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What is cog psych and history of

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  • 1. An Introduction to Cognitive Psychology Dr. P. Ansburg,Cognitive Psychology PSY 4570, MSU Denver
  • 2. 1. Cognition -- People think. 2. Cognitive Psychology -- Scientists think about how people think. 3. Students of Cognitive Psychology -- People think about how scientists think about how people think. Cognition is the collection of mental processes and activities used in perceiving, learning, remembering, thinking and understanding. Cognitive Psychology deals with how people perceive, learn, remember, think and understand. -- (from Robert Sternberg, 2000) Dr. P. Ansburg,Cognitive Psychology PSY 4570, MSU Denver
  • 3. • Cognition occupies a major portion of human existence. • The cognitive approach has widespread influence on other areas of psychology, as well as disciplines outside psychology. • Cognitive psychology provides an "owner's manual" for your mind. Dr. P. Ansburg, Cognitive Psychology PSY 4570, MSU Denver
  • 4. The scientific study of cognition very new 1950's but the questions addressed find roots in earlyWestern philosophy. “Psychology has a long past, but a short history” Ebbinghaus (1908). Aristotle (384 B.C.) outlined basic principles of memory and proposed a theory of memory in De Memoria (Concerning Memory). Plato tells that Socrates fretted over the invention of written language b/c thought it would weaken reliance on memory and understanding. Descartes (1637) cogito ergo sum -- the ultimate proof of human existence was consciousness. Philosophy combined with the empirical methods of natural sciences formed psychology. Dr. P. Ansburg,Cognitive Psychology PSY 4570, MSU Denver
  • 5. Wundt (1832-1930): defined conscious processes and immediate experience as the central topic for psychology (i.e., sensation & perception). employed introspection--one looks carefully inward, reporting on immediate inner sensations & experiences. Titchener founded a lab at Cornell 1892 and continued inWundt’s tradition in the US Ebbinghaus: Interested in the mind's process of association formation-- use material with no pre-existing associations nonsense syllables (cvc) savings (relearning) forgetting as a function of time effect of meaning on memory William James: more of a theorist than empiricist, conducted thought experiments argued for a short/long term memory distinction Dr. P. Ansburg,Cognitive Psychology PSY 4570, MSU Denver
  • 6. In the early 1910’s-1920’s JohnWatson founds behaviorism b/c of the huge problems with introspection Does the process of introspection influence the process under study? Some processes we have no access to Verbal descriptions are imperfect communicators Behaviorism—overt behavior is only legitimate realm for psychology. No need to describe internal processes, can predict behavior based on stimuli present S-R psychology (Skinner) MostAmericans hopped aboard the behaviorism train, but there were hold-outs in Europe (verbal learning tradition and Gestalt Psychologists) “Psychology lost its head during the rule of behaviorism.” Dr. P. Ansburg,Cognitive Psychology PSY 4570, MSU Denver
  • 7. 1. Instinctive drift: conditioning could be overpowered by biology— inconsistent with tabula rasa tenet held by behaviorists 2.WWII--academics put to task of making war Why did pilots misidentify radar blips? Decision making, signal detection These problems made clear the "immpeccable peripherialism of S-R behaviorism” (Bruner et al.1956) Verbal learning tradition found that people were making associations to nonsense syllables and clustering in recall suggesting that mental processing was occurring and was important Linguistics--Chomsky (1959) successfully challenged Skinner’s explanation of verbal behavior Dr. P. Ansburg,Cognitive Psychology PSY 4570, MSU Denver
  • 8. Computers--1930-40'sThe notion that computers behave like humans.They are both information processors The product reflects what occurred internal processing Symbol manipulating machine perform operations on symbols in a series of stages Watch a video summarizing the history about how the cognitive approach overtook behaviorism (just watch from the beginning until the time on the video read 5:27—the end of the video is not relevant) Dr. P. Ansburg,Cognitive Psychology PSY 4570, MSU Denver
  • 9. MOST DEFINITELY NOT USING INTROSPECTION! Stephen Pinker discusses this question All science is conceptual. Scientists develop concepts or constructs and hypotheses or predictions. Cognitive models/ theories—organize & summarize empirical observations about how knowledge is acquired, stored and used. Models/theories allow predictions to test that test the model/theory, when model is no longer describes empirical information it is discarded in favor of another. Dr. P. Ansburg,Cognitive Psychology PSY 4570, MSU Denver
  • 10. 1. Mental processes exist, are lawful, systematic events that can be studied scientifically. 2. Humans are active participants in the world—select some information from the environment, relate it to what is known and then may act on the world. 3. Measurements of how long it takes to perform a task (i.e., reaction time) and how accurately that task is performed informs us about the cognitive processes and mechanisms that underlie the performance. Dr. P. Ansburg,Cognitive Psychology PSY 4570, MSU Denver
  • 11. The Emergence of Modern Cognitive Psychology  The Information-Processing Approach a) Mental processes are similar to the operations of a computer. b) Information progresses through the cognitive system in a series of stages, one step at a time. Dr. P. Ansburg,Cognitive Psychology PSY 4570, MSU Denver
  • 12. The Cognitive Revolution Watch Dr. Alan Baddeley discusses the Cognitive Revolution Dr.George Miller Recalls the Cognitive Revolution Read about the “Father of Cognitive Psychology”: Dr. Ulric Neisser Photo of Dr. Ulrich Neisser from his obituary published by New York Times Photo of Dr. George Miller from Princeton University http://www.princeton.edu/pr/pictures/l- r/miller_george/millerHiRes.jpg 2/25/2012 Dr. P. Ansburg,Cognitive Psychology PSY 4570, MSU Denver
  • 13. • More complex models than the early information processing models • Has begun to address issues of ecological validity • Widespread influence on the discipline of psychology • Social Psychology incl a subfield, “Social Cognition” • Applications of the cognitive approach across disciplines • Basically anywhere humans are involved! Dr. P. Ansburg,Cognitive Psychology PSY 4570, MSU Denver
  • 14. With advances in neuroscience, cognitive psychologists are able to add physiological measures to the traditional measures of cognitive processing. In addition to reaction time and error rates, data collected from the following methods help to test cognitive models. Brain Lesions Positron EmissionTomography (PET scan) Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Event-Related PotentialTechnique (ERP) Dr. P. Ansburg,Cognitive Psychology PSY 4570, MSU Denver
  • 15.  Artificial Intelligence  The Connectionist Approach • parallel distributed processing (PDP) approach • neural network approach • cerebral cortex • serial processing • parallel processing Dr. P. Ansburg,Cognitive Psychology PSY 4570, MSU Denver
  • 16.  Artificial Intelligence (AI)  The Computer Metaphor ▪ structures and processes  Pure AI ▪ Efficiency and accuracy of performance is emphasized and no attempt is made to model human thought. ▪ Watch Dr. Ng (Stanford University) discuss the challenges of AI in the context of robotics  Computer Simulation ▪ computer modeling used as a method of investigating how humans think Dr. P. Ansburg,Cognitive Psychology PSY 4570, MSU Denver
  • 17.  Cognitive Science • Interdisciplinary—cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and artificial intelligence PLUS philosophy, linguistics, anthropology, sociology, and economics Read this resources for more on cognitive science: Thagard, Paul, "Cognitive Science", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2012 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2012/entries/cogn itive-science/>. Dr. P. Ansburg,Cognitive Psychology PSY 4570, MSU Denver