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Resolving conflicts

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  • 1. ER$ Consulting Services Presents For CMA Credit Management Association Members On Conflict Resolution August 11, 2009 Webinar Copyright Eddy A. Sumar 2009
  • 2. By Eddy A. Sumar, MBA, CCE, CICE
  • 3.
    • Agenda
    • Defining conflict
    • Reasons for conflict
    • Handling conflict [conflict management]
    • Practical steps to conflict resolution
    • Final thoughts
    • Answer the question:
      • What is the Real focus of conflict resolution?
  • 4. Defining Conflict
  • 5. “ Conflict means any difference between two or more persons growing out of some matter that one person wants from another.” Theodore Keel, 1999
  • 6. “ When we use the term conflict, we’re referring to perceived incompatible differences resulting in some form of interference or opposition. Whether differences are real or not is irrelevant. If people in a group perceive that differences exist, then a conflict state exists.” Robbins & Coulter, 1999
  • 7. “ We define conflict as a disagreement through which the parties involved perceive a threat to their needs , interests or concerns .” www.ohrd.wisc.edu/onlinetraining/resolution/aboutwhatisit.htm
  • 8.  
  • 9. Reasons for Conflict
  • 10.
    • Pride & Prejudice
    • Greed
    • Imperfections
    • Scarce resources (water, oil, food, land)
    • Jurisdictional ambiguities, Independence
    • Personality clashes
    • Power difference
    • Status difference
    • Goals, desires
    • Values, interests
    • Beliefs, principles
    Reasons for Conflict
  • 11.
    • Culture difference
    • Needs difference [ Maslow's Pyramid ]
    • Threats
    • Fear
    • Injustices
    • Communication breakdown
    • Lack of communication
    • Perceptions
    • Emotions
    • Attitude
    • Honor
    • Lack of action, etc….
    Reasons for Conflict
  • 12.
    • Communication styles
    • Personality differences
    • Breach of contract
    • Quality issues
    • Terms & conditions
    • Customer defaults
    • Misalignment of goals
    • Lack of understanding
    • Insecurities, fear
    • Lack of leadership
    • Roles
    • Gap between company culture and individual culture
    • Loss of respect, etc.
    Reasons for Conflict in a Business Setting
  • 13.
    • Psychological
    • Physiological
    • Political
    • Socio-cultural
    • Anthropological
    • Philosophical
    • Religious
    • Physical
    • Legal
    • Internal/external
    • Functional/operational
    • Gender-based, etc…
    Reasons for Conflict
  • 14. Views about Conflict
  • 15.
    • Traditional View: conflict is bad and must be avoided
    • Human Relations View : conflict is natural and inevitable. It is not necessarily bad or negative. It could be a positive force
    • Interactionist View : Conflict is positive and some conflict is absolutely necessary for a group to perform effectively. ( Some conflict could be destructive )
    • Realist’s View : Conflict is neither positive nor negative in and of itself. It is how we handle conflict that could prove negative or positive
    • The New View : Conflict can serve as opportunities for mutual growth…can bring out alternative ways of thinking and behaving…conflict is an outgrowth of diversity
    Views About Conflict
  • 16. Handling Conflict Styles
  • 17. Five (5) Classical Styles
  • 18.  
  • 19. Daft
  • 20.  
  • 21. Daft
  • 22. Avoidance: withdrawal or suppression of conflict. This is used when emotions are running high and time is needed to cool down. Robbins & Coulter
  • 23. Dr. Weeks
  • 24.  
  • 25. Daft
  • 26. Dr. Weeks
  • 27.  
  • 28. Daft
  • 29. Johnson, 1990
  • 30.  
  • 31. Daft
  • 32. Robbins & Coulter
  • 33. Redefining Conflict Resolution
  • 34.  
  • 35. Introducing A New Approach
  • 36. Source: Dr. Weeks, The Eight Essential Steps to Conflict Resolution Our Aim : The Top Level of the Pyramid
  • 37.  
  • 38. The Conflict Partnership Approach deals with the conflict in a way that opens up possibilities for improving the relationship as well as resolving the conflict at hand. It sees the specific conflict as just one part of the relationship. The goal is not to defeat the other party and seize a temporary advantage, but rather to develop a sustainable resolution of the conflict, made possible in part because an improvement in the relationship has been established. Conflict Partnership is a transformation. Dr. Weeks
  • 39. An Integrative Foursquare Approach P-SAP
  • 40. Integrative Approach to Conflict Resolution
    • Psychological perspective
    • Sociological perspective
    • Anthropological perspective
    • Political perspective
  • 41. Integrative Approach
    • Psychological Perspective
  • 42. Integrative Approach
    • Psychological perspective
  • 43. Integrative Approach
    • Sociological Perspective
    Perception could be based on wrong premise
  • 44. Integrative Approach
    • Anthropological Perspective
    “ Anthropologically,…groups in organizations act very much like “real” tribes; they have their own dialects, values, histories, ways of thinking, and rules for appropriate behavior…Each tribe or culture has its own rules that govern its thinking and behavior and that these rules usually operate at a subconscious level.”
  • 45. [ Migrate & Link ] Integrative Approach
  • 46. Integrative Approach
    • Political Perspective
    Bargain & Negotiate
  • 47. Applying the P-SAP to your conflict partner Facilitators
  • 48.
