Also by Cindy Wright (Available on Amazon Kindle) Travelling Through the Emerald IsleThe Popular Seaside Places of the United Kingdom Worlds of Ice Part of Your World Addition Package The Dark Traveller Christmas Magic for ChildrenThe Different Ways of Celebrating Easter
CONTENTSWhat Is Aerobics? ......................................................................... 8 Exercise Is For Any Age Group .................................................... 11 Intensity and Endurance ............................................................. 13Home, Classes or Gym ................................................................ 17 Beginners .................................................................................... 17 Aerobics At Home ....................................................................... 19 Aerobic Classes ........................................................................... 22 Personal Trainers ........................................................................ 23 Aerobic Machines ....................................................................... 24Choosing Suitable Clothing ......................................................... 26 Injuries ........................................................................................ 28Basic Human Physiology ............................................................. 29 Happy Healthy Hearts ................................................................ 29
The Heart .................................................................................... 30 The Heart’s Structure ................................................................. 30 The Three Layers of the Heart .................................................... 31 PERICARDIUM........................................................................ 31 This layer contains a tough tissue that surrounds the heart. It splits into two layers:........................................... 31 The Circulatory System ............................................................... 32 How the Heart Beats .................................................................. 34 Aerobics Trims the Heart ............................................................ 36 Heart and Lungs Work Together ................................................ 38The Lungs.................................................................................... 40 The Structure of the Lungs ......................................................... 40 The Mechanics of Respiration .................................................... 42 How Haemoglobin Works........................................................... 43 Asthma and Exercise .................................................................. 44
Eliminating Waste Products ........................................................ 47 Producing Body Heat .................................................................. 47 Heat Stroke ................................................................................. 49Body Fat ..................................................................................... 52 Fat Entering the Body ................................................................. 53 Fat Storage ................................................................................. 55 Insulin ......................................................................................... 56 Fat Breakdown ........................................................................... 58 Losing Weight and Fat................................................................ 59 Targeting the Abdomen ............................................................. 60Diet and Exercise ........................................................................ 63Benefits of Exercise ..................................................................... 67Consulting a Doctor .................................................................... 70Other Books by Cindy Wright ...................................................... 73
Travelling Through the Emerald Isle ........................................... 73Worlds of Ice - A Guide to the Life and History of the Arctic andAntarctic ..................................................................................... 74Part of Your World - Practical Earth Science Knowledge for theReal World .................................................................................. 75Christmas Magic for Children ..................................................... 76The Different Ways of Celebrating Easter .................................. 77
What Is Aerobics?Aerobics, which literally means “with oxygen”,are exercises used to lose weight and regainhealth. There are many types of aerobicexercise, and if you do them daily, you willsoon notice that you are healthier. Aerobicsdone at moderate levels of intensity for longerperiods of time target the body parts you wishto slim. There are many advantages ofaerobics, which is why this form of exercise isboth important and popular among health-conscious people.Exercise can be broken down into twocategories: aerobic and anaerobic. These differdue to how the muscles contract duringexercise, and how energy works within them.
Examples of anaerobic exercise include weighttraining or strength training. With aerobicexercises, even the well-built bodybuilder willnot be able to run, swim, etc. for long periods.During aerobics, you do not use bursts ofenergy. Instead, you spread out moderatelevels of energy over longer periods to triggerthe use of fat in energy production. In general,things such as long distance running, dancingand swimming are aerobic exercises, whereassprinting, which uses short bursts of motion,is not.The benefits of aerobic exercises are great,which is why most doctors recommend themto patients, even if they have a normal weight.Some of these benefits include strengtheningthe repertory muscles, enlarging the heart topump more efficiently, improving oxygen andblood flow and increasing endurance.Therefore, there is no reason for people not todo aerobics! There are a number of greatexercise programs available, which includeindividual and class activities with groups.However, before you start any kind of newhealth care routine, it is important to learnhow exactly aerobics works. You can do thisin a number of ways.
