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Romania interbelica
Romania interbelica
Romania interbelica
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Romania interbelica

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  • 1. ROMÅNIA INTERBELICåINTERBELLUM ROMANIA
  • 2. Matei CazacuROMÅNIA INTERBELICåINTERBELLUM ROMANIA
  • 3. Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Na]ionale a Rom ânieiCazacu, MateiRom ânia Interbelic~ / text: Matei Cazacu;concep]ie grafic~: Mihaela Dulea; ed.: Ovidiu Morar. - Bucure[ti:Noi Media Print, 2006ISBN: 973-85881-7-0I. Dulea, Mihaela (il.)II. Morar, Ovidiu (ed.)726.6
  • 4. CUPRINS | SUMMARY 5 Iluzia României Mari | The Illusion of Greater Romania 6 Istorie [i tradi]ie | History and Tradition 44 Produc]ie [i consum | Production and Consumption 60 Bucure[ti | Bucharest 82 Peisaje citadine | Cityscapes 102Turism balnear [i de agrement | Spa and Leisure Tourism
  • 5. ILUZIA ROMÅNIEI MARI România interbelic~, supranumit~ România România ocupa primul loc în Europa înMare, era cu cei aproape 20 milioane de locuitori [i privin]a ponderii popula]iei active (59% din totalul295.000 km2 cel mai important stat din Balcani. popula]iei), dar aceasta era concentrat~ cu prec~dereCrearea statului na]ional prin alipirea la Vechiul Regat în agricultur~. De asemenea, ocupa locul întâi laa provinciilor orientale (Basarabia), occidentale capitolul natalit~]ii, dar tot locul întâi l de]inea [i la(Transilvania, Banat, Cri[ana), septentrionale mortalitate, în special la mortalitatea infantil~. Venitul(Bucovina, Maramure[) [i meridionale (Dobrogea de anual pe cap de locuitor era de 243 de dolari (298 însud sau Cadrilaterul) a fost rezultatul pr~bu[irii 1914), cel mai sc~zut în Europa central~ [i de sud-est,imperiilor [i a afirm~rii principiului wilsonian al mai sc~zut decât cel din Bulgaria (284), Polonia (352)dreptului popoarelor la autodeterminare. [i Ungaria (359); venit care, pentru compara]ie, în Noile frontiere stabilite prin tratatele de pace Anglia era de 1069 de dolari.din 1919 includeau puternice minorit~]i etnice Principalele produse de export erau petrolul [i(unguri, evrei, germani, slavi, ]igani, turci [i t~tari), produsele rafinate (33% din total), cerealele (29%),28,5% din totalul popula]iei nefiind de origine lemnul (14%) [i vitele (6%). Valoarea unei toneromân~, o particularitate comun~ tuturor statelor metrice exportat~ de România era de 121 de francibalcanice, central- [i est-europene. elve]ieni (în perioada 1922-1930), în vreme ce o ton~ Aflat~ în tab~ra înving~torilor din Primul de produse importate valora 815,8 franci elve]ieni. çnR~zboi Mondial, România a f~cut parte în perioada 1931, îns~ raportul era catastrofal: 68,5 franci tona lainterbelic~ din „cordonul sanitar“ al Europei în fa]a export [i 853,9 la import.bol[evismului Rusiei sovietice. De altfel n 1919, çncordarea situa]iei interna]ionale [i internearmata român~ a ocupat Ungaria [i Budapesta punând dup~ 1936 îl conduc pe regele Carol II la o politic~astfel cap~t experien]ei comuniste din Ungaria, iar autoritar~: Constitu]ia din 1923 este abolit~, partideleîntre 1918 [i 1934 s-a aflat în stare de r~zboi cu URSS. politice [i sindicatele sunt interzise, se iau o serie România era o monarhie constitu]ional~ întreag~ de m~suri pentru eliminarea popula]ieiavând în fruntea ei un monarh din dinastia german~ evreie[ti din via]a politic~, economic~ [i social~. Toatede Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, devenit~ din 1917 acestea nu au putut împiedica pr~bu[irea Românieidinastia „de România“: Ferdinand I (1914-1927), Mari în 1940, pr~bu[ire datorat~ în primul rândMihai I (1927-1930, 1940-1947) [i Carol al II-lea situa]iei geopolitice: România Mare dispare a[a cum(1930-1940) se succed la tron. Scena politic~ este au disp~rut peste o duzin~ de alte ]~ri europenedominat~ de dou~ mari partide politice, Partidul indiferent de regimul lor politic, victime ale coluziuniiNa]ional Liberal [i Partidul Na]ional ¥~r~nist care imperialismului german [i sovietic.guverneaz~ în alternan]~ în alian]~ cu o serie de Acest rezultat final fusese presim]it de elitelepartide mici. tinere ale României care sim]eau c~ „timpul le era Ca [i în perioada anterioar~, ]ara este m~surat“ [i c~ erau deci obligate s~ creeze repede opereguvernat~ de fapt de o elit~ restrâns~, în majoritate de valoare universal~ în scurtul interval de pace care leliberal~: circa 300 de persoane dup~ calculele unui sta la dispozi]ie dup~ 1919. A[a se explic~ dezvoltareaobservator (Petre Pandrea), un grup bine sudat f~r~ precedent a artelor, a literaturii, a arhitecturii. Sedenumit chiar „mafie“ de un adversar politic deschid noi s~li de expozi]ie, iar muzeele sunt mai(Alexandru Vaida-Voevod). Aceste elite realizeaz~ vizitate ca oricând. Teatrele de tot felul [i s~lile dedup~ r~zboi un program ambi]ios de reforme - printre concert atrag sear~ de sear~ mii de spectatori, iarcare reforma agrar~ [i votul universal care acorda editurile se întrec în a promova noua genera]ie dedrepturi politice imensei majorit~]i a ]~rii - [i impun scriitori români precum Eugen Ionescu, Emil Cioran,m~suri economice de liberalizare sabotate ns~ de Mircea Eliade, Mihai Sebastian [i mul]i al]ii.afacerism [i nepotism.6 | Iluzia României Mari
  • 6. THE ILLUSION OF GREATER ROMANIA Interwar Romania, also know as Greater that, unfortunately, nepotism and group interestsRomania, was the most important state in the Balkans undermined.with its nearly 20 million inhabitants and 295,000 sq. Romania ranked first in Europe in point of activekm. The nation state emerged after the union to the Old population, 59 percent of all the inhabitants, but mostKingdom of the eastern province of Bessarabia, the of them worked mainly in agriculture. This country alsowestern provinces of Transylvania, Banat and Crisana, placed first in the number of births as well as deaths,the northern provinces of Bukovina and Maramures, and particularly as regards the child death rate. Per capitathe southern province of southern Dobruja or the yearly income stood at 243 dollars (298 in 1914), theQuadrilateral. This was brought about by the collapse of lowest in Central and South-Eastern Europe, smaller thanempires and the assertion of Wilson’s principle of the in Bulgaria (284), Poland (352) and Hungary (359), aspeoples’ right to self-determination. compared to 1,069 dollars in the United Kingdom. Under the peace treaties of 1919 the new The principal exports were petroleum andfrontiers came to encompass several powerful ethnic refined products (33 percent of the total), grains (29minorities (Hungarians, Jews, Germans, Slavs, Gypsies, percent), wood (14 percent,) and cattle (6 percent). ATurks, and Tartars), with 28.5 percent of the total metric ton exported by Romania was worth 121 Swisspopulation of other origin than the majority, a feature Francs (between 1922-1930), while a ton of importedcommon to all the states in the Balkans, in Central and products was worth 815.8 Swiss Francs. In 1931, theEastern Europe. ratio appeared downright catastrophic: 68.5 Francs per On the winning side in the First World War, in exported ton and 853.9 per imported ton.the interbellum Romania stood as part of Europe’s The tense international and domestic situation“sanitary belt” against Soviet Russia’s Bolshevism. Thus, after 1936 prompted King Carol II to pursue anin 1919, its armies occupied Hungary and Budapest in authoritarian policy: the 1923 Constitution wasorder to put an end to the communist experiment there, abolished, the political parties and trade unions werewhile between 1918 and 1934 Romania was in a state of banned, and several measures were taken to eliminatewar with the Soviet Union. the Jewish population from the political economic and A sovereign from the German dynasty of social life. Nonetheless, all this could not prevent theHohenzollern-Sigmaringen, which from 