PHARMACEUTICAL   PACKAGING   HANDBOOK
PHARMACEUTICAL   PACKAGING   HANDBOOK   E D W A R D J. B A U E R    Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.52 Vanderbilt AvenueNew York, NY 10017# 2009 by Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.Informa Healthcare...
PrefacePharmaceutical packaging is a subject that rarely comes to mind when thinkingof drugs, medical devices, or other di...
iv                                                                          Prefaceensures safe delivery of drugs and devi...
Preface                                                                       venvironmentalism into packaging. All of the...
ContentsPreface . . . . . . . iii 1. Introduction to the Pharmaceutical Industry: An Overview                             ...
viii                                                                                            Contents       Chemical Re...
Contents                                                                                                         ix       ...
x                                                                                                 Contents        Drug Dis...
Contents                                                                                                   xi         Clas...
xii                                                                                      Contents  7. Medical Device Packa...
Contents                                                                                                      xiii      He...
xiv                                                                                                              Contents ...
Contents                                                                                                                  ...
1     Introduction to the Pharmaceutical           Industry: An OverviewINTRODUCTIONGeneral Aspects of Drug PackagingPacka...
2                                                                          Chapter 1slightly removed from the normal realm...
Introduction to the Pharmaceutical Industry: An Overview                        3BRIEF HISTORYThe global pharmaceutical bu...
4                                                                      Chapter 1Herb Boyer, and began operations in the Sa...
Introduction to the Pharmaceutical Industry: An Overview                         5pharmaceutical companies approach drug r...
6                                                                        Chapter 1Figure 1 Drug discovery from laboratory ...
Table 2 Research and Development Spending Worldwide 1970–2004 (PharmaceuticalResearch and Manufacturers of America [PhRMA]...
8                                                                      Chapter 1pharmaceutical and biotech research to be ...
Introduction to the Pharmaceutical Industry: An Overview                                   9Table 4 Size of Pharmaceutical...
10                                                                     Chapter 1Figure 2 Biopharmaceutical expenditures an...
Introduction to the Pharmaceutical Industry: An Overview                         11Table 5 Top 10 Pharmaceutical Companies...
12                                                                                   Chapter 1Table 6 Top 10 Therapies Bas...
Introduction to the Pharmaceutical Industry: An Overview                          13Cost and Pricing TrendsEurope and Japa...
14                                                                       Chapter 1      Generics account for approximately...
Introduction to the Pharmaceutical Industry: An Overview                          15product has therapeutic activity makes...
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  1. 1. PHARMACEUTICAL PACKAGING HANDBOOK
  2. 2. PHARMACEUTICAL PACKAGING HANDBOOK E D W A R D J. B A U E R Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
  3. 3. Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.52 Vanderbilt AvenueNew York, NY 10017# 2009 by Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.Informa Healthcare is an Informa businessNo claim to original U.S. Government worksPrinted in the United States of America on acid-free paper10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1International Standard Book Number-10: 1-5871-6151-6 (Hardcover)International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-5871-6151-3 (Hardcover)This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material isquoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable effortshave been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assumeresponsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequence of their use.No part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic,mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, andrecording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers.For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www.copyright.com (http://www.copyright.com/) or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC) 222 RosewoodDrive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that provides licenses andregistration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC,a separate system of payment has been arranged.Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are usedonly for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Bauer, Edward J., 1947- Pharmaceutical packaging handbook / Edward J. Bauer p. ; cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-1-5871-6151-3 (hardcover : alk. paper) ISBN-10: 1-5871-6151-6 (hardcover : alk. paper) 1. Drugs— Packaging–Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Title. [DNLM: 1. Drug Packaging. QV 825 B344p 2008] RS159.5.B38 2009 6150 .10688–dc22 2008051340For Corporate Sales and Reprint Permissions call 212-520-2700 or write to: Sales Department,52 Vanderbilt Avenue, 16th floor, New York, NY 10017.Visit the Informa Web site atwww.informa.comand the Informa Healthcare Web site atwww.informahealthcare.com
  4. 4. PrefacePharmaceutical packaging is a subject that rarely comes to mind when thinkingof drugs, medical devices, or other divisions of the health care industry.Packaging done well provides protection, sterility, and safety. Health careprofessionals and patients hardly give it a thought. Packaging done poorlyusually means a package that is hard to open. These perceptions and the almostinvisible presence of packaging science in most peoples’ understanding ofpharmaceuticals was the idea behind this book. Pharmaceutical products, or more appropriately biopharmaceutical prod-ucts, and health care in developed countries are wonders of the modern world.Pharmaceutical products and health care in developing countries and remoteparts of the world seems like magic. Diseases that were once fatal and chronicconditions that destroyed lives have slowly been conquered by modern medicine.Views of the body, unimaginable for most of the last century with X rays,are now possible with new imaging techniques that let us see the body inexquisite detail. We have come to expect a steady stream of new technology thatcures or vaccinates us from ailments and potentially deadly viruses. We take forgranted that new and better diagnostic techniques will improve our ability tounderstand and fix our bodies. We have grown accustomed to transplants,angioplasty, stents to open clogged arteries, joint replacements, and otherdevices that fix and repair our parts of our body. The packaging and protection of these modern wonders of pharmaceuticaland medical technology are almost as important as the drugs themselves.Without packaging, drugs and medical devices would never leave a factory ora laboratory. Packaging provides containment, protection, and safe delivery ofproducts everywhere health care is needed and makes possible the availabilityand use of drugs, vaccines and medical devices in hostile environments. It iii
  5. 5. iv Prefaceensures safe delivery of drugs and devices to accident scenes as easily as it doesto hospitals. Labels and information contained in packaging communicates andexplains to doctors, pharmacists, nurses, health care workers, and patients abouthow to use a product. It warns you of dangers and communicates how and whento take a drug, what is safe, what precautions to take, and what to avoid whenundergoing treatment. This is an amazing set of packaging tasks that few, if any,notice. Packaging is an emerging science and engineering discipline that touchespeople everywhere. A combination of natural sciences, engineering, materialsscience, and other social disciplines contribute to the design, development, anddelivery of products, not pharmaceuticals alone. It is a high-technology field thatwe count on everyday to deliver billions of safe, sterile, and easy-to-openpackages that touch every part of our lives. This book was written as an introduction to pharmaceutical packaging. Ithas been kept simple and accessible to the average reader with some technicaltraining in chemistry, physics, and engineering. It attempts to introduce you tothe many things beyond packaging that are part of the drug, dosage, andregulatory environment. It highlights many of the problems a packaging engineermust face when developing a package for a new product. It uses shortexplanations of drug composition and interaction with the body to help explainhow these issues answer many questions about packaging a drug or medicaldevice. It introduces many issues that are part of the normal compromises andquestions surrounding different drugs. It tries to highlight regulatory difficultiesby explaining some of the concerns and safeguards various regulations introduceinto the package, the product, and the process by which it is made. It provides ashort introduction to package-manufacturing processes and the many materialsused in pharmaceutical packaging. Hopefully, the book will help you understand the role packaging technol-ogy plays in pharmaceutical and medical device design and development. It triesto introduce you to several basic concepts of packaging. The book highlights concepts in chemistry, polymer science, packagingand other disciplines to help you understand the product, its composition, whatthe package must do to protect the product. It provides examples on how theproduct can change depending on its chemistry and the environment the packagemust withstand prior to delivery to the patient. It tries to provide you with apractical sense of how the package, the product, and the way it is manufacturedall play an important role in producing a safe sterile product. The book attempts to highlight the whats, whys, and hows that go intopharmaceutical packaging, and attempts to do this while explaining the inter-actions between the drug or device and the package. It is an introduction to themany diverse skills and needs of pharmaceutical packaging. It highlightsthe diverse and complimentary skills employed by packaging professionalswho are great scientific generalists, that is, people who can combine science,engineering, materials, manufacturing, consumer issues, and societal issues like
