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Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
Bacterial world
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Bacterial world

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  • 1. Biology The study of living organisms Cell the basic functioning Unit of all living things There are 2 Types of Cells • EUKARYOTIC • PROKARYOTIC
  • 2. Biology The study of living organisms THE UNIVERSAL PRINCIPLE OF LIFE All cellular life has the following characteristics in common. The following criteria are the MINIMAL REQUIREMENTS of life •All cells have a CELL MEMBRANE •All cellular life CONTAINS DNA as its genetic material. •All cells contain several varieties of RNA molecules and PROTEINS. •All cells are composed of the same BASIC CHEMICALS: carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, minerals, fats and vitamins •All cells REGULATE the flow of nutrients and wastes •All cells REPRODUCE and are the result of reproduction •All cells require a SUPPLY OF ENERGY
  • 3. Biology THE UNIVERSAL PRINCIPLE OF LIFE
  • 4. Microbiology Brief introduction Microbiology is the study of living organisms of microscopic size include bacteria, fungi, algae protozoa and viruses it is concerned with their form, structure, reproduction, physiology, metabolism and classification. It also includes the study of their effects on human beings and on other animals and plants their ability to make physical and chemical changes in our environment
  • 5. Microbiology Brief introduction Major Field Of Microbiology Medical Microbiology Causative agents of Disease, diagnostic Procedures for identification of causative agents, preventive measures Aquatic Microbiology Water Purification, Microbiology examination, biological degradation of waste Food Microbiology Contamination & spoilage of Food, preservative & preparation of food, food born diseases and their prevention.
  • 6. Microbiology ANCIENT MICROBIOLOGICAL HISTORY Ancient man recognized many of the factors involved in disease. Early civilizations on Crete, India, Pakistan and Scotland invented toilets and sewers; lavatories, dating around 2800 BC The first cities to use water pipes (of clay) were in the Indus Valley of Pakistan around 2700 BC. Metal water pipes were used in Egypt (2450 BC) and the palace of Knossos on Crete around 2000 BC had clay pipes. Most ancient peoples recognized that some diseases were communicable and isolated individuals thought to carry "infections Sadly, we know that this knowledge did not help most of our ancestors and that the human life span was, until the last 200 years, more often than not cut short due to infectious disease. Even today approximately 15,000,000 CHILDREN DIE PER YEAR, mainly from infectious diseases that are preventable with basic sanitation, immunization and simple medical treatments. One might honestly question just how far we have come in our treatment of disease. An excellent synopsis of the history of Microbiology
  • 7. Microbiology ANCIENT MICROBIOLOGICAL HISTORY The first person to report seeing microbes under the microscope was an Englishman, Robert Hooke. he saw the cellular structure of plants around 1665. He also saw fungi which he drew. However, because his lens were of poor quality he was apparently unable to "see" bacteria. Anton van Leeuwenhoek was a man born before his time. Although not the FIRST TO DISCOVER THE MICROSCOPE or to use magnifying lens, he was the first to see and describe bacteria.
  • 8. Bacterial World Microbiology Group of Micro-organism The major groups are as follows. Algae Viruses Bacteria Protozoa Fungi
  • 9. Bacterial World Microbiology Algae are relatively simple organisms the most primitive types and unicellular. All Algae cells contain chlorophyll and are capable of photosynthesis. Algae are found most commonly in aquatic environments or in deep soil. Viruses are very small non-cellular parasites or pathogens of plant animals and bacteria. Virus can be cultivated only in living cells Protozoa Unicellular and consist of nucleated mass of cytoplasm, parasites but the known protozoa are few that cause disease in human beings and animals Fungi Lower plants devoid of chlorophyll they are usually multi-cellular but are not differentiated into roots stems and leaves
  • 10. Bacterial World Microbiology
  • 11. Bacterial World History Microbiology Canyouthinkofcaseswherepeopleyouknow don'tacceptinformationthatwillaidthemin livinghealthier,andlongerlives? In the 1800s people (mainly the poor) began to use hospitals. Hospitals also became centers of physician training. In 1841 (30 years before the GERM THEORY of disease was established) young doctor IGNAZ SEMMELWEIS was hired to run a maternity ward in a Vienna hospital. He reasoned that there was an INVISIBLE AGENT that caused deaths and that one could transfer it. Acting on this assumption, Semmelweis instituted sanitary measures which included having the doctors wash their hands in disinfectant and change from lab coats dripping with pus and blood from the autopsy room to clean lab coats before examining patients or assisting in a birth.
  • 12. Bacterial World Microbiology LOUIS PASTEUR The greatest biologist of the nineteenth century was Louis Pasteur (1822 1895). His work had both practical use and profound theoretical significance. “On the practical side, what discovery in the history of mankind is more important than the germ theory of disease?”