1917 was collapse of Greater Romania, in 1940, mostly as a resultconsidered “a Romanian dynasty”, ruled the country, a of the geopolitical situation. Thus, Greater Romaniaconstitutional monarchy. In the period in point to the vanished like more than a dozen other Europeanthrone first came Ferdinand I (1914-1927), then Mihai I countries, irrespective of their political regime, falling(1927-1930, 1940-1947), and Carol II (1930-1940). Two pray to the collusive German and Soviet imperialism.important formations, the National Liberal and the The young elite of Romanian artists intuited theNational Peasant Parties hogged the political stage, dire end and felt their days were numbered. So theysteering the country in turn, with a series of smaller strove to create works of catholic scope in the briefparties in tow. interval after 1919. This explains the boom of the arts, of Just like in the previous period, a small elite, literature, and architecture. New exhibition halls opened,mostly Liberal, swayed the country: all in all no more than and museums welcomed more and more visitors. Various300 persons, according to the calculations of an observer genres of theaters and concert halls drew thousands of(Petre Pandrea), a well knitted group that a political spectators, while publishing houses vied to promote theopponent (Alexandru Vaida-Voevod) called a “Mafia”. new generation of Romanian writers: Eugen Ionescu,After the war, this elite carried out an ambitious program Emil Cioran, Mircea Eliade, Mihail Sebastian, and others.– to mention only the land reform and the universalsuffrage granting political rights to the majority of thepopulation – and instituted liberal economic measures The Illusion of Greater Romania | 7
  • 7. ISTORIE ßI TRADI¥IE Realizarea statului na]iune în 1919 a împodobit cu stâlpi de lemn adeseori sculpta]i, curesuscitat interesul pentru trecutul mai îndep~rtat sau foi[or [i cu acoperi[ în pant~; în fine, cele de munte,mai apropiat: monumentele [i siturile arheologice sunt unde predomin~ lemnul [i acoperi[urile impun~toarecercetate, restaurate, renovate sau recl~dite în spiritul de stuf sau de [indril~. Fantezia me[terilor serespectului pentru forma ini]ial~, în special cu sprijinul manifest~ în sculptura monumentalelor por]i de lemnComisiei Monumentelor Istorice. din Maramure[ [i Oa[, iar în interior în exuberan]a M~n~stirile [i bisericile formau atunci, ca [i ]es~turilor [i a podoabelor, în special feminine.ast~zi, unul din cele mai remarcabile capitole ale Transilvaniei îi sunt specifice stilurile gotic [i baroc, civiliza]ia urban~ de tip german cu ora[e [i biserici înconjurate de ziduri [i turnuri de ap~rare ridicate împotriva pericolului otoman. Satele s~se[ti din Transilvania [i sv~be[ti din Banat difer~ puternic de cele române[ti: primele sunt de tipul a[ez~rilor de colonizare, axate pe o strad~ principal~ dreapt~ [i larg~ flancat~ de dou~ fronturi de case de zid cu cur]i îngr~dite [i ele cu zid. çn contrast, în satele române[ti domin~ habitatul de tip risipit, cu forme neregulate, gr~dini [i livezi. La rândul ei, Oltenia muntoas~ este p~str~toarea unui tip de cas~ fortificat~, cula, adev~rat turn amintind de locuin]ele fortificate ale patricienilor genovezi. Economia ]~r~neasc~ tinde c~tre autarhie - cultivarea p~mântului, cre[terea animalelor, viticultura, pomicultura [i mica industrie local~. O Tropaeum Traiani, Adamclisi Ruinele monumentului roman (109 d.Hr). seam~ de îndeletniciri ancestrale sunt pre]uite acum: sculptura în lemn, ceramica de o mare varietate, Trapaeum Trajani, Adamclisi The ruins of the Roman monument (A.D. 109) ]es~turile, toate promovate în particip~rile României la expozi]iile interna]ionale ale vremii începând cu cea de la Paris din 1867.istoriei artei române[ti. Ele reprezint~ sinteze locale ale Caracteristic~ este p~strarea costumuluiinfluen]elor bizantine [i occidentale evoluând c~tre popular de toate zilele [i de s~rb~toare (adoptat înforme specifice spa]iului românesc în ciuda special de doamnele din înalta societate sub influen]adiferen]elor regionale. Reginei Maria) cu variante regionale bine definite. Satul românesc interbelic continu~ s~ existe în Satul continu~ s~-[i p~streze caracteristiciledimensiunile sale tradi]ionale diferite între zonele de arhitecturale [i vestimentare, prea pu]in concuratecâmpie, unde se întâlnesc locuin]e de tip bordei înc~ de industria or~[eneasc~. Doar satele dinîngropat total sau par]ial în p~mânt; cele de deal, împrejurimile Bucure[tilor [i a unor mari ora[e dinunde abunden]a materialelor de construc]ie a permis r~s~rit - Gala]i, Br~ila - cunosc un început deformarea unui stil arhitectural specific: case cu etaj, urbanizare haotic~ dar f~r~ rezultate probante.în~l]ate pe o vast~ pivni]~, cu pridvor deschis8 | Istorie [i tradi]ie
  • 8. HISTORY AND TRADITION The establishment of the nation state in 1919 Peasant economy tended to autarchy – landrekindled the interest in the more or less remote past. cultivation, animal rearing, viticulture, pomiculture,Thus, the Commission of Historical Monuments lent its and local cottage industry. Several old skills came to besupport to most of the projects that studied, restored, much appreciated: wood sculpture, highly variegatedrenovated or refurbished archaeological monuments ceramics, textiles, all promoted thanks to Romania’sand sites in respect of their original. participation in the time’s international exhibitions, Then, just like now, monasteries and churches starting with the 1867 Paris event.represented one of the most outstanding chapters inthe history of Romanian art. A local synthesis ofByzantine and Western tradition, they evolved intospecific forms of the Romanian space, despite regionaldifferences. Interwar Romanian villages continued their lifewithin traditional dimensions that varied function oftheir location: plain areas, with totally or partly buriedhuts; hill areas where the wealth of building materialsallowed for the creation of a specific architectural stylefeaturing storied houses with a big cellar on thebasement, an open porch often adorned by sculpturedwooden posts, then a turret and sloping roof; andfinally mountain areas, with preeminently woodenhouses topped by imposing roofs. Master craftsmenleft their fantasy play freely when sculpting themonumental wooden porches of Maramures and Oas,while women artists put their genius into exuberantly Re[edin]a lui Duca Vod~ de la Cet~]uia (1672), jude]ul Ia[iwoven cloth and various ornaments. The Gothic and Baroque styles, a German- The residence of Prince Duca at Cetatuia, Iasi County (1672)type civilization with towns and churches surroundedby defense walls and towers meant to cope with theOttoman peril characterized Transylvania. The Saxon The preservation of everyday and festive folkvillages of Transylvania and the Swabian villages of costumes (adopted in particular by the ladies of theBanat differed considerably from the Romanian ones high society under the influence of Queen Maria)as the former were of the colony settlement type, with represented a characteristic of the time, with well-a straight wide main street, flanked by two rows of defined regional variants. Villages stuck to theirbrick houses with wall-fenced yards. By contrast, the architectural and vestmental traditions, for which cityRomanian villages were scattered, irregular in shape, industries put up too little competition. A chaotic startwith gardens and orchards. of urban planning could be noted in the big towns of In its turn, the mountainous region of Oltenia eastern Romania – Galati, Braila – and the localitiesevinced the tradition of the fortified house, the so- around Bucharest, only slight results tough.called cula, actually a tower reminding of the fortifiedmansions of Genovese patricians. History and tradition | 9