  6. 6. Preface venvironmentalism into packaging. All of these factors are part of the inputneeded to deliver a drug or medical device in a safe and responsible way. Packaging has become a new stand-alone scientific and engineeringdiscipline within corporations. Regulation of drugs and medical devices by governments around the worldis a big part of packaging. Many reading this book will be surprised to discoverthe FDA and other regulatory agencies around the world are as critical of thepackaging and its performance as they are in examining the efficacy of the drugproduct. One liberty taken while writing this book is the use of the words drugand pharmaceutical as synonyms. Technically drug refers to the active pharma-ceutical ingredient in a product, and pharmaceutical refers to the finishedproduct. This means that the pharmaceutical is the product being packaged,not the drug. Hopefully, this book will provide some basic insight into an exciting andchallenging science that goes unnoticed by so many. Edward J. Bauer
  7. 7. ContentsPreface . . . . . . . iii 1. Introduction to the Pharmaceutical Industry: An Overview ... 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 1 General Aspects of Drug Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. 1 Brief History .................................. .. . .. 3 General Business Overview of the Pharmaceutical Industry . . .. . .. 6 General Industry Challenges and Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. 9 The Evolution and Structure of the Pharmaceutical Business .. . .. 9 Therapeutic Areas of Concentration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 11 General Worldwide Pharmaceutical Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 12 Cost and Pricing Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 13 Generic Products ............................ .... 13 OTC Products .............................. .... 14 Definition of a Drug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 14 The Differences Between Pharmaceutical and Food Packaging ... 15 Drug Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 18 The Function of Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 19 Trends in Pharmaceutical Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 20 Current Trends in Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 20 Influences Impacting Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 21 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 29 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 29 2. Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Their Packaging Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Chemical Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Thermal Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 vii
  8. 8. viii Contents Chemical Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Moisture Protection—Protecting the API from Hydrolysis ................................ . . . 38 Oxidation—Reactions with Oxygen ................ . . . 40 Light Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Mathematical Methods and Accelerated Methods for Assessing Shelf Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 42 Purity and Sterility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 42 Drug Purity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 43 Quality Assurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 44 Drug Sterility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 45 Drug Physiology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 48 Oral Administration of Drug Products—Gastrointestinal Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 48 Direct Injection of Drug Products ................. . .. 50 Topical Administration of Drugs, Transdermal Methods . . .. 51 Topical Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 51 Administration of Drugs through Mucus Membranes, Inhalation, and Nasal Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 52 Rectal Administration of Drugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 54 Dosage Forms of Drugs ........................... . .. 54 Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 55 Liquids .................................... . .. 75 Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 81 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 90 Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 91 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 91 3. Vaccines and Biologically Produced Pharmaceuticals ...... 93 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....... 93 Biologic Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....... 94 Biologic Drugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....... 95 Vaccines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....... 99 Types of Vaccines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... 102 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... 109 Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... 109 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... 109 4. Medical Foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 History of Medical Foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Regulatory Requirements of Medical Foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Medical Foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Composition and Formulation of Medical Nutritional Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Nutritionally Complete Products .................... 117 Nutritionally Incomplete Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
  9. 9. Contents ix Formulas for Metabolic or Genetic Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Oral Rehydration Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Enteral Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Medical Food Administration to the Patient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Tube Feeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Parenteral Nutrition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Parenteral Formulations for Intravenous Feeding ... . . . . . . . . 121 Infant Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Prenatal Nutritional Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Juvenile Nutritional Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Medical Foods: Legislative Overview and Regulations . . . . . . . . 127 Infant Formula Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Manufacture of Infant Formula and Medical Nutritional Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Retort Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Aseptic Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Cold Aseptic Sterilization—Aseptic Filtration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Aseptic Manufacturing Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Aseptic Package Sterilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Mechanical Processes .................... . . . . . . . . 139 Thermal Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Irradiation Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Chemical Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Combination Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Aseptic Packaging Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Fill and Seal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Erect, Fill, and Seal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Form, Fill, and Seal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Thermoform, Fill, and Seal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Blow Mold, Fill, and Seal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Bulk Storage and Packaging ............... . . . . . . . . 143 Basic Principles of Thermal Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Thermobacteriology ..................... . . . . . . . . 144 Heat Exchange/Heat Transfer .............. . . . . . . . . 147 Deaeration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Aseptic Surge Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Processing Authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 The U.S. FDA/CFSAN Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 USDA Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Sterilization Technologies Under Development ..... . . . . . . . . 153 Future Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 5. The Regulatory Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Stages in the Identification and Qualification of a Drug . . . . 159
  10. 10. x Contents Drug Discovery ................................ . . . 160 Preclinical Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Investigational New Drug Review ................... . . . 162 Clinical Trials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Phase I Clinical Trials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Phase II Clinical Trials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Phase III Clinical Trials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 FDA Approval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Post-Marketing Surveillance and Phase IV Studies . . . . . . . . . . . 165 The Regulatory Arena . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 The United States Food and Drug Administration . . . . . . . . . . . 167 A General Overview of the Drug Approval Process . . . . . . . . . . 170 The Drug Packaging Approval Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Current Good Manufacturing Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Validation .................................... . . . 174 Electronic Data Submission, Electronic Specifications Systems, Elimination of Paper Records 21 CFR Part 11 Electronic Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Change Control ................................ . . . 179 Structured Product Labeling: Enterprise Content Management, Digital Asset Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 The United States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary . . . . . . . . 183 The United States Pharmacopeia Dictionary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Consumer Product Safety Commission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 6. Pharmaceutical Packaging Materials .................. 189 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Glass Pharmaceutical Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Glass Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Types of Glass Used for Pharmaceutical Packaging . . . . . . . . . . 195 USP Type I Glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 USP Type II Glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 USP Type III Glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 USP Designation NP Glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Glass as a Pharmaceutical Packaging Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Metal Pharmaceutical Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 Tinplate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Can Coatings for Tinplate and Aluminum Cans ......... 202 Aluminum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 Metals as Pharmaceutical Packaging Materials ............. 203 Aerosol Cans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Plastic Pharmaceutical Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Plastics Overview and Definition .................... 206 Introduction to Plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 A Plastic Primer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Polymer Descriptions ............................ 212