    • Always keep the lines of communication open
    • Show cooperation….Seek collaboration
    • Offer alternatives, options, and solutions. Do not be part of the problem, be part of the solution
    • Define, measure, evaluate, assess, and readjust your response and behavior to adapt to your partner’s needs
    • Apologize
    • Invoke third parties or experts to get over impasses or obstacles
    • Never corner your partner
    • Allow your partner to save face
    Applying the P-SAP
  • 49.
    • D: Don’t allow yourself to lose your cool
    • E: Encourage your partner to vent his anger
    • F: Find out the facts
    • U: Understand his feelings
    • S: Suggest a solution
    • E: End on a positive note
    • Co mmunications Briefings
    • Avoid the pitfalls
    Applying the P-SAP--Facilitator Learn to DEFUSE
  • 50. Key Success Factor Know the Matrix
  • 51. Willing Unable Able Unwilling
  • 52. Both Parties must be able and Willing to resolve it Compromise Avoiding Accommodating Competing Willing Unable Able Collaborating Unwilling
  • 53. Both Parties must be Able and Willing to resolve a conflict Compromise 50/50 Stuck in the middle
    • Avoiding
    • Loss of focus
    • Silent killer to the relationship
    • Cancer
    • No solution
    • Lost opportunity
    • Lose-lose
    • Accommodating
    • Short-term focus
    • Placates the relationship
    • Band-aid approach
    • Temporary solution
    • Lost opportunity
    • Lose-win
    • Competing
    • Short-term focus
    • Extremely myopic
    • Destroys relationships
    • Victor-victim
    • Lost opportunities
    • Win-lose
    Willing Unable Able
    • Collaborating
    • Long-term focus
    • Enhances relationships
    • Maintains goodwill
    • Satisfies mutual needs
    • Creative solutions
    • Win-win
    Unwilling
  • 54. Practical Steps to Conflict Resolution No fixed formula No one-size-fits-all
  • 55.
    • Confront the Opposing Party [let the other party know of the conflict]
    • Define the Conflict Together
    • Communicate Personal Positions and Feelings
    • Express Your Cooperative Intentions
    • Understand the Conflict from the Other Party's Viewpoint
    • Be Motivated to Negotiate in Good Faith
    • Reach an Agreement
    Practical Steps to Resolve a Conflict Johnson 1990 (using the collaborative style)
  • 56.
    • Create an effective atmosphere
    • Clarify perceptions
    • Focus on individual and shared needs
    • Build shared positive power
    • Look to the future, then learn from the past
    • Generate options
    • Develop “doables” : The stepping-stones to action
    • Make mutual-benefits agreements
    Practical Steps to Resolve a Conflict Dr. Weeks 1992 (eight essential steps to conflict resolution)
  • 57.
    • Foster a trusting relationship
    • Discuss mutual and complimentary interests
    • Have an open exchange of what each party wants
    • Discuss alternatives and options
    • Strive to reach a result that satisfies both parties
    • Exchange greetings
    Practical Steps to Resolve a Conflict Doyle & Haydock 1991 (without the punches)
  • 58.
    • Adversarial relationships
    • Attempt to persuade each other of the correctness of their positions, instead of attempting to resolve the differences
    • Failure to define the issues
    • Become stubborn and refuse to engage in mutually beneficial compromises
    • Strong personality clashes
    • Engaging in one-way dialogue
    Practical Steps to Resolve a Conflict Avoid the pitfalls [Why the failure?]
  • 59. Final Thoughts
  • 60.
    • Listen, listen, listen to the conflict partner
    • Keep the lines of communication open
    • Seek options and alternatives
    • Be courteous; show respect. Always h onor and respect your partner(s)
    • Acknowledge their fears, feelings, emotions, and needs
    • Respect their point of view
    • Do not fall into the I versus them atmosphere
    • Do not lock yourself into rigid demands
    • Understand the power of perception
    Final Thoughts
  • 61.
    • Look into feelings, emotions and commonalities
    • Focus on thoughts, needs & wants
    • Ask questions
    • Show interest in your partner
    • Attack the issues not the person
    • Do not stereotype
    • Reach for positive power
    • Seek doables
    • Use differences for mutual growth
    • Be honest and sincere
    • Avoid ploys , games and manipulations
    Final Thoughts
  • 62. Wikipedia
  • 63. Real Focus
  • 64. What is the main objective of conflict resolution? What is the Real focus? Conclusion: An ounce of prevention better than a pound of cure Maintaining & Strengthening Relationships
  • 65.
    • C : Collaboration
    • O : Options
    • N: Needs
    • F: Feelings
    • L: Listening &learning
    • I: Interests
    • C: Concerns
    • T: Thoughts
    • R : Relationship
    • E : Empowerment
    • S: Solutions
    • O: Opportunities
    • L: Long-term value & focus
    • U: Unlock creativity
    • T: Trust & time
    • I: Inviting, inspiring, initiate
    • O: Open-minded
    • N: Nurture
  • 66. “ A focus on interests can resolve the problem underlying the dispute more effectively than a focus on rights or power.” Ury, Brett, & Goldberg
  • 67.  
  • 68. Thank You!