Biometrics
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Biometrics

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Biometrics Biometrics Presentation Transcript

  • BIOMETRICS
    Presented by:
    Anoop Sathyan
    S7 EC
  • Motivation
    • Authentication – the process of verifying that a user requesting a network resource is who he, she, or it claims to be, and vice versa
    • Conventional authentication methods
    Something that you "have“ – key, magnetic card or smartcard
    Something that you " know “ – PIN or password
    • Biometric authentication uses personal features
    Something that you " are "
  • History
    • In mid 19th century Alphonse Bertillon, practiced idea of identifying criminals based on body measurements
    • In late 19th century, distinctiveness of Fingerprint discovered
    • Much developed in 20th Century
    • Now it is being used in a number of civilian application
  • Requirements
    • Basic
    • Universality
    • Distinctiveness
    • Permanence
    • Collectability
    • Practically
    • Performance
    • Acceptability
    • Circumvention
  • What is Biometrics???
    • Bio = Life and Metrics = To Measure
    • Physiological or Behavioral based person recognition
    • Physiological - Fingerprints, Retinal & Iris Pattern, Hand & Finger Geometry, Facial Recognition
    • Behavioral – Voice Patterns, Signature
    • Details entered into a Database
    • Compared with entered Details
    • All this is controlled by a Master computer
  • Enrolment & Modes Of Operation
    • Enrolment
    • Modes:
    • Verification Mode
    • Identification Mode
  • Verification Mode
    • Does this biometric data belongs to him???
    • One-to-One Comparison
  • Identification Mode
    • Whose biometric data is this???
    • One-to-Many Comparison
  • Biometric System Errors
    • Two types of Errors:
    • False Match: Biometric Measurement from two different persons to be from same person
    • False Non-Match: Biometric Measurement from same person to be from two different persons
  • Various Biometric Devices
    • DNA Fingerprinting
    • Vein Thermogram
    • Face Recognition
    • Fingerprint
    • Hand & Finger Geometry
    • Iris Scan
    • Retina Scan
    • Signature Verification
    • Voice Recognition
  • DNA Fingerprinting
    • 0.1% DNA would be unique for a person
    • Identical Twins have same DNA
    • Benefits:
    • Accurate
    • Weakness:
    • Not in Real-Time
    • Physical sample should be taken
    • Used in Forensic Application, Paternity Determination, etc.
  • Vein Thermogram
    • Pattern of Blood Veins is unique, even for twins
    • When exposed to IR rays, veins appear black
    • Merits:
    • Can be done only if person is alive
    • Difficult to forge
    • Weakness: Much time consuming, Challenging in uncontrolled Environments
  • Face Recognition
    • Location & Shape of Facial Attributes – eyes, eye brows, nose, lips, etc
    • Thermogram can also be used
    • Merits: Can be taken from distance
    • Demerits: Can’t be used for identification but can be used for verification
    • Application: Entry to restricted areas & buildings, banks, military areas, airport, etc
  • Fingerprint
    • Pattern of Ridges & Valleys on the surface of Fingertip
    • Fingerprint of Identical Twins are different, even it differs from finger to finger
    • Benefits: Easy to Use, Cheap, Small Size, Low Power, etc
    • Weakness: Distorts due to Ageing, Cuts, Burns, etc
    • Used in Cell Phones, Notebook computers, USB Flash Drives, ATM, etc
  • Hand & Finger Geometry
    • Shape & Size of Palm, Lengths & Widths of the fingers, & Characteristics of Skin
    • Merits: Very Simple, Easy to Use, Cheap, etc
    • Weakness: Lack of Accuracy, Large size of scanner, etc
    • Application: Attendance, Access to Restricted Areas, Hospitals, Airports, etc
  • Iris Scan
    • Scans over 200 points of the Iris
    • Merits:
    • Not affected by Glasses, Contact Lens, even Surgery
    Twins also have different iris
    Easier to detect Artificial Irises
    • Demerits: User should Remain Still, Expensive
    • Used in ID Cards, Passports, Border Control, Restricted Areas
  • Retinal Scan
    • Blind Vessels at the Back of the Eye have Unique Pattern
    • Even our two eyes have different Pattern
    • Scanner reads the Blood Vessel Pattern
    • Merits: Error rate is very less
    • Weakness: Slow, Can reveal some Medical Conditions e.g.: Hypertension
    • Used in environment requiring Maximum Security
  • SignatureVerification
    • Physical Activity of Signing: Stroke Order, Pressure applied & Speed measured
    • Most insecure form of Biometric Device
    • Professional Forgers can fool the system
    • People may not sign in identical manner
    • Used in providing access to Documents, Banking Services, etc
  • VoiceRecognition
    • Based on Shape & Size of Vocal Tracts, Mouth, Nasal Cavity and Lips
    • Two types of system:
    • Text-dependent Systems
    • Text-independent Systems
    • Demerits: Sensitive to noise, Not appropriate for large scale application
    • Used in Phone Based Applications
  • Limitations Of Unimodal Biometric Systems
    • Noise in Sensed Data
    • Intra-class Variations
    • Distinctiveness
    • Non-universality
    • Spoof Attacks
  • Multimodal Biometric Systems
    • Multiple Sensors
    • Multiple Biometrics
    • Multiple Units of Same Biometric
    • Multiple Snapshots of the Same Biometric
    • Multiple Matchers
    • E.g.: Fusion (captures fingerprint, iris & face features)
  • Conclusion
    • Biometric technology has great potential
    • There are many biometric products around, based on different biometric technologies
    • Shortcomings of biometric systems due to
    manufacturers ignorance of security concerns
    lack of quality control
  • THANK YOU
    Any Questions???