Primarily, you need to talk to yourdoctor if you want to make the best possiblehealth decisions. A doctor will inform youabout programs that are not beneficial foryour body, that are too difficult or that couldcause injury. He will also explain the bestaerobic exercises, maybe recommend apersonal trainer and stress the great healthbenefits of aerobics. The first stop shouldtherefore be your doctor’s surgery. Make sureyou have enough time to ask all the questionsyou may have. The Internet is also a great resourcewhen it comes to finding information onaerobics. You can read articles about itsbenefits, its history, interact in chat roomsand forums to share experiences and askquestions. The Internet can also let you lookat specific routines and there are severalwebsites that may help you put some routinestogether to suit your level and experience. Beyond the Internet, you can learnabout aerobics using the traditional literatureon the subject. Your local library should havea variety of books that you can read. If theresources there are out-dated, try the nearestbookshop. Always check online for discountedprices before purchasing a book you like.
Fitness magazines are valuable, too.The information in there may not be publishedby professionals, but health care workers havechecked the articles written in thesemagazines.Learning about aerobics is not difficult.People are beginning to feel more healthconscious, so that information is becomingmore and more available.Aerobics can decrease the risk of death due tocardiovascular problems, and can prevent theonset of osteoporosis in both men and women.If you exercise regularly, you will be able totolerate the challenges that life throws at you.For instance, it will help you fight againstheart disease, reduce the risk of high bloodpressure, osteoporosis, breast and coloncancer, depression, anxiety and stress.Aerobics are the key to a healthier andphysically productive life, so do not waitanother day before starting building a newand healthier you.Exercise Is For Any Age GroupEveryone wants to get healthier, and everyoneknows that when it comes down to it, doingaerobics on a regular basis can take you frombeing unhealthy to healthy, so you can enjoy
all that life has to offer you. This goes foreveryone, but there are certain groups ofpeople who have to design their exercise verycarefully to avoid injury.Seniors are one of these groups of people.When it comes to aerobics for seniors, youmust consider several things. Remember,aerobic exercise is something you must buildon. You need to start small, depending on howhealthy you are to begin with. If you want toget healthier, you have to start at the verybottom with basic work, and slowly build upon it. This is especially recommended forseniors. Take a health inventory beforeexercising on a daily basis. Seniors are proneto health problems, so they must see a doctorfor a health check immediately.However, after getting the all clear from adoctor, seniors can begin aerobic exercise thesame as any person of any age. Think aboutwhat you want to achieve in aerobics, whichwill help you find your starting level. As longas it is not overdone, an aerobic workout willbe beneficial to you.REMEMBER: Discuss your plans with adoctor, even if you feel healthy. He will havemore information about the types of exercisethat will be the best for you.
Intensity and EnduranceAerobics are great for losing weight andstaying healthy, because they strengthen yourbreathing and heart and burn fat at the sametime. Many people do not know or understandhow to do an aerobics workout in order tomaximize the results. Intensity is the key toany workout, so stick to these three rules inorder to get the most out of it.First, find the intensity that is comfortable foryou. If you work out too intensely you may beinjured or not get results. However, if you donot work out intensely enough, you will stillnot lose weight or become stronger. Therefore,you have to work with a program that has justthe right intensity for you. When trying newexercises, try to make sure that they includeenough weights or speed to make the workouthard, but not impossible. Remember that youwill need to change the intensity of yourworkout as your tolerance and enduranceincrease. Check your routine about every oneor two weeks to make sure it is still workingfor you.The second rule to intensity is to be safe. Over-training is a huge problem, because it putsyou and those around you in danger. Whenyou under-train you will have no results,which may push you to intensify. That is good,
but too much and you will be vomiting beforeit is over and possibly causing yourself injury.If you are training properly, your musclesshould be sore, but your joints should not.Never do an intense workout where youcannot control your form or breathing.Instead, take breaks and use lower weights orspeed to get you back on track. This methodwill help you get more out of your workout. Ifinjury occurs during a workout, call for help ifpeople are near you. It is always a good idea towork with a partner or in a class.Lastly, build intensity instead of jumping in thedeep end. When you are starting to exercise,you will not be able to run the LondonMarathon! Building up slowly will helpprevent injury, and lessen the frustration.Slowly building up your exercise routine willgive you more success overall.No matter what your current state of being inshape might be, it is always important toimprove. You hear of aerobic workoutsdeveloped by people who have not worked outin years and are not in good shape. However,there are people who want to developworkouts who already do athletic work, likeendurance athletes. They already know thebasics of aerobics and simply want to get youin shape.