  • 9. Biserica Olari (1687) din Curtea de Arge[Olari Church (1687) of Curtea de Arges Biserica mare din Câineni (1807), jude]ul Vâlcea Pe fa]ad~ sunt picta]i sibile [i filosofi. The big Church of Caineni (1807) The facade features paintings with sibyls and philosophers.10 | Istorie [i tradi]ie
  • 10. Schitul [i pe[tera Ialomi]ei Biserica (sec. XVIII) din Fildul de sus, jude]ul S~laj Construit n 1818, ars în 1940 [i ref~cut n 1942. Fidul de Sus, Salaj County. The Church (18th century) The Ialomita Cave and Skete The latter was built in 1818; it caught fire in 1940, and was remade in 1942. Biseric~ de lemn dinN~da[a, jude]ul Mure[The wooden Church of Nadasa, Targu Mures Biserica din Br~det (sec. XVI), Jude]ul Arge[The Church of Bradet, Arges County (16th century)
  • 11. Biserica Fundenii Doamnei (1699), Bucure[tiStucaturi lucrate de me[teri persani: un palat,o fântân~, glastre cu flori.Fundenii Doamnei Church, Bucharest (1699)Stucco crafted by Persian artisans: a palace, afountain, vases with flowers. M~n~stirea Horezu (1694), jude]ul Vâlcea, Pronaosul Horezu Monastery, ValceaM~n~stirea V~c~re[ti (1722), Bucure[ti County (1694), the narthexInteriorul bisericii. Cea mai întins~ din Europa(180.000 m2), demolat~ în 1986.Vacaresti Monastery, Bucharest (1722)Interior of the church, the largest in Europe(180,000 sq. m.) demolished in 1986. History and tradition | 13
  • 12. M~n~stirea Cozia (1388), jude]ul VâlceaLocuin]a egumenului, vedere din pridvor.Cozia Monastery, Valcea County (1388)The abbot’s house, view from the porch.14 | Istorie [i tradi]ie
  • 13. Patriarhul Miron Cristea îl întâmpin~ pe Regele Carol II în biserica m~n~stirii Curtea de Arge[ cu ocazia funeraliilor Reginei Maria (iulie 1938). Patriarch Miron Cristea welcoming King Carol II to the church of the Curtea de Arges Monastery on the funerals of Queen Maria (July 1938). M~n~stirea luiNeagoe Basarab (1517), Curtea de Arge[ The Monastery of Neagoe Basarab,Curtea de Arges (1517) Grup de c~lug~ri Group of monks History and tradition | 15
  • 14. Parcul palatului Reginei Maria, BalcicThe park of Queen Maria’s palace, Balcic16 | Istorie [i tradi]ie
  • 15. Printre ruine la picnic A picnic among ruinsGorunul lui Horea, ¥ebeaHorea’s evergreen oak, Tebea History and tradition | 17
  • 16. Catedrala Catolic~ din Alba Iulia Sarcofagele lui Iancu de Hunedoara (†1456), Ladislau de Hunedoara, fiul s~u (†1457) [i Regelui Ioan Sigismund Zapolya (†1571). Opere influen]ate de rena[terea italian~. The Catholic Cathedral of Alba Iulia The sarcophagi of Iancu of Hunedoara (d. 1456), Ladislau of Hunedoara, his son (d. 1457), and of King Johannes Sigismund Zapolya (d. 1571), works influenced by the Italian Renaissance Biserica s~seasc~ fortificat~ din Prejmer (Tartlau), c~m~ri de provizii în curtea interioar~ (sec. XV). The Fortified Saxon Church of Prejmer (Tartlau), storehouses in the inner court (15th cen.)18 | Istorie [i tradi]ie
  • 17. Biserica s~seasc~ fortificat~ din Cisn~die (Heltau), (sec. XV)The Fortified Saxon Church of Cisnadie (Heltau), the 15th cen History and tradition | 19
  • 18. Bra[ov, Pia]a Sfatului or~[enesc (sec. XV-XVIII): „Aici se adun~ toate popoarele învecinate ca într-o hal~ comun~ de m~rfuri“ - Giovan-Andrea Gromo Brasov, the Town Hall Square (15th-18th cen.): “Here all the neighboring folks gather like in a common market hall” Giovan Andrea Gromo (1518 – after 1567)Castelul Bran (1377)Ref~cut de Regina Maria (1930).Bran castle (1377)Refurbished by Queen Maria (1930).
  • 19. History and tradition | 21
  • 20. Cetatea Alb~, cetate greac~ în antichitate, mai apoi bizantin~, genovez~, t~t~reasc~, moldoveneasc~, turceasc~, ruseasc~ [i în fine româneasc~ (1919). Încorporat~ în Ucraina (1944). Cetatea Alba, a Greek stronghold in the antiquity, turned then Byzantine, Genovese, Turkish, Russian and finally Romanian (1919), to be incorporated into Ukraine later (1944).Portul Cet~]ii AlbeCetatea Alba, the Harbour
  • 21. Turnul Chindiei (1462) [i ruinele bisericii domne[ti (1583), Târgovi[te Chindia Tower (1462)Targoviste and the ruins of the princely church (1583) Castelul Hunedoara (sec. XV) Construit de Iancu de Hunedoara (1440-1446, 1447-1453) [i terminat de fiul s~u Matei Corvin (1458-1490). Hunedoara Castle (15th cen.) Started by Iancu of Hunedoara (1440- 1446, 1447-1453) and finished by his son, Matthias Corvinus (1458-1490).Casa în care s-a n~scut regele Ungariei,Matei Corvin la 23 februarie 1443 (regeîntre 1458-1490), ClujThe house where Matthias Corvinus, Kingof Hungary was born on February 23, 1443(king between 1458-1490), Cluj History and tradition | 23
  • 22. Cetatea Hotin, vedere dinspre NistruHotin Stronghold, view from the Dniester RiverCetatea Hotin, ruinele geamiei, lâng~ biserica ortodox~Hotin Stronghold ruins of the mosque near the Romanian Orthodox Church24 | Istorie [i tradi]ie
  • 23. Cetatea Hotin, fortifica]iile [i curtea interioar~Hotin Stronghold, the fortifications and the inner courtyard History and tradition | 25
  • 24. Ada-Kaleh, bazarul Ada-Khaleh, the bazaar Ada-Kaleh Cl~direa comandamentului construit~ de austrieci (1720), transformat~ în geamie dup~ 1730. Ada Kaleh General headquarters building, erected by the Austrians (1720) and turned into a mosque after 1730.26 | Istorie [i tradi]ie
  • 25. Ada-KalehInsul~ fortificat~ pe Dun~re, înghi]it~ de lacul de acumulare Por]ile de Fier în 1970. Geamia [i fortifica]iile. Ada Kaleh A fortified island on the Danube swallowed by the Iron Gates storage lake in 1970. The mosque and the fortifications.Vedere general~General view History and tradition | 27
  • 26. Troi]~ monoxil~, Foc[ani One-wood road altar, FocsaniCimitir turcesc, BalcicTurkish graveyard, Balcic28 | Istorie [i tradi]ie
  • 27. Cimitir din S~tâlnea[, Dobrogea The cemetery of Satalneas, DobrujaCimitir din Deleni, nord de Ia[iThe cemetery of Deleni (north of Iasi) History and tradition | 29
  • 28. Femei la sfat n ¥ara Mo]ilor Women’s get-together in„Ascult~ de la mine c~-s mai b~trân!“ Motzi land“Believe me, I’ve been there!” History and tradition | 31
  • 29. „Nu mai exist~ tâlhari în Carpa]i!““There’re no bandits left in the Carpathians!” Cariatide în drum spre târg, Dr~goeni, jude]ul Gorj Caryatids: Peasant women going to the fair, Dragoeni, Gorj CountyNegustori de opinci:„un model, toate m~rimile” ¥~rani din Maramure[ în fa]a bisericiiVendors of strapped moccasins:“One model, all sizes!” Peasants from Maramures in front of the church32 | Istorie [i tradi]ie
  • 30. Haute couture în Bucovina, Oa[ [i GorjHaute couture, Bukovina, Oas, and Gorj style Descul]e, dar g~tite Barefoot, yet dolled up History and tradition | 33
  • 31. Cas~ cu coloane n Burila,jude]ul Mehedin]iHouse with columns,Burila, Mehedinti County O moar~ pe râu în jos A mill down on the river34 | Istorie [i tradi]ie
  • 32. Arhitectur~ ]~r~neasc~ Peasant architectureHistory and tradition | 35
  • 33. Cas~ din S~li[te cu mândrii ei proprietari House in Saliste and its proud owners36 | Istorie [i tradi]ie
  • 34. Cas~ din zona N~s~ud, interiorHouse in the Nasaud area, interior ßez~toare Social of village women History and tradition | 37
  • 35. La târgul de oale pe muntele G~ina Secui din Tome[ti, Miercurea CiucAt the pottery fair on Gaina Mount Szecklers from Tomesti, Miercurea Ciuc „Am pus-o de m~m~lig~“ “I’ve really got into hot water with this polenta!”38 | Istorie [i tradi]ie
  • 36. ¥~ranc~ din Muscel Countrywoman from Muscel„Ziua bun~ am dat”...“Should I say Hello again?” History and tradition | 39
  • 37. Copii la altar din Ghinda Children at the altar of Ghina çn drum spre biseric~, V~li[oara On the way to the church, ValisoaraCoafur~ de s~rb~toareFestive hairdo Joc ]~r~nesc n Drag, jude]ul Cluj Country-dance at Drag, Cluj County
  • 38. Doamne ajut~! La Maglavit Loc de pelerinaj ini]iat de Petrache Lupu. “God help us!” Maglavit, a pilgrimage spot initiated by Petrache Lupuçn drum spre biseric~, Viscri,jude]ul Bra[ovGoing to church, Viscri, BrasovCounty History and tradition | 41