  11. 11. Contents xi Classes of Polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Determinants of a Polymer’s Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Chemical Attributes of Polymers .................. . . . . . 219 Chemical Bonding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 Molecular Shape and Intramolecular Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 Viscoelastic Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Physical Properties of Polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Temperature Dependence on Reaction Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Plastics as Drug Packaging Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Density Differences/Consumer Preference for Plastic/Easy Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 Design Freedom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 Plastic Disadvantages .......................... . . . . . 231 Chemical Inertness/Stress Cracking/Additives/Electrical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 231 Common Plastic Pharmaceutical Packaging Materials ... . ... . 232 Polyethylene Polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 232 High-Density Polyethylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 234 Low-Density Polyethylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 235 Linear Low-Density Polyethylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 235 Polyethylene Restrictions in Drug Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 237 Other Ethylene Polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 238 Ethylene Vinyl Acetate ...................... . ... . 238 Ethylene Acrylic Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 240 Ionomers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 241 Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 242 Polyvinyl Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 244 Polypropylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 245 Catalyst Background for Ethylene and Propylene Polymers ... . 248 Polyvinyl Chloride ......................... . ... . 249 Polyvinylidene Chloride Copolymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 252 Fluoropolymers ........................... . ... . 254 Polystyrene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 255 Other Styrene-Modified Copolymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 257 Polyamides (Nylon) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 258 Polyester ................................ . ... . 259 Polyethylene Terephthalate ................... . ... . 260 Amorphous PET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 263 Crystallized PET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 263 PET Films . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 264 Glycol-Modified Polyester . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 264 Polyethylene Naphthalate .................... . ... . 264 Polycarbonate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 265 Polyurethane ............................. . ... . 266 Acrylonitrile Polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 267 Rubbers and Elastomers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 268 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 271 Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 271 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 271
  12. 12. xii Contents 7. Medical Device Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 Regulation of Medical Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 Medical Device Definitions and Testing Standards . . . . . . . . . . . 276 510 (k) Pre-market Notification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 Pre-market Approval of a Medical Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 Good Manufacturing Compliance (CGMP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 Establishment Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 Medical Device Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 Harmonization of Standards for Terminally Sterilized Medical Device Packaging—United States and Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 An Overview of a Package Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 Major Elements of a Package Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 Validation Testing, Process Sampling, and Validation Reporting . . . . 289 Sample Size Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 Test Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 Distribution Testing ............................. 291 Accelerated Aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 ISO Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 8. Container Fabrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 Glass Containers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 Blow Molding of Glass Containers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 Annealing and Treating—Glass Finishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 Tubular Glass Fabrication—USP Type I Glass . . . . . . . . . . 303 Metal Containers—Cans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 Draw–Redraw Cans ............................. 308 Draw and Iron Cans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 Welded Cans—Three-Piece Cans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311 Metal Tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 Plastic Containers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 Bottles and Vials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 Thermoforming of Pharmaceutical Containers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 Blister Packaging ............................... 320 Large Thermoformed Packages—Strip, Tray, and Clamshell Packages for Medical Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 Pouches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 Form, Fill, and Seal Bottles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 Plastic Tubes .................................. 339 Laminated Tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342 Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342 9. Sterilization Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345 Overview of Sterilization Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
  13. 13. Contents xiii Heat Sterilization Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 352 Sterilization Using Steam and Pressure (Autoclave) . . . . . . . 352 Sterilization by Boiling ................... .. . . . . . . 355 Dry Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 356 Other Heat Sterilization Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 356 Chemical Sterilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 357 EtO Sterilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 357 Other Chemical Sterilants ................. .. . . . . . . 365 Radiation Sterilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 368 g-Ray Sterilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 368 X-Rays and Electron Beam (E-Beam) Sterilization .. . . . . . . 373 UV Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 375 Sterile Filtration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 376 Regulatory Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 376 Monitoring Sterilization Processes .............. .. . . . . . . 382 Mechanical, Chemical, and Biologic Indicators . . .. . . . . . . 382 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 384 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 38510. Container Closure Systems: Completing All Types of Filled Pharmaceutical Containers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 Closure Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389 Protection .................................... 390 Containment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 Complete and Positive Sealing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 Access (The Ability to Open and Close a Package Repeatedly and Safely) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 Consumer Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 Display ...................................... 391 Metering and Measuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392 Types of Closures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 Closures for Metal Cans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 Bottles and Jars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395 Threaded Closures .............................. 395 Friction-Fit Closures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 Crown Closures ................................ 399 Snap-Fit Closures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 Press-on Vacuum Caps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 Vial Stoppers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 Flanged Plug Elastomeric Stoppers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 Flanged Hollow Plug with Cutouts for Lyophilized Products .. 402 Flanged Elastomeric Plug with Plastic Overseal . . . . . . . . . . 403 Metal Closure with an Elastomeric Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403 Elastomeric Closure Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403 Tube Closures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 Specialty Closures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 Dispensing Closures and Closures with Applicators . . . . . . . 406 Fitment Closures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