If you have been working out for a long time,or if you play a sport that requires you to havelong periods of endurance, you probably knowthat aerobic workouts are also very important.In order for you be in the best shape possible,you have to be able to have your heart rateand breathing rate up accomplished byaerobics. However, if you are an athlete,chances are that the basic class is going to beboring for you, and is not going to benefit youat all. If you want to get in shape there areseveral things you can do.First, the point of doing aerobics is to get yourheart rate going and your breathing rate up.That means that if you are already anendurance athlete, you are going to have tofind ways to push yourself past what you areable to do. If you are used to long distancerunning, and do not get winded, you are goingto have to try and run faster or farther inorder to get you heart rate going higher.You have to be sure that you can find differentways to work out to challenge your body. Youwill have to increase the speed, or addsomething to your workout so that you cancomplete it in a way that challenges yourbody.
Remember that challenging your body is thepoint of doing aerobic workouts. Therefore,you have to find ways that your body is notused to working, and force it to work in thatharder way.
Home, Classes or GymBeginnersIf you are just getting started with aerobics,you might be feeling overwhelmed by all thisinformation. It is true that there are manyways to work out, and if you can find a goodprogram for you, you will become muchhealthier. You need to have a workout inwhich your body is moving fast, and yourheart and lungs must be working hard to keepup. Do not think you have to start at the topstraight away. You must work your way up toadvanced aerobics. This can include runningor marching in place with a series ofmovements that may seem intimidating tostart with. Moreover, it is not safe to startanywhere other than as a beginner, becauseyou may hurt yourself.Beginner’s aerobics are very easy and they aresomething you can do at home, especially ifyou are not ready for a group. The point is getyour blood flowing. A great thing to do isstarting by walking or jogging in place. Youcan move your arms up and down. The pointof aerobics is to get your heart going, and thebest way to do this is jumping jacks, for asmany repetitions as you can do. This is thebest way for you to start with aerobic training,because you are able to work up from nothing
and really get in good shape. You cangradually proceed to doing more and moremovements and faster.Something else you should keep in mind isthat aerobics often works better to music. Theway it works is to use the music to keep yourtempo and keep you working hard. You canalso time your exercises to music – like one setfor an entire song, for instance. Music can beyour motivator, and help you to keep workingout.Other examples to get you started, if you areable to do them, are brisk walking, cycling,swimming, yoga and Pilates.
Aerobics At HomeThere are many ways you can make aerobicswork for you. First, it is important that youunderstand how vital aerobic workouts are toyour health. You can get healthy just bywalking and by lifting weights (If you do nothave weights compromise by using tins ofcarrots or something similar). In order to betruly healthy, you have to get your heartpumping and your blood flowing. This is whyaerobic exercise is very important to you – itallows you to get all parts of the body workingtogether.However, sometimes you cannot go to the gymor take classes in order to get healthier. Manypeople are busy with family and jobcommitments, and going to these places doesnot fit their needs.There are many things that you can do inorder to work out at home. The fundamentalsof aerobics, as we have already learned, are toget the heart pumping and breathing rate up.
The first and the most popular way to do itwould be to get a bike or a treadmill in yourhouse. You can put it in a convenient placeand have it ready for when you have time towork out.Another great thing is to develop a routine foryourself that includes running in place,skipping or even running around the block. Allof these are important, because you cancustomize your workout to fit your needs.When working out at home you must keep arecord or a diary of your progress. This wayyou can monitor yourself, and make anychanges necessary as you improve. Do notexercise within two hours of eating a meal ordrink any alcohol or smoke cigarettes etc.before a workout. If you begin to feel short ofbreath or lightheaded, make sure you stopand rest for a while. If your condition does notimprove, consult a doctor immediately.Always make sure you start with a warm up.You can try some simple stretches of eachmuscle group. Your muscles must be warm towork properly and prevent injury. You canthen move on to walking on the spot or lightjogging to get your heart rate up. Once youhave achieved this, you can move on to yourplanned workout. Remember to cool downwith stretches, and deep slow breathing to
bring your heart back to normal. Record yourdaily heart rates in your diary to notice theresults.
