul><ul><li>N: Needs </li></ul><ul><li>F: Feelings </li></ul...
“ A focus on interests can resolve the problem underlying the dispute more effectively than a focus on rights or power.” U...
 
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Resolving conflicts

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Resolving conflicts

  1. 1. ER$ Consulting Services Presents For CMA Credit Management Association Members On Conflict Resolution August 11, 2009 Webinar Copyright Eddy A. Sumar 2009
  2. 2. By Eddy A. Sumar, MBA, CCE, CICE
  3. 3. <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Defining conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Handling conflict [conflict management] </li></ul><ul><li>Practical steps to conflict resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Final thoughts </li></ul><ul><li>Answer the question: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the Real focus of conflict resolution? </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Defining Conflict
  5. 5. “ Conflict means any difference between two or more persons growing out of some matter that one person wants from another.” Theodore Keel, 1999
  6. 6. “ When we use the term conflict, we’re referring to perceived incompatible differences resulting in some form of interference or opposition. Whether differences are real or not is irrelevant. If people in a group perceive that differences exist, then a conflict state exists.” Robbins & Coulter, 1999
  7. 7. “ We define conflict as a disagreement through which the parties involved perceive a threat to their needs , interests or concerns .” www.ohrd.wisc.edu/onlinetraining/resolution/aboutwhatisit.htm
  8. 9. Reasons for Conflict
  9. 10. <ul><li>Pride & Prejudice </li></ul><ul><li>Greed </li></ul><ul><li>Imperfections </li></ul><ul><li>Scarce resources (water, oil, food, land) </li></ul><ul><li>Jurisdictional ambiguities, Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Personality clashes </li></ul><ul><li>Power difference </li></ul><ul><li>Status difference </li></ul><ul><li>Goals, desires </li></ul><ul><li>Values, interests </li></ul><ul><li>Beliefs, principles </li></ul>Reasons for Conflict
  10. 11. <ul><li>Culture difference </li></ul><ul><li>Needs difference [ Maslow's Pyramid ] </li></ul><ul><li>Threats </li></ul><ul><li>Fear </li></ul><ul><li>Injustices </li></ul><ul><li>Communication breakdown </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of communication </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Honor </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of action, etc…. </li></ul>Reasons for Conflict
  11. 12. <ul><li>Communication styles </li></ul><ul><li>Personality differences </li></ul><ul><li>Breach of contract </li></ul><ul><li>Quality issues </li></ul><ul><li>Terms & conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Customer defaults </li></ul><ul><li>Misalignment of goals </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Insecurities, fear </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Gap between company culture and individual culture </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of respect, etc. </li></ul>Reasons for Conflict in a Business Setting
  12. 13. <ul><li>Psychological </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological </li></ul><ul><li>Political </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-cultural </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropological </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophical </li></ul><ul><li>Religious </li></ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><li>Legal </li></ul><ul><li>Internal/external </li></ul><ul><li>Functional/operational </li></ul><ul><li>Gender-based, etc… </li></ul>Reasons for Conflict
  13. 14. Views about Conflict
  14. 15. <ul><li>Traditional View: conflict is bad and must be avoided </li></ul><ul><li>Human Relations View : conflict is natural and inevitable. It is not necessarily bad or negative. It could be a positive force </li></ul><ul><li>Interactionist View : Conflict is positive and some conflict is absolutely necessary for a group to perform effectively. ( Some conflict could be destructive ) </li></ul><ul><li>Realist’s View : Conflict is neither positive nor negative in and of itself. It is how we handle conflict that could prove negative or positive </li></ul><ul><li>The New View : Conflict can serve as opportunities for mutual growth…can bring out alternative ways of thinking and behaving…conflict is an outgrowth of diversity </li></ul>Views About Conflict
  15. 16. Handling Conflict Styles
  16. 17. Five (5) Classical Styles
  17. 19. Daft
  18. 21. Daft
  19. 22. Avoidance: withdrawal or suppression of conflict. This is used when emotions are running high and time is needed to cool down. Robbins & Coulter
  20. 23. Dr. Weeks