  14. 14. xiv Contents Spray and Pump Dispensers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 Single-Dose Closures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408 Compliance (Adherence) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 Closure Liners ........................ . . . . . . . . . . . . 410 Composition of Closure Liners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 Linerless Closures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 Child-Resistant Closures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 Child-Resistant Testing of Closures—An Overview . . . . . . . . . . 417 Design of Child-Resistant Closures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420 Combination Closures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 Aerosol Closures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 Non-reclosable Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 Pouches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 Tamper-Evident Packaging Closures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 Ease of Opening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 Capsule Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 Heat Sealing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 Peelable Seals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43011. Labels and Labeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 History of Drug Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 Labeling Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 Prescription Drug Labeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 Label Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 Drug Facts Labeling—OTC Pharmaceutical Products ..... 443 NDC Number—The National Drug Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447 Label Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448 Types of Labels ................................ 448 Label and Package Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454 Overview of Bar Code Administration: GS1 Designations . . . . . . 469 Universal Product Code Numbers ...................... 470 The Global Trade Item Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472 Bar Codes .................................... 474 GS1 Standards Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477 EAN International Article Numbering Association and UCC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477 Two Dimensional Codes (2-D Data Matrix and other Matrix Codes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479 RSS Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484 RSS-14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485 RSS Limited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486 RSS Expanded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486 Composite Components of the Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487 Composite Code A (CC-A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487
  15. 15. Contents xv Composite Code B (CC-B) . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487 Composite Component C (CC-C) . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487 Code Category Overview . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488 Narrow-Width Bar Code Symbologies .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488 Pulse-Width Modulated Bar Code . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489 Multi-Width Modular Codes . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49012. Issues Facing Modern Drug Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493 Compliance or Adherence to Drug Regimens .............. 496 Unit Dose Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501 Anticounterfeiting Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505 Detailed Product Information ...................... 510 Transaction Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510 Environmental Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511 Packaging and the Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512 United States Recycling Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516 Collection Methods for Recycling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 518 European Recycling Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521 Plastic Packaging and the Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523 Recycling Rates for Plastic Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523 U.S. Municipal Solid Waste: An Overview ............. 524 Infectious Waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524 Biodegradable Plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525 Biodegradable Materials .......................... 527 Starch-Based Plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527 Lactic Acid Polymers ............................ 528 Polyesters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529 Other Biodegradable Polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530 Naturally Occurring Biodegradable Polymers ........... 531 Other Pharmaceutical Packaging Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534Glossary of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 565
  16. 16. 1 Introduction to the Pharmaceutical Industry: An OverviewINTRODUCTIONGeneral Aspects of Drug PackagingPackaging pharmaceutical products is a broad, encompassing, and multi-facetedtask. It differs substantially from food packaging and is equally as challenging. Itrequires the application of a large amount of scientific and engineering expertiseto deliver a product for a world market. Its practice focuses on information andknowledge from a wide range of scientific disciplines, including chemistry,engineering, material science, physical testing, sales, marketing, environmentalscience, and regulatory affairs to name just a few. This broad general backgroundis needed for the design and development of each and every product produced bythe pharmaceutical industry. Packaging is responsible for providing life-savingdrugs, medical devices, medical treatments, and new products like medicalnutritionals (nutraceuticals) in every imaginable dosage form to deliver every typeof supplement, poultice, liquid, solid, powder, suspension, or drop to people theworld over. It is transparent to an end user when done well and is open to criticismfrom all quarters when done poorly. Everyone is a packaging expert, and this isparticularly true when one evaluates how something designed to help a personhinders his or her ability to use the product. This book will discuss in detail themany forms of pharmaceutical packaging. It won’t describe each and every one,but it will describe the broad families of packaging designed to deliver the manydifferent and unique forms of a product or products to a patient. It will provide anintroduction to some of the chemistry of pharmaceutically active molecules andhow they must be protected from the environment and from the package itself. Itwill touch upon the packaging of nutritional products and supplements that are 1
  17. 17. 2 Chapter 1slightly removed from the normal realm of pharmaceutical products but arebeginning to play a bigger role in the overall treatment of disease. Packaging for biologic products can involve a slightly different set ofrequirements, and some of the unique differences and problems for packaginggenetically modified biologically produced products are noted. Pharmaceuticals use a wide variety of sterilization techniques that varysignificantly from those used for foods. An introduction to some of these con-cepts will touch upon the multiple sterilization processes and the problems theypresent to the design of drug and device packaging. Distribution of products is now more global than ever. Mass customizationof packaging to permit its use in multiple markets is a topic that needs expositionand discussion. Environmental issues, including sustainability, will always be a subjectivedimension to any packaging design. These topics and many others highlight thebreath of knowledge a packaging engineer must master when developing andproducing a widely acceptable product. This is a lot of ground for any book to cover. Hopefully it will provide youwith a ready reference replete with examples that provide a starting point for design,development, testing, and execution of a new package for any pharmaceutical product. The book also provides an introduction to over-the-counter (OTC) pack-ages and products. These are the medicines we keep in our homes and manytimes carry with us to relieve unpleasant symptoms of things we think of asannoyances to everyday life, like the common cold, or for treatment of commonconditions, including rashes, cold sores, dry eyes, and other minor problems. It will discuss labeling, and how copy and artwork are prepared for alltypes of packaging. Artwork typically sells a product in the OTC context; art-work creates a feeling about a product, an identity, and in some cases creates inthe consumers’ mind a reason to choose one product over another. Amazing, isn’t it? So many different requirements, so many facets topackaging, so many scientific, cultural, sociological, and environmental needs.Oh, and by the way, it also has a large regulatory and legal requirement that isoutside all of the things mentioned above. Packaging is an emerging science, an emerging engineering discipline, anda success contributor to corporations. Surprisingly it is something that fewcorporations have singled out as a stand-alone department or organization.Packaging can reside, or report through research and development (R&D),engineering, operations, purchasing, marketing, or the general administrativedepartment of a company. For the majority of products produced in the food andpharmaceutical industries it is probably the single largest aggregate purchasemade by a company of materials critical to the protection, distribution, and saleof the product. Hopefully the contents of this text will provide a new appreci-ation of how important and complex pharmaceutical packaging is, not just thetraditional expectations of product protection.