Aerobic ClassesWith aerobics, you will find that you can staytrimmer, have more endurance/stamina andparticipate in other physical activities forlonger. One of the ways to do this is to joinsome classes, as you will be motivated to stickto it. You can also meet people who are at thesame level as you, so hopefully you will notfeel intimidated and have fun. Training of thefundamentals of working out is essential, aswell as learning new moves so you cangenerally enjoy yourself. The class instructorshould be experienced in their field, to helpyou gain the most out of your workout.Everyone knows that the hardest part ofexercising is motivating yourself into actually
doing it, go to the gym or get your bike out.Signing up for an aerobics class schedules youto do this, and helps you not put it off. If youlack motivation, working out on your own maynot be the answer. A class may be morebeneficial for you.Personal TrainersThere are many times in your life when youmay need the help of a personal trainer, anddoing aerobics is one of them. With the help ofa trainer, you will reach your fitness goalsquicker, and know how to maintain them. It iseasy to find a trainer, but you need to find oneyou are comfortable with and whounderstands your needs. A trainer thatstresses you out might sound good, but youcould end up getting frustrated and not be atyour best. Worst still, you could end upquitting aerobics altogether.The point of having a personal trainer is sothat you can be yourself, and be able to doyour best when left alone. Your trainer canonly help you with so much; you are the onewho has to put the hard work in. He willencourage you, but allow you to work at yourown pace.A personal trainer will motivate you, and youwill definitely get the work done. Therefore,
there will be no putting it off until anothertime. If your trainer is willing to help you withany conditions you may have, you will be veryhappy with the results.Aerobic MachinesWhen it comes to aerobics, you may find thatyou get better on a machine instead ofwalking, running or skipping. Aerobics have toadapt to your body and what is best for yourhealth. Work closely with your doctor andtrainer. They will help you make sure you dothe best for your body and mind.Machines have become very popular forworking out on. They are easy to use and getused to. You do not have to worry about thecold, wet weather or finding the time to workout as you can fit one in your home. Theeasiest and most popular machines are a bikeor a treadmill. You can work out on these nomatter what time it is or what the weather islike. As long as you work out the same way, by
getting your heart and breathing rate upslowly, this type of exercise could get you theresults quicker. In addition, it is a lot moreconvenient than going to the gym. On theother hand, if you can get to a gym, there willbe other people there, and maybe your veryown personal trainer, as discussed in the lastsection, to help give you encouragement.
Choosing Suitable ClothingAs mentioned in the sections above, aerobicexercise today is essential for healthy living. Itcan help you lose weight, and tone yourmuscles, giving them greater flexibility. Theadvantages are that this type of exercise worksindoors and outdoors, at any time. It will alsomake you versatile in your skill and intensitylevel. It is even suitable for people who havenever done any exercise in their life, who nowwant to take up a regular exercise program, aswell as those of you who are dedicated sportsfanatics.To make all this happen, you must make sureyou wear suitable clothing. They must beloose, but not ill fitting, avoid plastic andrubber, as these materials make your bodytemperature rise to harmful levels, wear many
light layers instead of a heavy one, and wearlight colours in the summer months, as theseabsorb heat slower.If you are a beginner who is new to aerobics orany kind of exercise, it is very important to feelcomfortable. Loose fitting clothes allow freeairflow, whereas tight clothes restrict yourmovements, making the routine useless andpossible causing injury. When buying yourclothes, touch the material to see how it feels.If the material is soft, you will have betterflexibility.If you like to be stylish, and fashion-conscious, make sure the material iscomfortable. If you cannot move correctly, youwill lose your motivation quickly. Do notspend too much either. Ask a gym instructoror a friend about how much your first outfitshould cost.The material that touches your skin should beable to absorb moisture. You could wear t-shirts, sweatshirts, joggers, tracksuit bottomsor tights. If you wear proper clothing, yourspirits and motivation get a boost, makingyour workout enjoyable. FOCUS ON EFFORT, NOT DISCOMFORT!