  • 39. „Paparud~-rud~, vino de ne ud~!“ Rain invocation: “Paparuda, break the bain/ Paparuda, let it rain!”Bivoli vara, F~g~ra[Buffalos in summer, Fagaras
  • 40. Ne a[teapt~ nunta Let’s start the wedding partyLa TurtucaiaAt Turtucaia
  • 41. Zi de târg în Arge[ Târgul de fete de pe muntele G~inaFair day in Arges The girl fair on Gaina Mount44 | Istorie [i tradi]ie
  • 42. ¥igani nomazi în B~r~gan Nomad Gypsies in the Baragan Coloni[ti macedo- români în Dobrogea Macedo-Romanian colonists in Dobruja History and tradition | 45
  • 43. PRODUC¥IE ßI CONSUM Structura economiei române[ti s-a diversificat hranei [i 5-10% b~uturilor alcoolice. Consumul dedup~ Primul R~zboi mondial: noile teritorii erau extrem carne anual pe cap de locuitor eviden]ia o enorm~de bogate în p~duri, animale de ras~, z~c~minte de diferen]~ între mediul rural (3 kg) [i cel urban (52 kg).c~rbuni, fier, aur, argint, cupru. Vechiul Regat exploata ¥~ranul român avea un consum extrem de redus denumai sarea [i petrolul a c~rui produc]ie urc~ de la un zah~r (2 kg anual de familie), în schimb consumau pân~milion de tone la 1920 la 8,7 milioane în 1936. la 3 kg de m~m~lig~ pe zi pe cap de locuitor în VechiulIndustriile care au cunoscut o puternic~ dezvoltare erau Regat [i în Basarabia. Alimenta]ia frugal~ [i s~rac~ încea extractiv~, metalurgic~, de prelucrare a lemnului, a calorii se explic~ [i prin reducerea drastic~ a p~[unilor înmaterialelor de construc]ie, chimic~, alimentar~, textil~, favoarea culturilor cerealiere destinate exportuluia hârtiei, piel~riei, sticl~riei [i ceramicii. În 1930, (subven]ionat masiv de stat) [i avea drept consecin]~România avea 140.000 întreprinderi industriale cu r~spândirea bolilor nutri]ionale ca pelagra specifice600.000 de muncitori, dintre care îns~ 130.000 erau zonelor de monocultur~ (în special porumb) nu numaimici ateliere cu 1-5 persoane. ¥ara avea un important din România, ci [i din sudul Statelor Unite.poten]ial economic, dar ducea lips~ de capitaluri [i Toate statisticile privind locuin]a, asisten]ainvesti]ii care s~-l valorifice. De[i România ocupa locul medical~, educa]ia [i analfabetismul (43% din totalulîntâi în Europa în privin]a ponderii popula]iei active popula]iei) dovedesc c~ ]~ranul român avea unul din(59% din totalul popula]iei), aceasta era concentrat~ în standardele de via]~ cele mai joase din Europa.agricultur~. Doar 7,2% din români lucrau în industrie [i O situa]ie abia mai bun~ avea muncitorimea.14% în servicii, iar valoarea produc]iei unui ]~ran Absen]a unor programe de construc]ii de locuin]eromân era de zece ori mai mic~ decât aceea furnizat~ ieftine, sl~biciunea sindicatelor [i paternalismulde un muncitor industrial. De[i crescuse, produc]ia la patronilor au dus la proletarizarea acestei clase socialehectar la cereale era inferioar~ celei a tuturor statelor care î[i p~stra vechile tradi]ii doar în Transilvania,balcanice cu excep]ia Greciei, iar valoarea inventarului Bucovina [i Banat, regiuni în care votul social-democratagricol pe cap de locuitor era de 15 ori mai redus~ [i socialist era cel mai puternic. În Vechiul Regat, lipsit~decât cea a Germaniei. de aceste tradi]ii, ea a fost mult mai sensibil~ la Venitul pe cap de locuitor al României era cel propaganda extremei drepte legionare din Bucure[ti [imai redus din Europa r~s~ritean~ [i balcanic~, existând Ia[i, iar implica]iile politice dezastruoase nu s-au l~satmari discrepan]e între mediul rural [i cel urban. Astfel, mult a[teptate.bugetul ]~r~nesc era consacrat în propor]ie de 65-70% „Mun]ii no[tri aur poart~”, b~ie[i din Mun]ii Apuseni “Our mountains, rich in gold”. Gold washers in Apuseni Mountians46 | Produc]ie [i consum
  • 44. PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION The Romanian economy diversified after the First consumption in the rural (3 kg) and in the urbanWorld War as the new territories boasted plenty of woods, environment (52 kg). Likewise, Romanian peasants usedthoroughbred animals, coal, iron, gold, silver and copper an extremely small amount of sugar (2 kg per familyores. In the Old Kingdom only salt and petroleum were yearly), instead they ate 3 kg of polenta per day in the Oldtapped, the production of the latter rising from one million Kingdom and in Bessarabia. The scanty malnutritious food,tons in 1920 to 8.7 million in 1936. The mining, poor in calories, can be explained also by the drasticmetallurgical, wood processing, building material, reduction of the pastureland in favor of grain cultures forchemical, food, textile, paper, leather, glassware and exports (massively subsidized by the state). Theceramics industries greatly flourished. In 1930, Romania consequence thereof were ever more numerous cases ofnumbered 140,000 industrial enterprises with 600,000 nutrition diseases, such as pellagra, specific for one-cropemployees, of which 130,000 were small workshops areas (in particular maize), not only in Romania but also inmanned by 1-5 workers. The country posted a the south of the United States.considerable economic potential but lacked capital and All statistics with regard to accommodation,investment to turn it to good account. Romania ranked medical assistance, education and illiteracy (43 percent offirst in Europe in point of active persons (59 percent of the the total population) indicate that the Romanian peasantstotal population) but they were employed mainly in had one of the poorest living standards in Europe.agriculture. Only 7.2 percent of the Romanians worked in The working class fared just a little better. Theindustry and 14 percent in services, and a peasant absence of inexpensive housing projects, the inconsistencyproduced ten times less than an industrial worker. Per of trade unions and the paternalism of employershectare grain yield, although on the rise, was smaller than triggered the proletarization of this social class thatthat in the other Balkan states with the exception of managed to preserve its old traditions only in Transylvania,Greece, and the value of the per capita farming stock was Bukovina and Banat, regions where the social-democrat15 times lower than Germany’s. and the socialist electorate was stronger. In the Old Romania’s per capita income was the most Kingdom, deprived of such traditions, the workers proveddiminutive in Eastern Europe and in the Balkans, with much more open to the propaganda of the extreme rightconsiderable discrepancies between the provinces and the Iron Guard in Bucharest and in Iasi. The disastroustowns. Thus, 65-70 percent of a peasant household aftermath of this situation ensued promptly.budget went on food, and 5-10 percent on alcoholicbeverages. There was a big difference between meatCatedrala subteran~ Pu]urile de iod de la Pucioasa de sare de la Sl~nic The iodine wells of PucioasaThe underground salt cathedral at Slanic Production and consumption | 47
  • 45. Torent de lemneTorrents of wood48 | Produc]ie [i consum
  • 46. Depozit de lemne la ßugagTimber yard at Sugag Valea Sebe[ului Sebe[ Valley
  • 47. Rafin~riile Astra Român~Astra Romana refineries Furnalele de la Re[i]a The furnaces of Resita
  • 48. Sonde de petrol în Prahova Oil wells in Prahova valley80 de cai putere versus unm~gar putere80 HP vs. 1-donkey power
  • 49. Hal~ [i atelier dinuzinele MalaxaBay and workshopat the MalaxaWorks
  • 50. Re[i]a, uzina de locomotive Resita: TheLocomotive Plant Bucure[ti, Gara de NordBucharest, North Railway Station Production and consumption | 53
  • 51. Via]a în vremea recoltei Life during harvest54 | Produc]ie [i consum
  • 52. Treieratul, mai mult sau mai pu]in mecanizat More or less mechanized trashing Plug mecanic experimentalExperimental mechanical plough
  • 53. Din vie, în teasc [i apoi în sticle From vineyard into press and then in bottles56 | Produc]ie [i consum
  • 54. „Bate vântul, moara- nvârte“... “Blows the wind, turns the mill”… ...în Dobrogea......[i la bâlci... …in Dobruja...…at the fair...
