Biometrics

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Biometrics

  1. 1. BIOMETRICS<br />Presented by:<br />Anoop Sathyan<br />S7 EC<br />
  2. 2. Motivation<br /><ul><li>Authentication – the process of verifying that a user requesting a network resource is who he, she, or it claims to be, and vice versa
  3. 3. Conventional authentication methods</li></ul>Something that you &quot;have“ – key, magnetic card or smartcard<br />Something that you &quot; know “ – PIN or password<br /><ul><li>Biometric authentication uses personal features</li></ul>Something that you &quot; are &quot;<br />
  4. 4. History<br /><ul><li>In mid 19th century Alphonse Bertillon, practiced idea of identifying criminals based on body measurements
  5. 5. In late 19th century, distinctiveness of Fingerprint discovered
  6. 6. Much developed in 20th Century
  7. 7. Now it is being used in a number of civilian application</li></li></ul><li>Requirements<br /><ul><li>Basic
  8. 8. Universality
  9. 9. Distinctiveness
  10. 10. Permanence
  11. 11. Collectability
  12. 12. Practically
  13. 13. Performance
  14. 14. Acceptability
  15. 15. Circumvention</li></li></ul><li>What is Biometrics???<br /><ul><li>Bio = Life and Metrics = To Measure
  16. 16. Physiological or Behavioral based person recognition
  17. 17. Physiological - Fingerprints, Retinal & Iris Pattern, Hand & Finger Geometry, Facial Recognition
  18. 18. Behavioral – Voice Patterns, Signature
  19. 19. Details entered into a Database
  20. 20. Compared with entered Details
  21. 21. All this is controlled by a Master computer</li></li></ul><li>Enrolment & Modes Of Operation<br /><ul><li>Enrolment
  22. 22. Modes:
  23. 23. Verification Mode
  24. 24. Identification Mode</li></li></ul><li>Verification Mode<br /><ul><li>Does this biometric data belongs to him???
  25. 25. One-to-One Comparison</li></li></ul><li>Identification Mode<br /><ul><li>Whose biometric data is this???
  26. 26. One-to-Many Comparison</li></li></ul><li>Biometric System Errors<br /><ul><li>Two types of Errors:
  27. 27. False Match: Biometric Measurement from two different persons to be from same person
  28. 28. False Non-Match: Biometric Measurement from same person to be from two different persons</li></li></ul><li>Various Biometric Devices<br /><ul><li>DNA Fingerprinting
  29. 29. Vein Thermogram
  30. 30. Face Recognition
  31. 31. Fingerprint
  32. 32. Hand & Finger Geometry
  33. 33. Iris Scan
  34. 34. Retina Scan
  35. 35. Signature Verification
  36. 36. Voice Recognition</li></li></ul><li>DNA Fingerprinting<br /><ul><li>0.1% DNA would be unique for a person
  37. 37. Identical Twins have same DNA
  38. 38. Benefits:
  39. 39. Accurate
  40. 40. Weakness:
  41. 41. Not in Real-Time
  42. 42. Physical sample should be taken
  43. 43. Used in Forensic Application, Paternity Determination, etc.</li></li></ul><li>Vein Thermogram<br /><ul><li>Pattern of Blood Veins is unique, even for twins
  44. 44. When exposed to IR rays, veins appear black
  45. 45. Merits:
  46. 46. Can be done only if person is alive
  47. 47. Difficult to forge
  48. 48. Weakness: Much time consuming, Challenging in uncontrolled Environments</li></li></ul><li>Face Recognition<br /><ul><li>Location & Shape of Facial Attributes – eyes, eye brows, nose, lips, etc
  49. 49. Thermogram can also be used
  50. 50. Merits: Can be taken from distance
  51. 51. Demerits: Can’t be used for identification but can be used for verification
  52. 52. Application: Entry to restricted areas & buildings, banks, military areas, airport, etc</li></li></ul><li>Fingerprint<br /><ul><li>Pattern of Ridges & Valleys on the surface of Fingertip
  53. 53. Fingerprint of Identical Twins are different, even it differs from finger to finger
  54. 54. Benefits: Easy to Use, Cheap, Small Size, Low Power, etc
  55. 55. Weakness: Distorts due to Ageing, Cuts, Burns, etc
  56. 56. Used in Cell Phones, Notebook computers, USB Flash Drives, ATM, etc</li></li></ul><li>Hand & Finger Geometry<br /><ul><li>Shape & Size of Palm, Lengths & Widths of the fingers, & Characteristics of Skin
  57. 57. Merits: Very Simple, Easy to Use, Cheap, etc
  58. 58. Weakness: Lack of Accuracy, Large size of scanner, etc
  59. 59. Application: Attendance, Access to Restricted Areas, Hospitals, Airports, etc</li></li></ul><li>Iris Scan<br /><ul><li>Scans over 200 points of the Iris
  60. 60. Merits:
  61. 61. Not affected by Glasses, Contact Lens, even Surgery</li></ul>Twins also have different iris<br />Easier to detect Artificial Irises<br /><ul><li>Demerits: User should Remain Still, Expensive
  62. 62. Used in ID Cards, Passports, Border Control, Restricted Areas</li></li></ul><li>Retinal Scan<br /><ul><li>Blind Vessels at the Back of the Eye have Unique Pattern
  63. 63. Even our two eyes have different Pattern
  64. 64. Scanner reads the Blood Vessel Pattern
  65. 65. Merits: Error rate is very less
  66. 66. Weakness: Slow, Can reveal some Medical Conditions e.g.: Hypertension
  67. 67. Used in environment requiring Maximum Security</li></li></ul><li>SignatureVerification<br /><ul><li>Physical Activity of Signing: Stroke Order, Pressure applied & Speed measured
  68. 68. Most insecure form of Biometric Device
  69. 69. Professional Forgers can fool the system
  70. 70. People may not sign in identical manner
  71. 71. Used in providing access to Documents, Banking Services, etc</li></li></ul><li>VoiceRecognition<br /><ul><li>Based on Shape & Size of Vocal Tracts, Mouth, Nasal Cavity and Lips
  72. 72. Two types of system:
  73. 73. Text-dependent Systems
  74. 74. Text-independent Systems
  75. 75. Demerits: Sensitive to noise, Not appropriate for large scale application
  76. 76. Used in Phone Based Applications</li></li></ul><li>Limitations Of Unimodal Biometric Systems<br /><ul><li>Noise in Sensed Data
  77. 77. Intra-class Variations
  78. 78. Distinctiveness
  79. 79. Non-universality
  80. 80. Spoof Attacks</li></li></ul><li>Multimodal Biometric Systems<br /><ul><li>Multiple Sensors
  81. 81. Multiple Biometrics
  82. 82. Multiple Units of Same Biometric
  83. 83. Multiple Snapshots of the Same Biometric
  84. 84. Multiple Matchers
  85. 85. E.g.: Fusion (captures fingerprint, iris & face features)</li></li></ul><li>Conclusion<br /><ul><li>Biometric technology has great potential
  86. 86. There are many biometric products around, based on different biometric technologies
  87. 87. Shortcomings of biometric systems due to </li></ul>manufacturers ignorance of security concerns<br />lack of quality control<br />
  88. 88. THANK YOU<br />Any Questions???<br />

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