InjuriesAerobics are great exercises to lose weight,build endurance and stay heart healthy, butthere is a downside. If you do not exercisecarefully, you could injure yourself. So followthese few tips to make sure your workoutstays fun and healthy.First, consider your clothes. Good workoutshoes are also important. Aerobics require alot of movement. If your shoes are old, or thelaces undo easily, you may slip and fall. Makesure the rest of your clothing is not too tightor heavy, as these cause over-heating.Consider your workout area, especially if youare at home. Make sure you can move about,and not bump into any furniture. Yourequipment also needs servicing regularly, asfaulty machinery can be very dangerous. Yourwork out area must be clean, so as not toinhale nasty bacterial or viral infection.
Basic Human PhysiologyHappy Healthy HeartsEveryone knows that working out is good forthe body. However, do you really understandthe benefits between aerobics and hearthealth? Many people believe that doingaerobics if the best way for them to feelhealthy and to be better in every aspect oftheir life. Aerobics and heart health issomething to keep a check on; as it will help,you feel good and stay healthy.The importance of aerobics and heart health issomething that will undeniably stay with youfor the rest of your life. The more aerobics youdo the healthier your heart will become.When it comes to the relationship betweenaerobics and your health, you give both yourheart and lungs a workout. They work harderand faster. If you do aerobics daily, your heartand lungs will become stronger. Therefore,you will be able to do more aerobics withoutstopping.You will have to work your way up. If you havenot exercised for a while, your heart will notbe strong enough to take too much. Take yourtime and talk to your doctor to develop andaerobics routine that will benefit you.
The HeartAn IntroductionThe heart is an organ that pumps blood richin oxygen to the body’s cells. It is essential forhuman life. It beats approximately 80,000 to100,000 per day, and pumps about 2000gallons of blood to our muscles. The heart hasto beat constantly to keep us alive.The heart pumps blood into the arteries thatcarry oxygen to the body’s cells. On the wayback to the heart, the veins take deoxygenatedblood to the lungs. Here the blood gathersoxygen again, and sends it back to the heart.This keeps the main blood circulation going.The Heart’s StructureThere are four chambers in the heart,consisting of two atria (singular; atrium) andtwo ventricles. It is pear-shaped and the sizeof a fist. It rests on the left side of the body,protected by the ribs. The heart’s muscle orcardiac muscle categorized as an involuntarymuscle, because we have no control over it.
The Three Layers of the HeartPERICARDIUMThis layer contains a tough tissue thatsurrounds the heart. It splits into two layers:Outer layer – this supports the heart andholds it in place by attaching to the chestcavity structures.Inner layer – known also as the epicardiumlayer, is located on top of the heart muscle.MYOCARDIUMThis layer is the cardiac muscle itself. It formsthe walls of the four chambers.ENDOCARDIUMThis layer comprises of thin endothelial andconnective tissue. It looks white and shiny,and line the inner most layer. Its function is toprevent blood clots forming in the fourchambers.
The Circulatory SystemThe superior vena cava brings de-oxygenatedblood to the heart from the upper body, andthe inferior vena cava brings it from the lowerbody. The vena cava is made of inelasticsmooth muscle and feeds into the rightatrium. Arteries are elastic, so they canwithstand the pumping action.