  • 55. Le train, “...comme à la guerre!”
  • 56. Delfinul, primul submarinal flotei româneThe Dolphin, the firstRomanian submarine Distrug~toare române[ti în portul Constan]a (1938)Membri ai familiei regale în Romanian destroyerscontext nautic (1938) in Constanta harbor (1938)Members of the Royal Family in amaritime milieu (1938)60 | Produc]ie [i consum
  • 57. Nave acostate la Br~ila ...Ships moored at Braila… ... [i la Mangalia. ... and at Mangalia. Production and consumption | 61
  • 58. BUCUREßTI Capitala unei ]~ri de 20 de milioane de locuitori, În vremea [i dup~ criza economic~ din anii 1929-Bucure[tii au devenit o metropol~ european~ puternic 1933, capitalurile retrase din b~nci sunt reinvestitemarcat~ de originile sale. Considerat cel mai de seam~ din majoritar în construc]ii, valori sigure. Din imobilelesud-estul Europei dup~ Istanbul, ora[ul se întindea pe o realizate, 75% sunt locuin]e. Cele mai reu[ite dintre elesuprafa]~ de 7000 ha iar popula]ia sa s-a triplat în 20 de sunt casele-vil~ realizate de arhitec]ii Horia Creang~, Octavani, de la 350.000 de locuitori la aproape un milion. Doicescu, Marcel Iancu [i Duiliu Marcu într-un stil care ]ine Fa]a ora[ului s-a schimbat considerabil în aceast~ cont de revolu]ia estetic~ realizat~ de mi[carea Bauhaus. Înepoc~. Sistematizarea din anii 30 a deschis pie]e largi [i paralel, se constat~ o adev~rat~ campanie de construc]ii denoi bulevarde. Regiuni întinse din suburbii las~ locul unui blocuri de 6 pân~ la 11 etaje cu apartamente de închiriat.brâu de lacuri, parcuri [i spa]ii expozi]ionale în zonele de Cl~dirile realizate de stat sau de institu]ii na]ionalenord [i est. Vechi gropi de gunoaie, fabrici dezafectate, prezint~ [i ele caracteristicile modernit~]ii: palatulmahalale insalubre sunt înlocuite de cartiere de vile. ßi Telefoanelor, cel al Ministerului de Externe, Bibliotecatotu[i Bucure[tii r~mân un ora[ al contrastelor, întocmai ca Academiei Române sau palatul Patriarhiei sunt exempleParisul pre-haussmanian [i Londra victorian~: opulen]ei definitorii.afi[ate în firmele luminoase [i vitrinele elegante din centru Arhitectura industrial~ p~[e[te [i ea hot~rât pei se opune aspectul pauper al mahalalelor unde satul [i calea moderniz~rii: Bucure[tii v~d astfel ridicându-se uzineora[ul se întâlneau într-o stranie coexisten]~. somptuoase ca Malaxa (1929-1930, 1933) sau Ford din Arhitectura centrului istoric [i comercial poseda cartierul Floreasca.virtualit~]i care ar fi putut s~ evolueze în pas cu urbanismul Simbol al transform~rilor prin care trece ora[ulmodern. Din p~cate, modernizarea for]at~ a înlocuit multe este Arcul s~u de Triumf, construc]ie din o]el [i marmur~din aceste cl~dirile istorice cu construc]ii în stil neoclasic de ridicat~ între 1936-1938 care înlocuia o alta provizorie.influen]~ francez~. Stilul neoromânesc ini]iat de arhitectul Gr~dinile de var~, restaurantele, cafenelele,Ion Mincu domin~ perioada 1920-1928 când majoritatea parcurile [i terasele, plimb~rile cu tr~sura sau cu ma[ina laarhitec]ilor se str~duiesc s~ defineasc~ acest stil cu ßosea, spectacolele de teatru, conferin]ele, mitingurilerezultate mai pu]in concludente în cazul marilor cl~diri politice - adev~ratul ritual al vie]ii burgheze - toate acesteaadministrative [i de locuit, dar care impresioneaz~ pl~cut reprezentau ritmul de via]~ al lumii capitalei interbelice [icând e vorba de locuin]e. f~ceau din Bucure[ti, „micul Paris“, un ora[ râvnit de cei care î[i doreau o via]~ în pas cu modele timpului.
  • 59. BUCHAREST The capital of a 20-million inhabitants country, constructions, safe assets. Seventy-five per cent of theBucharest was turning into a European metropolis, though constructions undertaken represented housing projects. Thestill marked by its origins. Considered the most remarkable most accomplished are the villa-homes created by architectsin southeastern Europe after Istanbul, the city stretched over Horia Creanga, Octav Doicescu, Marcel Iancu, and Duiliu7,000 hectares, and its population trebled in a 20-year span, Marcu, in a style that included the aesthetic revolutionfrom 350,000 to nearly one million. achieved by the Bauhaus movement. In parallel, a brisk The looks of Romania’s major city changed construction spree could be noted of blocks of flats six toconsiderably in that period. The town development eleven stories high.undertaken in the 1930s opened up wide plazas and new The buildings sponsored by the state or by nationalboulevards. A belt of lakes, parks and exhibition areas in the institutions also featured elements of modernity: to mentionnorthern and eastern zones emerged in the suburbs. thus the Telephone Palace, the Palace of the Ministry ofDistricts of villas replaced old dumps and dismantled plants. Foreign Affairs, the Library of the Romanian Academy, andStill, Bucharest remained a city of contrasts, just like pre- the Patriarchy Palace.Haussman Paris or Victorian Britain: the opulence exuded by Industrial architecture also took the path ofelegant stores with bright signs downtown contraposed the modernization: thus, Bucharest saw the elevation of thepauper slums where village and town coexisted. sumptuous plants Malaxa (1929-1930, 1933) and Ford in The architecture of the historic and commercial the Floreasca district.center had potential, which could have allowed for An epitome of the transformations undergone bydevelopment in step with modern city planning. the city was the Arch of Triumph, a steel and marbleUnfortunately, forced upgrading replaced many of its construction erected between 1936 and 1938 to replace ahistorical buildings of French neo-classical extraction. The makeshift one.neo-Romanian style masterminded by architect Ion Mincu Summer gardens, restaurants, cafes, parks,dominated the period 1920-1928, when most architects terraces, carriage rides on the Promenade, theater shows,strove to define it with more or less conclusive results in the conferences, political meetings – here are some of thecase of big administrative constructions, and with often landmarks of bourgeois life in the inter-war Romanianimpressing results in the case of dwellings. capital of Bucharest, “the Paris of the east”, craved after by During and after the economic crisis of 1929-1933, all who wanted to live fashionably.the capital withdrawn from banks was mostly reinvested in Vedere de pe Dealul Mitropoliei cu statuia repozi]ionat~ a Lupoaicei View from the Metropolitan Hill with the repositioned statueVedere din avion a of the She-WolfBucure[tiului:amenajare n curs abulevardului Br~tianu.Bird’s eye view ofBucharest.Bratianu Blvd. underarrangement.