  21. 25. Daft
  22. 26. Dr. Weeks
  23. 28. Daft
  24. 29. Johnson, 1990
  25. 31. Daft
  26. 32. Robbins & Coulter
  27. 33. Redefining Conflict Resolution
  28. 35. Introducing A New Approach
  29. 36. Source: Dr. Weeks, The Eight Essential Steps to Conflict Resolution Our Aim : The Top Level of the Pyramid
  30. 38. The Conflict Partnership Approach deals with the conflict in a way that opens up possibilities for improving the relationship as well as resolving the conflict at hand. It sees the specific conflict as just one part of the relationship. The goal is not to defeat the other party and seize a temporary advantage, but rather to develop a sustainable resolution of the conflict, made possible in part because an improvement in the relationship has been established. Conflict Partnership is a transformation. Dr. Weeks
  31. 39. An Integrative Foursquare Approach P-SAP
  32. 40. Integrative Approach to Conflict Resolution <ul><li>Psychological perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Sociological perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropological perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Political perspective </li></ul>
  33. 41. Integrative Approach <ul><li>Psychological Perspective </li></ul>
  34. 42. Integrative Approach <ul><li>Psychological perspective </li></ul>
  35. 43. Integrative Approach <ul><li>Sociological Perspective </li></ul>Perception could be based on wrong premise
  36. 44. Integrative Approach <ul><li>Anthropological Perspective </li></ul>“ Anthropologically,…groups in organizations act very much like “real” tribes; they have their own dialects, values, histories, ways of thinking, and rules for appropriate behavior…Each tribe or culture has its own rules that govern its thinking and behavior and that these rules usually operate at a subconscious level.”
  37. 45. [ Migrate & Link ] Integrative Approach
  38. 46. Integrative Approach <ul><li>Political Perspective </li></ul>Bargain & Negotiate
  39. 47. Applying the P-SAP to your conflict partner Facilitators
  40. 48. <ul><li>Always keep the lines of communication open </li></ul><ul><li>Show cooperation….Seek collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Offer alternatives, options, and solutions. Do not be part of the problem, be part of the solution </li></ul><ul><li>Define, measure, evaluate, assess, and readjust your response and behavior to adapt to your partner’s needs </li></ul><ul><li>Apologize </li></ul><ul><li>Invoke third parties or experts to get over impasses or obstacles </li></ul><ul><li>Never corner your partner </li></ul><ul><li>Allow your partner to save face </li></ul>Applying the P-SAP
  41. 49. <ul><li>D: Don’t allow yourself to lose your cool </li></ul><ul><li>E: Encourage your partner to vent his anger </li></ul><ul><li>F: Find out the facts </li></ul><ul><li>U: Understand his feelings </li></ul><ul><li>S: Suggest a solution </li></ul><ul><li>E: End on a positive note </li></ul><ul><li>Co mmunications Briefings </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid the pitfalls </li></ul>Applying the P-SAP--Facilitator Learn to DEFUSE
  42. 50. Key Success Factor Know the Matrix
  43. 51. Willing Unable Able Unwilling
  44. 52. Both Parties must be able and Willing to resolve it Compromise Avoiding Accommodating Competing Willing Unable Able Collaborating Unwilling
  45. 53. Both Parties must be Able and Willing to resolve a conflict Compromise 50/50 Stuck in the middle <ul><li>Avoiding </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of focus </li></ul><ul><li>Silent killer to the relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer </li></ul><ul><li>No solution </li></ul><ul><li>Lost opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Lose-lose </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodating </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term focus </li></ul><ul><li>Placates the relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Band-aid approach </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary solution </li></ul><ul><li>Lost opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Lose-win </li></ul><ul><li>Competing </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term focus </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely myopic </li></ul><ul><li>Destroys relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Victor-victim </li></ul><ul><li>Lost opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Win-lose </li></ul>Willing Unable Able <ul><li>Collaborating </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term focus </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains goodwill </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfies mutual needs </li></ul><ul><li>Creative solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Win-win </li></ul>Unwilling