  18. 18. Introduction to the Pharmaceutical Industry: An Overview 3BRIEF HISTORYThe global pharmaceutical business is one of the most dynamic, research-intensive, and innovative businesses in the world. Today’s pharmaceuticalindustry began to emerge in the mid to late 19th century as a small and uniquesubset of the chemical industry. For most of the 20th century, the pharmaceuticalbusiness paralleled developments in synthesis, catalysis, and manufacturing thatwere outgrowths of the larger chemical business. Before World War II, advancesin chemistry and chemical engineering from Europe, particularly from Germany,drove both the worldwide chemical industry and the smaller pharmaceuticalcompanies. The United States developed its own group of companies that, withonly a few notable exceptions, concentrated on the U.S. market, while theEuropeans, particularly the Germans, expanded abroad and also set up operationsin the United States. The United States and Europe became the two centers of thechemical industry and developed in parallel, as they expanded to meet thegrowing demand for chemical products in the markets of concentration. Twoexamples of European influence on U.S. pharmaceutical companies are Pfizerand Merck, both of which have German heritage. Another example of Europeaninfluence is seen in one of the largest, best-known products in the United States,aspirin, which came from Bayer1, another German company. In fact, aspirin wasprobably the first of what we would today call a blockbuster drug. At the end of World War II, the American chemical industry emerged asthe dominant force in the world. The U.S. companies exploited the wealth ofnatural resources available in the United States, and the large volume ofknowledge gained from wartime research into rubbers, plastics, and other relatedchemical and engineering technologies and used that knowledge to expandworldwide. The pharmaceutical companies followed the same path of expansion, whilebeginning to develop the unique chemical, chemical engineering, and manu-facturing knowledge necessary to produce pharmaceutical ingredients and bringthese unique products to market. The world war also produced a burst ofknowledge about the production and manufacture of biologic products, notablypenicillin. During this period, the United States also began to produce world-class scientific talent necessary to build and sustain the pharmaceutical industryand develop world-class facilities for the development of scientific knowhow in ´both industry and the universities. The talent was augmented by many emigres ´from Europe. The pharmaceutical industry’s strength and reliance on chemistry alonebegan to change in the 1970s when an entirely new way of developing phar-maceuticals emerged. The new technology was a combination of biology,chemistry, biochemistry, and new cell modification and manufacturing tech-nologies called biotech. This breakthrough technology challenged the traditionalway of identifying and developing pharmaceutical products. Genentech was thefirst company to establish an identity in biotech. It was founded by a geneticist,
  19. 19. 4 Chapter 1Herb Boyer, and began operations in the San Francisco Bay Area during the mid-1970s. Amgen, located in Thousand Oaks California, followed shortly after andwas the first of the new biotech companies to introduce a biologically derivedpharmaceutical product. These two early leaders not only changed the waypharmaceuticals were developed, they also ushered in a new way of developingpharmaceutical products using genetics, molecular biology, and biochemistrythat when combined produced a genetic engineering approach to the treatment ofdisease. This change in approach has produced a fast and remarkable change inthe pharmaceutical companies’ core competencies. They have transformedthemselves into biopharmaceutical companies. The primary method the pharmaceutical industry used for drug devel-opment during most of the 20th century was to study the chemical reactions ofvarious chemical molecules within the body. The molecules under study camefrom a variety of sources, both natural and synthetic. Extraction of activechemical ingredients from plants and animals known or identified to exhibitbiologic activity is one way the development process progressed. Modifyingnew or existing chemical entities with human biologic activity was anotherway the pharmaceutical manufacturers produced compounds and then studiedthem for their effects in the body to determine efficacy against a disease. Mostof the identifications of biologic reactions were carried out in cell cultureexperiments and in animal studies. This approach relied on chemistry andbiochemistry and served the companies well. This approach and method ofdiscovery produced the remarkable array of chemical products we take forgranted today. Going back to the World War II timeframe (1942–1945) another form ofproduct development was taking shape for pharmaceutical products. The type ofdevelopment was the growth and harvesting of a biologic agent that was thenconverted to a pharmaceutical product. The best example of this development ispenicillin, a product produced from a mold and became the world’s first greatantibiotic. Penicillin required the development of many of the biologic manu-facturing processes needed to grow the mold that produces the active pharma-ceutical ingredient. It then required the development of unique chemistries,chemical engineering, and manufacturing skills to extract, purify, and producethe product. These traditional chemical methods and processes, which were thecore strengths of the pharmaceutical companies, were applied to turn the raw,dilute material into the injectable and later the oral penicillin product we knowtoday. This traditional path of product development was superseded in the lasttwo decades of the 20th century by biotechnology. “Biotechnology” is the term applied to developments that come from thecombining of biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics, and immunology intopharmaceutical product development and manufacturing. This merging of twodistinct sets of scientific disciplines, chemistry and molecular biology, hasproduced a powerful research engine that creates treatments for disease unknownonly a few years ago. This merger of disciplines has changed the way traditional
  20. 20. Introduction to the Pharmaceutical Industry: An Overview 5pharmaceutical companies approach drug research. Biotech permits a targetedapproach to the development of products, and when combined with computa-tional chemistry, computer assisted synthesis, and a wide range of analyticaltools, it gives pharmaceutical companies the ability to study compounds, pro-teins, enzymes, and other biologically active materials in the minutest detail. Allof the major pharmaceutical companies now have their own biotechnologycapabilities or have partnered with others to acquire this competency. Thiscombination of scientific methods has opened many exciting opportunities forthem and has enhanced the investments made in R&D of their core strengths ofchemistry, chemical engineering, and manufacturing. The real name for theindustry, and one that it is beginning to adopt in its trade literature, is thebiopharmaceutical industry. It is interesting to note that both Genentech and Amgen see themselves aspharmaceutical companies, not biologic companies. Amgen brought to marketthe first genetically derived drugs, and Genentech has a major drug pipeline ofnew products in various stages of development. Eli Lilly and Company led thetraditional pharmaceutical companies when they introduced their first bio-technology products in the early 1990s. Lilly introduced the first human healthcare product using recombinant DNA technology. The modern pharmaceuticalindustry and parts of the chemical industry now rely on the many advances in thebiologic sciences and other key related technologies being led by pharmaceuticalcompany investments in basic science, disease specific research, genetics,computer technology, and other supporting technologies, including packaging,that enable the laboratory discoveries to proceed to commercial products. The U.S. government also funds R&D at the National Institutes of Healthas part of the drug discovery effort [Fig. 1 graph). These funds are in addition tothe R&D dollars spent by pharmaceutical companies. Pharmaceutical companies break their research budgets into two parts:basic research and applied R&D. Research spending by U.S. domestic phar-maceutical companies (Table 1) is indicative of pharmaceutical researchworldwide. In 2003, 38% of their budgets went into the basic research and 58%went into applied R&D. The reach of the pharmaceutical industry is enormous and its impact on apeople’s lives everywhere is profound. Today diseases that killed millions areroutinely treated with antibiotics. Death sentences from diseases like AIDS andleukemia have been put off to the point that these diseases are now treated aslong-term chronic problems because modern pharmaceutical products put theminto long-term remission. The U.S. death rate from AIDS has fallen by 70%since the mid-1990s with the introduction of protease inhibitors (1). Over thepast two decades, the chances of surviving cancer for five years after diagnosishas improved by 10% and stands at 62% today (2). Our understanding of thesediseases, resulting from the science that underpins all of the pharmaceuticalindustry, will continue to lead the way to a brighter, longer-lived, and healthierfutures for countless people.