  • 60. Cu muscalul la promenad~ Going for a ride in a broughamIntrarea Teatrului Na]ionalEntrance of the National Theater
  • 61. Primul ministru Alexandru Vaida Voevod [i concurentele pentru Miss România Prime Minister Alexandru Vaida Voevod and participants in the Miss Romania pageantCl~direa Cercului MilitarConstruit~ în stil Empire.The Military Club built inEmpire style
  • 62. Pia]a „8 Iunie“ (1936), Pia]a Unirii de aziThe 8 iunie Plaza, present-day Unirii (1936) Pia]a Bibescu Vod~ cu Spitalul Brâncovenesc în fundal Bibescu Voda market with the Brancovenesc Hospital in the background66 | Bucure[ti
  • 63. Strada Lipscani Lipscani streetBucharest | 67
  • 64. Evacuare for]at~ Forced evictionPompieri în ac]iune cu ma[ini moderneFirefighters and their modern cars in action68 | Bucure[ti
  • 65. Tramvai cu un cal; la urcu[ se mai înh~mau doi cai „pr~[tieri“ One-horse tramway: on going up two additional horses were usedCalea Mo[ilor [i noile tramvaie electriceMosilor Road and the new electric trams
  • 66. „Braga dir, Luther mir““Braga dir and Luther beer” Reclama, „sufletul comer]ului” Advertising brings in customers
  • 67. B~c~nia, „La leu“ Calea Victoriei, cu biserica Doamnei, „Fiat lux!” Bec cu gaz Auer palatul Nifon [i Casa GreceanuAt the Lion’s Grocery “Fiat lux!” Auer-gas lamp Victoriei Road, Doamnei Church, Nifon Palace and Greceanu MansionPapagalul Coco [i fla[neta Pe cheiul Dâmbovi]ei, „anticarii“Parrott Coco and the hurdy-gurdy Antiquarians on Dambovita’s banks Bucharest | 71
  • 68. Bulevardul Br~tianu, victim~ a dou~ cutremure [i a sistematiz~riiBratianu Blvd., shook up by two earthquakes and one zoning project
  • 69. …[i dinspre nord… its northern side Pia]a I.C. Br~tianu Vedere dinspre sud. I.C. Bratianu Circle View from the south. Pia]a I.C. Br~tianu Vedere aerian~. I.C. Bratianu Circle Bird’s eye view. Bucharest | 73
  • 70. BursaThe Stock ExchangeStrada Edgar Quinet, Universitatea [iInstitutul de Arhitectur~ Blocul Societ~]ii AdriaticaEdgar Quinet Street, the University,and the Architecture Institute The Adriatica Society Building
  • 71. „Doi lei, domnilor, ocaziune, domnilor!“ “Only two lei, gents, a real bargain!”Strada Eugeniu Carada în cartierul b~ncilorEugeniu Carada Street in the banking district Bucharest | 75
  • 72. Monumentul Take Ionescu Bulevardul I.C. Br~tianu Blocul ARO (AsigurareaDetaliu. Instantanee. Româneasc~) [i Hotel AmbasadorThe Take Ionescu Monument I.C. Bratianu Boulevard The ARO Building (RomanianDetail. Snapshot. Insurance) and Ambasador Hotel Blocul Malaxa pe Bulevardul I.C. Br~tianu. Malaxa Building on I.C. Bratianu Blvd.76 | Bucure[ti
  • 73. Bucharest | 77
  • 74. Cartierul Prim~verii, blocuri în construc]iePrimaverii District, apartment buildings under constructionPia]a AviatorilorAviatorilor Circus78 | Bucure[ti
  • 75. Monumentul infanteriei, azi disp~rut Monument of the Infantry, now gonePalatul Sturdza, Ministerul AfacerilorExterne, demolat în 1945Sturdza Palace, headquarters of theForeign Ministry, demolished in 1945 Bucharest | 79
  • 76. Aeroportul B~neasa Instantanee. Baneasa Airport Snapshots. Automobilul n trei ipostaze Automobiles in three versions80 | Bucure[ti
  • 77. Mar[ul de protest alnegustorilor olteniProtest march ofOltenia peddlers Amazoan~ de la Circul Sidoli Amazon at the Sidoli Circus Trei leoaice Three Lionesses Cinema la minut Instant cinema Bucharest | 81
  • 78. Piscina Lido ¥igareta de ora cinci Lido swimming pool Five o’clock cigaretteßtrandul KisseleffKiseleff recreation facility82 | Bucure[ti
  • 79. La balul de sâmb~t~ searaSaturday night ball Extragerea lozului cel mare The great lottery draw
  • 80. PEISAJE CITADINE Un procent de 21% din popula]ia României pia]~ [i automobilele, un lux din ce în ce mai accesibilinterbelice locuia în mediul urban în cele 172 de ora[e (45.000 în 1941, adic~ unu la 430 locuitori). Un [trandale ]~rii. Douazeci dintre ele au fost declarate municipii, la periferie - de obicei pe malul unui râu - câte un teatruiar [ase aveau peste 100.000 de locuitori. În ele era (ref~cut acum ca cel din Timi[oara), circurile ambulanteconcentrat 45% din totalul întreprinderilor industriale. [i cafenelele, cinematografele care adopt~ rapidMarile uzine cu sute sau mii de muncitori, pu]ine la instala]iile pentru filme vorbite, sunt tot atâtea locuri denum~r, se aflau în zona Transilvaniei [i la Bucure[ti. sociabilitate care constituie marea atrac]ie a ora[elor,Ponderea redus~ a muncitorimii [i a burgheziei, adev~rate oaze în mijlocul unui peisaj predominant rural.concentrate în ora[e, conferea acestora un aspecttradi]ional în care num~rul func]ionarilor, alintelectualilor [i al inactivilor dep~[ea pe cel al popula]ieiactive. O caracteristic~ general~ a ora[elor Românieiinterbelice este tendin]a de racordare la moda [i spirituleuropean al epocii. Arhitectura urban~ se modific~ Palatul Colegiului Academic, Clujtreptat gra]ie investi]iilor de capital [i talentului The Palace of the Academic College, Clujarhitec]ilor. O aten]ie special~ este acordat~ ora[elorTransilvaniei în care statul dore[te s~-[i imprimecaracterul s~u românesc într-un mediu dominantunguresc [i german. Enormele catedrale ortodoxe de laAlba Iulia (1922), Cluj (1923-1925) [i Timi[oara suntexpresia cea mai clar~ a acestui demers, ca [i construc]iade palate culturale [i cl~diri administrative în centrulora[elor. Al~turi de ele, vile somptuoase, blocurielegante în diverse stiluri marcheaz~ efortul deurbanizare. Se generalizeaz~ mai apoi iluminatul public,transportul în comun [i serviciile de salubritate; o legedin 1929 oblig~ toate ora[ele s~-[i conceap~ planuri deurbanism pe zece ani, o ini]iativ~ pozitiv~ cu urm~riinegale îns~. Cu toate acestea, în 1930, 74 de a[ez~riurbane erau lipsite de alimentare cu ap~, 123 nu aveaure]ele de canalizare, iar suburbiile r~mân în continuare înmizerie sau cu un accentuat caracter agrar. Marea majoritate a ora[elor României î[ip~streaz~ înc~ nota provincial~ de centre administrative[i pie]e pentru produsele agricole sau industriale. Pestetot aceea[i strad~ principal~, cu vitrine [i pr~v~lii, loc deplimbare, dar [i vad comercial în care se îngr~m~descvânz~torii de ziare sau negustorii ambulan]i, birjele de84 | Peisaje citadine