  46. 54. Practical Steps to Conflict Resolution No fixed formula No one-size-fits-all
  47. 55. <ul><li>Confront the Opposing Party [let the other party know of the conflict] </li></ul><ul><li>Define the Conflict Together </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate Personal Positions and Feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Express Your Cooperative Intentions </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the Conflict from the Other Party's Viewpoint </li></ul><ul><li>Be Motivated to Negotiate in Good Faith </li></ul><ul><li>Reach an Agreement </li></ul>Practical Steps to Resolve a Conflict Johnson 1990 (using the collaborative style)
  48. 56. <ul><li>Create an effective atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify perceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on individual and shared needs </li></ul><ul><li>Build shared positive power </li></ul><ul><li>Look to the future, then learn from the past </li></ul><ul><li>Generate options </li></ul><ul><li>Develop “doables” : The stepping-stones to action </li></ul><ul><li>Make mutual-benefits agreements </li></ul>Practical Steps to Resolve a Conflict Dr. Weeks 1992 (eight essential steps to conflict resolution)
  49. 57. <ul><li>Foster a trusting relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss mutual and complimentary interests </li></ul><ul><li>Have an open exchange of what each party wants </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss alternatives and options </li></ul><ul><li>Strive to reach a result that satisfies both parties </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange greetings </li></ul>Practical Steps to Resolve a Conflict Doyle & Haydock 1991 (without the punches)
  50. 58. <ul><li>Adversarial relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to persuade each other of the correctness of their positions, instead of attempting to resolve the differences </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to define the issues </li></ul><ul><li>Become stubborn and refuse to engage in mutually beneficial compromises </li></ul><ul><li>Strong personality clashes </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging in one-way dialogue </li></ul>Practical Steps to Resolve a Conflict Avoid the pitfalls [Why the failure?]
  51. 59. Final Thoughts
  52. 60. <ul><li>Listen, listen, listen to the conflict partner </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the lines of communication open </li></ul><ul><li>Seek options and alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Be courteous; show respect. Always h onor and respect your partner(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge their fears, feelings, emotions, and needs </li></ul><ul><li>Respect their point of view </li></ul><ul><li>Do not fall into the I versus them atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Do not lock yourself into rigid demands </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the power of perception </li></ul>Final Thoughts
  53. 61. <ul><li>Look into feelings, emotions and commonalities </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on thoughts, needs & wants </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions </li></ul><ul><li>Show interest in your partner </li></ul><ul><li>Attack the issues not the person </li></ul><ul><li>Do not stereotype </li></ul><ul><li>Reach for positive power </li></ul><ul><li>Seek doables </li></ul><ul><li>Use differences for mutual growth </li></ul><ul><li>Be honest and sincere </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid ploys , games and manipulations </li></ul>Final Thoughts
  54. 62. Wikipedia
  55. 63. Real Focus
  56. 64. What is the main objective of conflict resolution? What is the Real focus? Conclusion: An ounce of prevention better than a pound of cure Maintaining & Strengthening Relationships
  57. 65. <ul><li>C : Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>O : Options </li></ul><ul><li>N: Needs </li></ul><ul><li>F: Feelings </li></ul><ul><li>L: Listening &learning </li></ul><ul><li>I: Interests </li></ul><ul><li>C: Concerns </li></ul><ul><li>T: Thoughts </li></ul><ul><li>R : Relationship </li></ul><ul><li>E : Empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>S: Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>O: Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>L: Long-term value & focus </li></ul><ul><li>U: Unlock creativity </li></ul><ul><li>T: Trust & time </li></ul><ul><li>I: Inviting, inspiring, initiate </li></ul><ul><li>O: Open-minded </li></ul><ul><li>N: Nurture </li></ul>
  58. 66. “ A focus on interests can resolve the problem underlying the dispute more effectively than a focus on rights or power.” Ury, Brett, & Goldberg
  59. 68. Thank You!
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