Blood collects in the right atrium sent by thesinoatrial node in its upper wall. Both atriahave to contract simultaneously to ensure thecontinuation of blood. The blood then passesthrough the tricuspid valve, allowing it to flowinto the right ventricle. The valves allow theblood to pass, and stops any flowing back.Now the blood is in the right ventricle via theAV node in the lower wall of the atrium. Thisnode sends a signal via the Bundle of His tothe Purkinje fibres, to allow the ventricles tocontract. The blood then flows out of the rightventricle through the pulmonary semilunarvalve to the pulmonary artery, which takes itaway from the heart. Again, the valves preventthe blood from flowing back into the ventricle.The pulmonary artery is the only artery thatcarries de-oxygenated blood. It takes it out ofthe heart and the lungs. The extra bloodcauses the membrane surface of the lungs toincrease due to their cellular sacs. These sacsnamed alveoli contain capillaries. The de-oxygenated blood now passes through thesecapillaries and re-oxygenated as we inhaleoxygen. As we exhale, we release the carbondioxide back into the air.This process in the lungs is the so-calledgaseous exchange. It converts carbon dioxidethat come from the heart and body back into
oxygen. The blood passes into the pulmonaryvein, which takes this newly oxygenated bloodback to the heart.The oxygenated blood collects in the rightatrium, causing the atrium walls to contract.It then passes through the mitral or bicuspidvalve into the left ventricle.The left ventricle then collects the blood thatcauses its walls to contract, allowing the bloodto pass the aortic semilunar valve into theaorta.The aorta is the largest artery to carryoxygenated blood away from the heart to therest of the body. Not all the blood supplies thebody, a little stays behind to supply the heartmuscle with oxygen. This allows it to keeppumping.When the body’s cells are re-oxygenated andthe blood has picked up the carbon dioxide, itwill make it back to the heart via the venacava.How the Heart BeatsThe two types of heartbeat are:DIASTOLE– During this type of heartbeat, thethick muscular walls of the ventricles relax,
causing pressure to drop. The bicuspid valveopens allowing the atria to full up with blood.Then the valve contacts, allowing blood to flowinto the ventricles, causing them to expand.The blood pressure in the aorta decreases, andthe semi-lunar valve closes.SYSTOLE – During this type of heartbeat, thethick muscular walls of the ventricles start tocontract, causing pressure to rise. Thebicuspid and tricuspid valves close. Bloodpumps through the aorta to the pulmonaryartery, and the atria relax. The left atriumreceives blood via the pulmonary vein, and theright atrium from the vena cava.Heart RateIt is important to know your heart rate whenexercising. It will help you to notice if you aredoing the right exercises, and doing themcorrectly. If you are new to exercise, yourideal heart rate will be in the region of 50-60%of your maximum heart rate. Remember touse warm up exercises before starting yourroutine. Building up your rate gradually willhelp reduce body fat, lower blood pressure andcholesterol levels and therefore burn 85% ofyour body’s calories. If you are a fit personand used to exercise, your target heart rate isabout 60-70% of your maximum heart rate.This will ensure quicker weight loss and that
you burn more calories. The ideal heart rateis around 70-80%. TABLE TO SHOW TARGET HEART RATES IN BEATS PER MINUTEAerobics Trims the HeartAfter years of research on the effects on theheart, they eventually produced some amazingresults. By regularly, doing aerobics you canreduce an enlarged heart. A trimmer heartmeans that it is a more effective organ forpumping blood. A further study wasperformed on patients suffering from heartfailure. The results showed that if the patientworked out several times a week, their heartsbegan to pump better.
In the USA alone there are about five millionpeople suffering from heart failure. This leadsto large numbers of people being hospitalizedcausing costs to the health service in theregion of thirty billion dollars.If someone suffers from years of heart failure,these people usually suffer from high bloodpressure that can eventually lead to a heartattack. You develop an enlarged heart, whichis out of shape and eventually becomes tooweak to pump.For many years, doctors would avoidprescribing exercise to patients with heartfailure. They used to give plenty of best rest torelieve the extra stress on the heart instead.During the last decade, research has foundthat exercise is good. It reduces the symptomsof heart failure, and reverses the effects ofharmful hormones. These improvements helpto compensate some of the weakness formedin the heart.The extra oxygen that enters the heart duringaerobics causes chemical transformation. Theheart can now pump oxygenated bloodthrough the body more effectively. The body’slung capacity increases, allowing more oxygento enter the body. Oxygen strengthens theheart muscle, so that the body can detoxifybetter, reducing the risk of illness. This
activity of the heart increases HDL thatremoves the bad cholesterol from the blood.Aerobics can lower the blood pressure so theheart maximizes our work, but we do it witheffort, enabling the body to feel fit, avoidillness, have no lethargy and enjoy a better,clearer memory.Heart and Lungs Work Together
When you are doing exercise, more blood willbe flowing into your muscles. It will increaseabout four to five times that of resting rate.The sympathetic nerve stimulates therespiratory muscles to increase their breathingrate. The metabolic by-products (waste), suchas lactic acid, hydrogen ions and carbondioxide stimulate the brainstem’s nervecentres to activate the muscles. Bloodpressure then rises with increased heartbeatand cardiac output opening the outlets to thealveoli in the lungs. This will of course,increase ventilation bringing more oxygen intothe blood, to help muscles work to their fullcapacity. When resting 5 litres of blood flow every minute. (0.07L x 70 Beat per minute = 4.9 L per minute). As blood flow increases, it pumps 20-25 litres per minute.