  21. 21. 6 Chapter 1Figure 1 Drug discovery from laboratory to patient.Table 1 Domestic R&D Spending by Type PhRMA Member Companies: 2003Type Expenditure ($) Share (%)Basic and applied research 10,382.6. 38.4Development 15,766.2 58.3Uncategorized 916.1 3.4Domestic R&D total 27,064.9 100.0Source: From Ref. 8.GENERAL BUSINESS OVERVIEW OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRYPharmaceutical products are a very big business. Global sales reached $491.8 billionin 2003 (3). More than 400,000 people go to work each day for a pharmaceuticalcompany in the United States (4). Pharmaceutical companies, or, more correctly,biopharmaceutical companies have a significant impact on our nation’s economy.Each job in the pharmaceutical industry produces many others. Economistsapplying the normal multiplicative effect on the jobs number, estimate the totalreach of the pharmaceutical industry was 2.7 million jobs and $172 billion in realoutput to the U.S. economy in 2003 (4). This output with these related jobs createsa significant addition of 2.1% of total employment in the U.S. economy (4). Scientists in the United States lead the world in the discovery and devel-opment of new medicines. This is due in no small part to the tremendousinvestments the pharmaceutical companies make in research and development(Table 2). Research spending by the Pharmaceutical Research and ManufacturersAssociation (PhRMA) companies totaled $39 billion in a 2004 estimate made bythis trade organization. It also estimates the total research spending for
  22. 22. Table 2 Research and Development Spending Worldwide 1970–2004 (PharmaceuticalResearch and Manufacturers of America [PhRMA] Member Companies’ Domestic R&Dand R&D Abroad Total Spending) Domestic Annual Annual Total Annual R&D ($ in percentage R&D percentage R&D percentageYear millions) change abroadb change ($ in millions) changea 2004 30,643.9 13.2 8,150.3 10.3 38,794.2 12.62003 27,407.1 6.8 5,808.3 8.4 33,215.4 7.12002 25,655.1 9.2 5,357.2 –13.9 31,012.2 4.22001 23,502.0 10.0 6,220.6 33.3 29,772.7 14.42000 21,363.7 15.7 4,667.1 10.6 26,030.8 14.71999 18,471.1 7.4 4,219.6 9.9 22,690.7 8.21998 17,127.9 11.0 3,839.0 9.9 20,996.9 10.81997 15,466.0 13.9 3,492.1 6.5 18,958.1 12.41996 13,627.1 14.8 3,278.5 –1.6 16,905.6 11.2 11,874.0 7.0 3,333.5 c 15,207.4 c19951994 11,101.6 6.0 2,347.8 3.8 13,449.4 5.61993 10,477.1 12.5 2,262.9 5.0 12,740.4 11.11992 9,312.1 17.4 2,155.8 21.3 11,467.9 18.21991 7,928.6 16.5 1,776.8 9.9 9,705.4 15.31990 6,802.9 13.0 1,617.4 23.6 8,420.3 14.91989 6,021.4 15.0 1,308.6 0.4 7,330.0 12.11988 5,233.9 16.2 1,303.6 30.6 6,537.5 18.81987 4,504.1 16.2 998.1 15.4 5,502.2 16.11986 3,875.0 14.7 865.1 23.8 4,740.1 16.21985 3,378.7 13.3 698.9 17.2 4,077.6 13.91984 2,982.4 11.6 596.4 9.2 3,578.8 11.21983 2,671.3 17.7 546.3 8.2 3,217.6 16.01982 2,268.7 21.3 505.0 7.7 2,773.7 18.61981 1,870.4 20.7 469.1 9.7 2,339.5 18.41980 1,549.2 16.7 427.5 42.8 1,976.7 21.51979 1,327.4 13.8 299.4 25.9 1,626.8 15.91978 1,166.1 9.7 237.9 11.6 1,404.0 10.01977 1,063.0 8.1 213.1 18.2 1,276.1 9.71976 983.4 8.8 180.3 14.1 1,163.7 9.61975 903.5 13.9 158.0 7.0 1,061.5 12.81974 793.1 12.0 147.7 26.3 940.8 14.01973 708.1 8.1 116.9 64.0 825.0 13.61972 654.8 4.5 71.3 24.9 726.1 6.21971 626.7 10.7 57.1 9.2 683.8 10.61970 566.2 — 52.3 — 618.5 —Average 12.5 16.1 13.0Note: All figures include company-financed R&D only. Total values may be affected by rounding.a Estimatedb R&D abroad includes expenditures outside the United States by U.S.-owned PhRMA membercompanies and R&D conducted abroad by the U.S. divisions of foreign-owned PhRMA membercompanies. R&D performed abroad by the foreign divisions of foreign-owned PhRMA membercompanies is excluded. Domestic R&D, however, includes R&D expenditures within the UnitedStates by all PhRMA member companies.c R&D abroad affected by merger and acquisition activity.Source: From Ref. 8.
  23. 23. 8 Chapter 1pharmaceutical and biotech research to be $49.3 billion when the estimates fornon-PhRMA members are added to the member’s total. As a percentage of sales,the total for PhRMA members is 18.3% of U.S. domestic sales and 15.9% ofsales worldwide (Table 3) (5).Table 3 R&D as a Percentage of Sales PhRMA Member Companies: 1970–2004 Domestic R&D as a percentage Total R&D as a percentage Yr of domestic sales (%) of total sales (%) 2004a 18.3 15.9 2003 18.3 15.7 2002 18.4 16.1 2001 18.0 16.7 2000 18.4 16.2 1999 18.2 15.5 1998 21.1 16.8 1997 21.6 17.1 1996 21.0 16.6 1995 20.8 16.7 1994 21.9 17.3 1993 21.6 17.0 1992 19.4 15.5 1991 17.9 14.6 1990 17.7 14.4 1989 18.4 14.8 1988 18.3 14.1 1987 17.4 13.4 1986 16.4 12.9 1985 16.3 12.9 1984 15.7 12.1 1983 15.9 11.8 1982 15.4 10.9 1981 14.8 10.0 1980 13.1 8.9 1979 12.5 8.6 1978 12.2 8.5 1977 12.4 9.0 1976 12.4 8.9 1975 12.7 9.0 1974 11.8 9.1 1973 12.5 9.3 1972 12.6 9.2 1971 12.2 9.0 1970 12.4 9.3a Estimated.Source: From Ref. 8.