  • 13. BACTERIAL MORPHOLOGY The size, shape and arrangement of bacteria, and other microbes, is the result of their genes and thus is a defining characteristic called MORPHOLOGY The most common bacterial shapes are RODS, COCCI, and SPIRAL. However, within each of these groups are hundreds of unique variations
  • 14. BACTERIAL MORPHOLOGY
  • 15. BACTERIAL CELL COMPONENTS
  • 16. BACTERIAL CELL COMPONENTS
  • 17. BacterialStructure Cell Wall External from cell wall are capsules, Flagella, and Pili and external to cytoplasmic membrane is the cell wall They are essential structure for viability They are composed of unique components found nowhere else in nature It is rigid structure that gives shape to the cells They provide for immunological distinction among the strain of bacteria
  • 18. BacterialStructure Cell Wall the Gram-positive Bacteria the cell wall is thick (15-80 nanometers), consisting of several layers of peptidoglycan. In the Gram-negative Bacteria the cell wall is relatively thin (10 nanometers) and is composed of a single layer of peptidoglycan surrounded by a membranous structure called the outer membrane. The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria invariably contains a unique component, lipo- polysaccharide (LPS) which is toxic to animals.
  • 19. BacterialStructure
  • 20. BacterialStructure Bacterial cell wall structure Gram-negative Bacterial Membrane Structure Gram-negative Cell Membrane Model •Gram-negative bacteria are surrounded by two membranes. •The outer membrane functions as an efficient permeability barrier containing lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and porins. Peptidoglycan Cell Membrane Cytoplasmic Membrane
  • 21. BacterialStructure Gram-positive Bacterial Membrane Structure Gram-positive Membrane •The lipid bilayer cell membrane of most of the Gram-positive bacteria is covered by a porous peptidoglycan layer ] Peptidoglycan Layers
  • 22. Bacterial Structure
  • 23. Gram Staining method The basic differences in surface structures of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria explain the results of Gram staining Show movie
  • 24. Bacterial Growth In a rich culture medium bacteria, grown under aerobic conditions, achieve a final concentration of 2-5 x 109 cells per ml in about 12-18 hours. In the case of bacteria the timeline could, in theory, start with a single cell and end 24 hours later (assuming no death) with a bacterial-mass near the weight of the earth. Another way to look at this is that a single bacterium can produce, in about 12 hours, ~5 billion offspring in two milliliters of medium; something it has taken the human 3.5 billion years to do Show Movie
  • 25. Different kinds Bacterial Growth Aerobe An organism that is able to live and grow in the presence of atmospheric oxygen is termed as aerobe. Anaerobe An organism that is able to live and grow in the absence of atmospheric oxygen is termed as anaerobe. Obligate Aerobes Some bacteria, such as M. tuberculosis, require oxygen because their ATP-generating system is dependent on oxygen as the hydrogen acceptor. Facultative Anaerobes Other bacteria, such as E.coli, utilize oxygen to generate energy by respiration if it is present, but they can use the fermentation pathway to synthesize ATP in the absence of sufficient oxygen. Obligate Anaerobes They vary in their response to oxygen exposure; some can survive but are not able to grow, whereas others are killed rapidly.
  • 26. Normal Flora The body surfaces support the growth of a variety of bacteria and fungi, which collectively are called The NORMAL FLORA. The normal flora comprises a PERMANENT population of organisms. The normal flora extensively populates many areas of the body. The members of normal flora play a role both in the maintenance of health and in the causation of disease in a significant ways. Although these organisms are nonpathogenic in their usual anatomic location. They can be pathogenic in other parts of the body. They may serve a nutritional function. The intestinal bacteria produce several vitamin B.and vitamin K. poorly nourished people who were treated with oral antibiotics can suffer vitamin deficiencies as a result of the reduction in the normal flora. However since germ-free animal are well nourished, the normal flora is not essential for proper nutrition.
  • 27. Pathogenesis If a microorganism is capable of causing disease its called “PATHOGEN” and this phenomenon is called “PATHOGENESIS”. VIRULENCE: is a quantitative measure of pathogenicity and is measured by the number of organisms required to cause disease. LD 50: Lethal Dose is the no. of organisms needed to kill half of the hosts. ID 50: Infectious Dose (50%) is the no. of organisms needed to cause infection in half of the patient. Pathogens cause disease by two major mechanisms, Toxin Production and Invasiveness. TOXINS are divided into EXOTOXIN & ENDOTOXIN. EXOTOXINS are polypeptides released by the cell, whereas ENDOTOXINS are lipopolysachrides, which form an integral part of the cell. INVASIVENESS Invasive bacteria grow to large number locally and cause symptoms in that area by producing a variety of enzymes that damage adjacent host cells.