  • 81. CITYSCAPES Twenty-one percent of Romania’s interwar a swimming pool at the outskirts or a similar facility onpopulation lived in the country’s 172 towns. Twenty of the banks of a river, a theater (refurbished, like thethem were considered municipalities, and six had over Timisoara one), a traveling circus, cafes, cinema theaters100,000 inhabitants. They concentrated 45 percent of quickly geared up with talking movie equipment. Allthe total industrial enterprises. The big plants with these were as many attractive places of socialization, ashundreds or even thousands of workers, few in number, many oases in the midst of a prevailingly ruralstood in Transylvania and in Bucharest. The small weight landscape.of workers and bourgeois in towns accounted for theirtraditional aspect, with clerks, intelligentsia and inactivepopulation exceeding the number of those engaged inwork. All of Romania’s interwar towns tended to keepabreast of the time’s fashion and spirit in Europe. Urbanarchitecture was gradually changing thanks to capitalinvestment and the talent of architects. Special attention Teatrul Na]ional din Clujwent to the towns of Transylvania where the state The National Theater of Clujwanted to impress its Romanian character on anenvironment mostly Hungarian and German. The largeRomanian Orthodox cathedrals of Alba Iulia (1922), Cluj(1923-1925), and Timisoara clearly expressed thisintention, just like the cultural palaces andadministrative buildings put up in the center of towns.To this added sumptuous villas, elegant apartment blocsin various styles, underlining a definite endeavor of townplanning. Public lightening, public transportation andsanitation services developed, a law of 1929 compellingall towns to devise planning projects for ten years, apositive initiative with odd results. In 1930 though, 74urban settlements had no drinking water or sewagesystem, while suburbs continued their miserable,basically agricultural life. Most Romanian cities preserved a provincial airof administrative centers or markets for farming orindustrial products. Every single one featured a mainstreet with stores and nice windows and signs, a fineplace for a stroll and at the same time a commercialknot, teeming with news vendors and peddlers,carriages and cars – an ever more affordable luxury(45,000 in 1941, that is one per 430 inhabitants). Then Cityscapes | 85
  • 82. Cluj, vedere general~ (1933) General view, Cluj (1933) Gr~dina Botanic~ din Cluj Botanical Gardens, Cluj86 | Peisaje citadine
  • 83. Pia]a Unirii din OradeaUnion Square, Oradea Palatul „Vulturul Negru“, Oradea The Black Eagle Palace, Oradea Cityscapes | 87
  • 84. Bulevardul Regele Ferdinand înainte de construc]ia Catedralei Ortodoxe, Timi[oaraKing Ferdinand Blvd. before the Romanian Orthodox Cathedral was built, Timisoara Bulevardul Regele Ferdinand, Timi[oara King Ferdinand Boulevard, Timisoara88 | Peisaje citadine
  • 85. Intrarea în Sala Unirii din Alba Iulia Entrance to the Union HallDup~ slujba de of Alba Iuliaduminic~After theSunday massBulevardul Regele Ferdinand, Arad Teatrul or~[enesc din DevaKing Ferdinand Boulevard, Arad The town theater, Deva Cityscapes | 89
  • 86. Sibiu, Ora[ul vechi The old town, Sibiu Pia]a Regele Ferdinand, Sibiu King Ferdinand Plaza, Sibiu90 | Peisaje citadine
  • 87. Sighi[oara, târgul de duminic~Sunday fair, Sighisoara
  • 88. Media[, zi de târg Fair day in Medias Catedrala Ortodox~, Târgu Mure[ The Romanian Orthodox Cathedral, Targu Mures92 | Peisaje citadine
  • 89. Bulevardul Regele Ferdinand [i Sfatul Or~[enesc din Bra[ovKing Ferdinand Blvd. and the City Council, Brasov Bra[ov, vedere de pe Tâmpa View from Tampa Mount, Brasov Cityscapes | 93
  • 90. Târgu Jiu, centrulColoana f~r~ sfâr[it în construc]ie, numit~ de Downtown Targu Jiu]~rani „sula lui Titulescu“ Podul peste JiuUnder construction: The Endless Column, whichthe peasants called “Titulescu’s rod” Bridge across the Jiu River
  • 91. Teatrul din Turnul Severin, v~zut de la Monumentul Eroilor The Theater of Turnul Severin seen from Teatrul Na]ional din Caracal C~l~ra[i, strada ßtirbey Vod~ the Monument of the HeroesThe National Theater of Caracal Stirbey Voda Street, Calarasi Cityscapes | 95
  • 92. Craiova, Calea Unirii Union Road, Craiova Hai-hui, prin Craiova Strolling in Craiova96 | Peisaje citadine
  • 93. Halele Centrale, Gara [i Centrul din Ploie[tiThe central market halls, the railway station and the center, Ploiesti
  • 94. Portul Gala]i The harbor, Galati Strada Domneasc~ [istatuia lui Costache Negri, Gala]i Princely Street and thestatue of Costache Negri, Galati Cityscapes | 99
  • 95. 100 | Peisaje citadine
  • 96. Centrul [i Prim~ria ora[uluiChi[in~uThe center and the town hall,Chisinau Buz~u, Palatul comunal The Town Palace, Buzau Boto[ani, Prim~ria The City Hall, BotosaniChi[in~u, vedere general~General view, Chisinau Cityscapes | 101
  • 97. Ia[i, Pia]a UniriiUnion Circle, Iasi Ia[i, Palatul administrativ, vedere aerian~ The Administrative Palace of Iasi, bird’s eye view Palatul lui Al.I. Cuza din Ia[i Fotografie din 1938, an n care a fost transformat n muzeu dup~ ce servise [i altor scopuri, printre care [i cel de bordel. The Al.I. Cuza Palace, Iasi Photo from 1938, when, after having served various purposes including that of a brothel, the construction turned into a museum.Taxiul cu patru ro]i sau cel cu patru picioare n centrul Ia[iuluiFour-wheeled or four-legged cabs downtown Iasi Cityscapes | 103
  • 98. TURISMUL BALNEAR ßI DE AGREMENT Caracteristic~ perioadei interbelice este apari]iaprimelor forme de organizare oficial~ a turismuluina]ional: Touring-Clubul României (1926), AutomobilClubul Regal Român [i Oficiul Na]ional de Turism (1936),precum [i a unui mare num~r de asocia]ii [i societ~]ilocale, regrupate în Federa]ia Societ~]ilor de Turism dinRomânia. Cele mai multe dintre sta]iunile montane deagrement sunt concentrate pe Valea Prahovei [i suntfrecventate în special de turi[tii veni]i din capital~.Sporturile alpine cap~t~ o popularitate crescând~: schiul,bobul [i alpinismul au tot mai mul]i adep]i începând cufamilia regal~, ca [i avia]ia [i cursele de ma[ini,vân~toarea [i pescuitul. Românii continu~ totu[i s~practice cu entuziasm vechile sporturi na]ionale, azi Cazinoul [i statuia Regineicomplet abandonate, oina (echivalent perfect al Carmen Sylva din Constan]abaseball-ului) [i poarca (cricket-ul românesc). The Casino and the statue of Izvoarele de ap~ mineral~ au dus la apari]ia a Queen Carmen Sylva, Constantazeci de noi sta]iuni balneo-climaterice în zona montan~[i submontan~, organizate în adev~rate or~[ele cu casede vilegiatur~ [i tratament, utilate mai mult sau maipu]in modern. societate de camping înfiin]at~ în 1930) fac mari eforturi Sta]iunile î[i fac apari]ia [i pe litoralul M~rii de cazare [i agrement. Acum se construiesc marileNegre, lung de 400 de kilometri de la limanul Nistrului hoteluri Rex [i Bellona de la Mamaia, Continental de lapân~ la Coasta de argint. Bugaz, Budachi, Sobalat [i Constan]a, cazinouri [i tot felul de instala]ii care facBurnas în Basarabia, Mamaia, Carmen Sylva, Techirghiol, deliciul unei clientele cosmopolite. Dar cei mai asiduiCaliacra [i Balcic mai în sud sunt martorele vizitatori ai litoralului sunt pictorii [i arti[tii caredemocratiz~rii turismului pentru care statul român [i transform~ Mangalia [i Balcicul în adev~rate colonii dediferitele institu]ii [i organiza]ii (cum ar fi Prietenii M~rii, crea]ie de tipul celei de la Barbizon. În ajunul celui de-al Doilea R~zboi Mondial, turismul era pe cale de a se transforma într-o important~ industrie a României. Dup~ r~zboi turismul î[i va relua dezvoltarea, dar în cu totul al]i parametri. Pia]a Independen]ei din Constan]a Independence Square, Constanta