  24. 24. Introduction to the Pharmaceutical Industry: An Overview 9Table 4 Size of Pharmaceutical Markets Sales to June 2005 Share of global 12-moCountry ($ billions) sales (%) changea(%)United States 246.4 44.7 7Japan 60.0 10.9 3Germany 31.2 5.7 6France 30.3 5.5 7United Kingdom 20.3 3.7 3Italy 19.4 3.5 0Spain 14.8 2.7 8Canada 12.7 2.3 10China 8.6 1.6 30Mexico 6.9 1.3 11Top 10 markets 450.6 81.9 6Note: Sales in the United States are for the 12 months ending in June 2005.a Based on local currencies.Source: Ref. 10. Pharmaceuticals are extremely cost efficient when compared with otherforms of treatment for disease. Every dollar spent on new medicines reduces thecost of hospitalizations by $4.44 (5) (Table 4). These new medicines alsoaccounted for over 40% of the two-year gain in life expectancy achieved in52 countries between 1986 and 2000 (6). The next time you wonder about whatthe pharmaceutical industry is doing for you, ask yourself the following question:What is the value of those two additional years of life?General Industry Challenges and TrendsThe pharmaceutical industry is facing many challenges. The cost of developingnew drugs continues to grow. During the 1970s, the cost of bringing a new drugto approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was approximately$138 million. Today the cost of bringing a drug to approval by the FDA is morethan $800 million (7). A diagram of the cost and timing to bring a drug to markethighlights how difficult this process can be (Fig. 2). The potential legal liability,particularly in the United States, when something goes wrong is another enor-mous problem all of the companies face. Wyeth faced billion-dollar liabilities forits diet drugs Pondamin1 and Redux1, and Merck faced large liabilities from itswithdrawal of Vioxx1 in 2004.THE EVOLUTION AND STRUCTURE OF THE PHARMACEUTICALBUSINESSThe structure of the industry and the makeup of companies have undergone a rapidtransformation in the last decade, and this process continues at an accelerated pacetoday. Companies have merged or have been acquired to form significantly larger
  25. 25. 10 Chapter 1Figure 2 Biopharmaceutical expenditures and the NIH budget.companies that may be newly named or may retain their traditional name.Remarkably, even after all the merger activity and changes in the shape of thepharmaceutical business landscape the largest company, Pfizer, only controlsabout 10% of the total U.S. market (based on 2003 sales) (Table 5) (9). Another market force changing the appearance and development of phar-maceuticals is generic drug products. These products, the same chemical entity oractive pharmaceutical ingredient (API) developed by the innovating company, areproduced by many companies after the original innovator’s patents have expired.Without the high cost of R&D, the competitor can offer the products for sale atsignificantly reduced prices. The number of new products with profiles that showsignificant improvement over older drugs is slowing; so generic products in manycases remain the standard of care for the treatment of many ills. A number of themajor pharmaceutical companies actively support a dual strategic approach toproduct offerings and complement their new drug development with a genericdrug supply strategy. These products not only produce significant revenues, they
  26. 26. Introduction to the Pharmaceutical Industry: An Overview 11Table 5 Top 10 Pharmaceutical Companies: Five-Year Merger HistoryCompany Market Share Based on 1998 Based on 2003 sales (pro sales (%) forma) (%) Major component companiesPfizer 10.1 9.0 Pfizer, Pharmacia, Upjohn, Warner-Lambert, SearleGlaxoSmithKline 6.6 7.2 Glaxo, Wellcome, SmithKline French, BeechamSanofi—Aventis 5.4 5.8 Sanof, Synthelabo, Hoechst, Rhone–Poulenc, FisonsMerck & Co. 4.8 4.2Johnson & Johnson 4.8 3.6Novartis 4.3 4.2 Ciba-Geigy, SandozAstraZeneca 4.1 4.3 Astra, ZenecaBristol– 3.4 4.2 Bristol—Myers Squibb, MyersSquibb Dupont PharmaRoche 3.3 3.1Abbott 2.8 3.3 Abbott, BASF Pharma (Knoll)Top 10 corporations 49.6 48.9Source: Ref. 11.also provide the volume manufacturing needed for many raw materials andstarting ingredients, used in both new and generic products, to maintain manu-facturing costs at a reasonable level. The products also provide significant volume,which is needed in most investment models to pay for the expansion or mainte-nance of existing manufacturing capacity.Therapeutic Areas of ConcentrationWhat are the disease-specific areas now receiving the most concentratedinvestigation? What areas of treatment have produced the most successfulproducts? What ills touch the majority of people in the world, and because of thelarge patient populations, attract the research and capital needed to understandand treat them? The top 10 therapies based on dollar sales encompass aremarkable set of problems (Table 6). Listed below are the conditions that havemajor effects on people’s health. The top 10 therapeutic treatments based onsales fall into these categories (9): 1. Cholesterol and triglyceride reducers 2. Antiulcerants 3. Antidepressants 4. Antipsychotics 5. Antirheumatic nonsteroidals
  27. 27. 12 Chapter 1Table 6 Top 10 Therapies Based on Global Sales of the Pharmaceutical Class Sales to June 2005 Share of 12-moTherapeutic type ($ billions) global sales (%) change (%)Cholesterol and 31.6 5.7 10 triglyceride reducersAntiulcerants 26.3 4.8 3Antidepressants 20.1 3.6 À3Antipsychotics 15.5 2.8 11Antirheumatic 12.1 2.2 6 nonsteroidalsCalcium antagonists, 11.9 2.2 2 plainErythropoietins 11.7 2.1 9Antiepileptics 11.4 2.1 À15Oral antidiabetics 10.4 1.9 6Cephalosporins 9.9 1.8 30Top 10 therapies 160.9 29.2 5Note: All therapy classes are World Health Organization code groups. Sales are US dollars for the12 months ending June 2005.Source: Ref. 10. 6. Calcium antagonists, plain 7. Erythropoietins 8. Antiepileptics 9. Oral antidiabetics 10. Cephalosporins As the list clearly shows, a large number of people have debilitatingconditions that, when left untreated, significantly reduce the quality of life andlife expectancy. Drugs targeted at heart disease are number 1 on the list. Thetherapies created for these disease-states and those not on the list permit all of usto lead functional productive lives that would not be possible without them. The top 10 drugs had sales in excess of $55 billion. Seven of the top fiftyproducts were biotechnology products with combined sales of $15.1 billion. (10)GENERAL WORLDWIDE PHARMACEUTICAL TRENDSPossibly the biggest challenge facing the pharmaceutical and the health careindustries in general is the role the government will play in determining the costof pharmaceuticals, devices, and treatments for diseases. The United States is theonly market in the world that does not have general government price controls. Itis also the most heavily regulated market, and the market pharmaceuticalcompanies typically target their drug-approval strategy and development foracceptance and approval by the FDA.