  • 28. INFECTIONS Infection is a morbid state caused by the multiplication of the pathogenic micro-organisms within the body. TYPES OF INFECTIONS There are two types of infections, Acute and Chronic. CHRONIC INFECTION Onset Rapid Slow Severity Greater Slower Duration Short Prolonged ACUTE INFECTION Sites of Infection Upper Respiratory Tract Reproductive System Dental Skin & Soft Tissues Urinary Tract Gastrointestinal Tract Blood Bone
  • 29. A typical acute infectious disease has 4 stages; The INCUBATION PERIOD which is time between the acquisition of the organism (or toxin) and the beginning of symptoms (this time varies from hours to days to weeks depending on the organism) The PRODROME PERIOD during which nonspecific symptoms such as fever, malaise, and loss of appetite occur. The SPECIFIC ILLNESS PERIOD during which the overt characteristic signs, symptoms of the disease occur. The RECOVERY PERIOD during which the illness abates and the patient returns to the healthy state. Typical Stages of An Infectious Disease
  • 30. Signs of infection in the body When pathogens overcome the natural defence of the body, the body responds by sending out certain signals, which indicate that an infection is present in the body. These signals are known as the SIGNS and SYMPTOMS of disease. A SYMPTOM is subjective, a feeling experienced & reported by the patient. A SIGN is objective i.e. it can be observed and measured by the physician. Sign of infection may local (occurring in the immediate vicinity of the infection), or systemic (affecting the entire body). Six typical signs of infection are as follows: LOCAL SIGNS (Inflammatory responses to infection) Swelling Redness Pain Warmth
  • 31. Host Defence Host defence are composed of two complementary, frequently interacting systems: Nonspecific defences: protect against microorganisms in general. Specific natural & acquired immunity: protect against a particular microorganism. Medicines (antibiotics) are the specific defences against a particular microorganism.
  • 32. Common Terminology Justasthereisa"languageoflove"sothereisa "languageofepidemiology"thatinvolvesthe memorizationoftermsandtheirmeanings . NOSOCOMIAL : Infections contracted during a HOSPITAL STAY involving an organism that is a "hospital strain" of the infectious agent. These infections are usually picked up from the personnel transporting the infectious agent from one patient to another from instruments, often inserted into sensitive parts of the body (e.g. catheters, needles, proctoscopes etc.), on the equipment (e.g. bed pans, beds, sheets, dishes, flowers etc.) Nosocomial bacteria are often very resistant to antibiotics having been exposed to a variety of antibiotics while in the hospital. It is estimated that 2 to 10% of US-hospital patients ACQUIRE A NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION during their stay.
  • 33. Common Terminology Justasthereisa"languageoflove"sothereisa "languageofepidemiology"thatinvolvesthe memorizationoftermsandtheirmeanings . COMPROMISED HOST These are individuals whose general condition of health renders them MORE SUSCEPTIBLE to infectious agent and opportunistic infectious agent gaining a foothold in their bodies. •People who have suffered serious trauma and injury by accident or intention (an operation). •Those undergoing treatment with immunosuppressive drugs or anticancer drugs. •The aged. •Those suffering extreme stress (e.g. students before difficult exams). •Those suffering or recovering from a serious illness. •Those suffering from diabetes. •Those who have recently experienced childbirth.
  • 34. Common Terminology Justasthereisa"languageoflove"sothereisa "languageofepidemiology"thatinvolvesthe memorizationoftermsandtheirmeanings . ENDEMIC: Refers to the fact that a particular disease is NORMALLY FOUND IN A PARTICULAR AREA EPIDEMICL: a relatively SUDDEN INCREASE in the number of cases of a particular disease in a PARTICULAR PLACE OR AREA PANDEMIC: An epidemic that encompasses the ENTIRE WORLD. AIDS is a pandemic; the flu is often pandemic. In the past pandemics were rare, but through the combination of world wide rapid travel and the burgeoning human population (~6 billion), pandemics are likely to be increasingly in our future.
  • 35. Common Terminology EPIDEMIOLOGY: the study of the origin, cause and spread of disease Justasthereisa"languageoflove"sothereisa "languageofepidemiology"thatinvolvesthe memorizationoftermsandtheirmeanings MODE OF TRANSMISSION = This refers to how the disease is spread between hosts. Obviously in combating any infectious disease it is crucial to know how it is spread, but this also applies to hereditary diseases. CARRIERS These are humans or other animals in which the infectious agent is growing and reproducing with little or no visible harm to the current host
  • 36. Common Terminology Justasthereisa"languageoflove"sothereisa "languageofepidemiology"thatinvolvesthe memorizationoftermsandtheirmeanings . MORTALITY AND MORBIDITY: Morbidity refers to the number of people who catch a disease, whereas mortality refers to the number of people who die from a disease. This data is usually presented in terms of numbers per 100,000. For example, chickenpox has a high morbidity, but a very low mortality. Conversely AIDS has a low morbidity, but a high mortality.

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