  • 99. SPA AND RECREATION TOURISM The first forms of official national tourist Burnas in Bessarabia, Mamaia, Carmen Sylva,organization emerged in the interwar period: Touring Techirghiol, Caliacra, and Balcic to the south. They stoodClub Romania (1926), Romanian Royal Club and the proof of the democratization of tourism, pursued withNational Tourism Office (1936), as well as numerous great efforts – to provide accommodation and relaxationassociations and local societies grouped in the – by the Romanian state and various institutions andFederation of Tourism Societies in Romania. organizations (such as The Friends of the Sea, a camping Most of the mountain resorts were society set up in 1930). In the respective period wereconcentrated in the Prahova Valley and received mostly commissioned the impressive hotels Rex and Bellona oftourists from the capital city. Gradually, winter sports Mamaia, Continental of Constanta, as well as casinosgained ever more buffs. To mention only skiing, and all sorts of installations that delighted thebobsledding and mountaineering, which had fans in the cosmopolitan clientele. The most steadfast visitors of theroyal family, too. Also aviation and car racing, hunting sea coast, painters and artists, turned Mangalia andand fishing. The Romanians continued to indulge in their Balcic into art and creation schools like that of Barbizon.national sports, today completely forgotten, oina (a On the eve of the Second World War, tourism wasquasi perfect equivalent of baseball) and poarca (a sort turning into an important industry for Romania. Afterof cricket). the flare-up, tourism resumed its development in Mineral water sources favored the emergence completely different conditions.of many new spas in the mountain and sub-mountainareas, organized as small towns of recreation andtreatment, with more or less top-of-the line equipment. Along the 400 kilometers of the Black Seacoast, from the Dniester firth to the Silver Coast,numerous resorts shot up: Bugaz, Budachi, Sobalat and Centrul [i moscheea Regele Carol II, Constan]a The center and the King Carol II Mosque, Constanta
  • 100. Peisaj polar la Constan]aPolar landscape, Constanta Constan]a, pesc~ria Constanta fishery106 | Turismul balnear [i de agrement
  • 101. Nava [coal~ Training ship Serb~rile marinei, Constan]aNavy-day celebrations, Constanta SPA and Recreation Tourism | 107
  • 102. Mamaia, restaurant pe plaj~ Restaurant on the beach, MamaiaBudachi-Cordon, faleza [i plajaBudachi-Cordon, the sea wall and the beach
  • 103. Mamaia, hotelul Rex, Cazinoul, TerasaVraja M~riiRex Hotel, the Casino, the Vraja MariiTerrace, Mamaia SPA and Recreation Tourism | 109
  • 104. Mamaia, terase pe plaj~ Terraces on the beach, Mamaia Noile sta]iuni Eforie [i Carmen Sylva The then posh resorts of Eforie and Carmen Sylva Carmen Sylva, plaja The beach, Carmen Sylva110 | Turismul balnear [i de agrement
  • 105. Mamaia, Cazinoul [i toboganulCele trei gra]ii Mamaia, the Casino and the slideThe three Graces „Eu Tarzan, tu Jane” la Mamaia “Me Tarzan, you Jane” in Black Sea version
  • 106. Balcic, cas~ cu trepte de piatr~ Balcic, turcoaice la ci[meaHouse with stone steps at Balcic Turkish women at the water pump, Balcic Palatul Reginei Maria din Balcic The Palace of Queen Maria at Balcic
  • 107. Balcic, plaja Balcic, vedere general~The beach, Balcic General view, Balcic
  • 108. A fost odat~ un nisetru ... Cu pluta la pescuit Once upon a time Going fishing on a raft there was a sturgeon… Livr~ri la prima or~ First-hour delivery114 | Turismul balnear [i de agrement
  • 109. SPA and Recreation Tourism | 115
  • 110. Bugaz, vedere din port spre limanul NistruluiBugaz: view from the harbor to the Dniester firth Podul peste Nistru, înainte [i dup~ sabotaj The bridge over the Dniester before and after being sabotaged116 | Turismul balnear [i de agrement
  • 111. De straj~ patrieiGuarding the motherland Cavarna, Coasta de Argint The Silver Coast, Cavarna SPA and Recreation Tourism | 117
  • 112. Hotel Ferdinand, B~ile Herculane Ferdinand Hotel Baile Herculane B~ile Ocna Sibiului Ocna Sibiului Baths118 | Turismul balnear [i de agrement
  • 113. Popas la intrarea în C~lim~ne[tiStop before going into CalimanestiC~lim~ne[ti-C~ciulata, de s~rb~toarea „Izvorul T~m~duirii“Calimanesti-Caciulata, the Healing Source SPA and Recreation Tourism | 119
  • 114. Sanatoriul T.B.C. de la Moroieni The lungs sanatorium from Moroieni La picnic On a picnic Lacul Ursu, Sovata “Ursu” (Bear) Lake, Sovata120 | Turismul balnear [i de agrement
  • 115. Crestele Carpa]ilor al~turi de paznicii lorCarpathian ridges and their guards
  • 116. Babele The Old Biddies Muntele Detunata The Detunata Mount122 | Turismul balnear [i de agrement
  • 117. Vân~torii de munte Cheile Bicazului Mountain hunters The Bicaz GorgesPe drumuri de munte Mun]ii Retezat On mountain trails Retezat Mountains
  • 118. Schi la Predeal Skiing at Predeal… [i în Mun]ii F~g~ra[… and in the F~g~ra[ mountainsCaban~ în Mun]ii BucegiChalet in the Bucegi mountains
  • 119. Poveste de iarn~ Winter tale
  • 120. Cazinoul din Sinaia The Casino at Sinaia Castelul Pele[ Pele[ CastleSinaia, vedere general~General view of Sinaia
  • 121. Valea Râ[noavei, sanatoriul Vatra DorneiRasnoava Valley, the sanatorium The Dornei Valley SPA and Recreation Tourism | 127
  • 122. Text | Text Matei Cazacu Concep]ie grafic~ | Graphic Design TANIT DESIGN Srl. – Mihaela Dulea Mecena Consult – Adrian Sorin Georgescu Sursa imaginilor | Photograph Credits Funda]ia ARTEXPO NOI Media Print Biblioteca Academiei Române Colec]ii private DTP Gabriel Nicula Rodica Gâlea Roxana Enciu Redactare | Editing Ovidiu Morar Versiune englez~ | English version Alina Cârâc Corectur~ | Proof reading Dana Voiculescu Irina SpirescuCoordonatori proiect | Project co-ordinators Ovidiu Morar Arpad Harangozo © NOI MEDIA PRINT B-dul. Nicolae B~lcescu nr. 18 bloc Dalles, Bucure[ti Tel.: 021 222 79 72 Fax: 021 202 91 82 e-mail: nmp@nmp.ro www.nmp.ro

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