  28. 28. Introduction to the Pharmaceutical Industry: An Overview 13Cost and Pricing TrendsEurope and Japan have led the way in restricting and regulating the cost ofpharmaceuticals. This has created problems for pharmaceutical companies intheir countries, which if emulated, may also create problems in the United States.Japan has taken a number of steps to restrain drug prices and has been able toreduce total government spending on pharmaceuticals. This restraint has reducedtotal health care spending in Japan on pharmaceuticals from 30% of the total costof health care in the early 1990s to approximately 20% today (9). The Japaneseimpose biennial price cuts on all products to limit annual cost growth of phar-maceuticals in Japan to 3% annually. Europe has a number of plans and schemes to limit the cost of pharma-ceuticals. With the formation of the European Union (EU), the concept of paralleltrade has created problems for the pharmaceutical manufacturers. Parallel trade isthe practice of purchasing goods in the cheapest countries and selling them in themost expensive. European commission laws permit the movement of goods fromone member state to another without restriction. This means that drugs priced inthe lowest-cost countries (Eastern Europe) can be moved to the higher-costcountries, i.e., the United Kingdom, Germany, France, and Scandinavia. The EUexpanded by 10 countries in May 2004, and many of these countries had stronggeneric pharmaceutical industries that will take advantage of these higher-costmarkets. Germany is the largest market for drugs in the EU. During 2004, theyimposed a compulsory discount of 16% on all manufacturers. That discount wasup from 6% in 2003. The move applied to all drugs not part of the country’sreference price scheme. This is one example of variants being enacted in the othercountries. The most notable feature of the controls limits the price of a brand nameor patented drug to the same cost as nonpatent medications if the new products arejudged equal in treatment or outcome to their generic product equivalents. Anexample of this method of classifying patented and generic products is a ruling onthe overall effectiveness of drugs called statins, which are used for treatment andreduction of cholesterol levels. As one statin loses patent protection, all otherproducts, including all products still on patent, lose it as well in terms of productpricing. All of these schemes have caused most of the companies in Europe torethink their research strategies, and a number have relocated research to theUnited States or have canceled expansions in Europe to focus on producingproducts for markets that pay for the cost of discovery (11).Generic ProductsAnother major trend that will affect the pharmaceutical companies and phar-maceutical packaging is the growing use of generic drugs. One of the Europeanpharmaceutical companies, Novartis, has adopted a generic strategy, betting thatdollar volume and manufacturing volume will increase more in this area than inthe development of new “blockbuster products.” Generic drug introductions areat an all-time high, and this trend will continue.
  29. 29. 14 Chapter 1 Generics account for approximately 30% of the total volume of drugsdispensed for use but only produce 10% of the global sales revenues (9). Brandedproducts lose sales very rapidly after a generic analogue is introduced. This andthe fact that so many blockbuster drugs from the 1990s are losing patent pro-tection in the next few years means generics will be a bigger and bigger part ofthe prescription drug landscape. For packaging, the updating and maintaining of materials and labeling forgenerics will become more and more prominent in the mix of responsibilities.Packaging will work with marketing and sales to begin to develop genericidentities for the off-patent products.OTC ProductsThe pharmaceutical companies have also pushed for and accepted the fact thatmany products that require a prescription at introduction will eventually beoffered over the counter at pharmacies. In the United States, a wide range ofproducts, from prescription painkillers to female hygiene products, have madethe transition from prescription (“Rx Only” on new labeling in the United States)to OTC items. Both generic and branded products will be part of this trend toOTC sales. The trend toward OTC presentations of products is not limited to theUnited States. Merck and Johnson & Johnson pursued a joint venture in theUnited Kingdom for OTC sales of the drug Zocor1. This product, a prescription-only drug called a statin and used for lowering cholesterol, was launched as anOTC item in July 2004. Packaging a prescription (Rx) product for OTC saleswill be a major responsibility for packaging departments, and as volume growsmore emphasis will be placed on designing, developing, and delivering theseformerly doctor-directed drugs as consumer products. The responsibility ofpackaging will be twofold. First, it must convey and provide a simple commu-nication to the user on how to use the product. This may be in the form of howthe drug is presented to the consumer on a numbered blister or some moreelaborate symbolic presentation for the user that transcends language. Second,packaging will become increasingly involved in the labeling and attendant lit-erature that is needed for OTC products. This labeling and the methods needed toupdate its content is a major new responsibility that is outside standard structuralpackaging development.DEFINITION OF A DRUGThe FDA is very specific about what constitutes a drug. This level of control isevident in the way biologic products, originally regulated by the Center forBiologic Evaluation and Research (CBER), was moved under the jurisdiction ofthe Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER). These two branches ofthe FDA work in tandem with each other to evaluate, review, and ultimatelyapprove a drug or biologic product for human use. The fact that the biologic
  30. 30. Introduction to the Pharmaceutical Industry: An Overview 15product has therapeutic activity makes it subject to the strict interpretation of theFederal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938, which has been and continues tobe amended as needs and technology change. The Act (12) defines a drug asfollows: A. Articles recognized in the official United States Pharmacopoeia (USP), Official Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States or the official National Formulary or any supplement to any of them. B. Articles intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease in man or other animals: and C. Articles (other than food) intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or other animals; and D. Articles intended for use as a component or any article specified in clause (A), (B), or (C); but does not include devices or their components, parts, or accessories. Medical devices, another large portion of the medical industry, are treatedin a separate chapter in this book. They have their own packaging and technicalchallenges that are in many ways similar but distinct in their treatment andevaluation by the agency. Food products with pharmaceutical claims and thosethat require review and approval by the FDA also must meet the review processalbeit at different levels, depending on the claims being made. Unique food products such as infant formula and medical nutritional foodsand food supplements that help manage certain diseases receive high levels ofscrutiny. Other products covered in the Act are cosmetics, and these products aremaking claims that in some cases are becoming more like drugs. Cosmeticproducts are not discussed in this book. Throughout this book, the terms “pharmaceutical” and “drug” are treated assynonyms, although they are not. A drug is really an active pharmaceutical ingre-dient (API) and a pharmaceutical product is an API in combination with otheringredients that are blended or compounded to make the finished product. In somecases, the word “drug” is used in this book as a synonym for “pharmaceutical” andvice versa. The term API is always applied to the active ingredient only.THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PHARMACEUTICALAND FOOD PACKAGINGFood and pharmaceutical packaging are both equally difficult to do well. Foodpackaging is far more diverse than pharmaceutical packaging, while pharma-ceutical packaging operates in a much more regulated environment. Someunderstanding of the differences is useful, and for crossover products such asmedical nutritional foods, essential. As more and more foods are enhanced withingredients that can impart a change in the body, or as manufacturers makeclaims regarding the benefits of food products, which may be considered drug

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