The LungsThe Structure of the LungsThe trachea or windpipe is made up of mostlycartilage, which helps to keep the tracheapermanently open. The trachea passes downthe thorax and connects the larynx (containsthe vocal cords) with the bronchi, which passinto the lungs.
The bronchi (singular; bronchus) are two shorttubes, similar in structure to the trachea,which carry air into each lung. They are linedwith a mucous membrane and ciliated cellsand, like the trachea, contain cartilage to holdthem open. The mucous traps solid particlesand cilia (tiny hair like structures) and movesit upwards, preventing dirt entering thedelicate lung tissue. The bronchi subdivideinto bronchioles in the lungs. Thesesubdivide, yet again, and finally end in minuteair-filled sacs called alveoli (singular;alveolus).The lungs are cone-shaped, spongy organssituated in the thoracic cavity on either side ofthe heart. Internally, the lungs consist of tinyair sacs called alveoli, which are arranged inlobules and resemble “grapes”. The function ofthe lungs is to facilitate the exchange of thegases, oxygen and carbon dioxide, and inorder to carry this out efficiently the lungshave several important features: A very large surface area provided by the alveoli. A thin permeable membrane surrounding the walls of the alveoli. A thin film of water lining the alveoli, which is essential for dissolving the oxygen from the alveoli air.
Thin walled blood capillaries forming a network around the alveoli, which absorb oxygen from the air breathed into the lungs and release carbon dioxide into the air breathed out of the alveoli.The Mechanics of RespirationInspiration/Inhaling1. Intercostal muscles found between the ribs contract and pull the ribs up and out.2. The diaphragm muscle contracts, moving down and outwards.3. Due to steps 1 and 2 above, the size of the thoracic cavity increases, because of the reduced pressure within. Air rushes in and the lungs become inflated.Expiration/Exhaling1. The intercostal muscles relax and the ribs fall and go in.2. The diaphragm relaxes and becomes dome shaped.3. Due to steps, 1 and 2 above, the thoracic cavity is now smaller and because of the increased pressure up it air rushes out and the lungs become deflated.
How Haemoglobin WorksHaemoglobin is a protein that binds to redblood cells as they carry most of the oxygenand carbon dioxide around the body. It firstbinds to carbon dioxide as the haemoglobinenters the lungs. Oxygen levels become high,as carbon dioxide levels decrease.Haemoglobin then binds to the new oxygen. Itis then transported through the heart on itsway to the body’s muscles. Here the body’smetabolism causes carbon dioxide levels torise, as oxygen decreases due to it beingreleased as energy. Again, the carbon dioxidebinds to the carbon dioxide transporting backto the lungs where the whole process isrecycled.During exercise, the metabolic activity of thebody is high due to the muscles workingharder. This increases the waste products ofhydrogen ions and lactic acid. It causes thelocal pH (balance of acid and alkaline) levels tobe lower than normal. Therefore, theattraction of oxygen and haemoglobin isreduced, as more oxygen has to be released inthe muscle to enable it to work harder.
Asthma and ExerciseSufferers of asthma usually think that theycannot exercise properly or safely, because oftheir condition. Asthmatics can get in shapeand exercise. Many well-known athletes andsports personalities suffer from asthma, andare still able to compete. So do not bediscouraged, take your encouragement fromthem. (Names cannot be mentioned here, butyou can research this on the internet if youneed more information).Asthma is a chronic lung disease that showssymptoms of coughing, wheezing, shortness ofbreath and chest tightness. It tends to occurin people where it is hereditary or who areallergic to environmental pollutants. Well-known triggers are exposure to allergens, suchas pollen, dust mites and cockroaches, viralrespiratory infections, airway irritants andexercise.How to Prevent Attacks1. Try to bathe your pets weekly.2. Do not smoke or allow smoking in your home.3. If possible, when mould and pollen counts are high, stay indoors and use the air medication available these days to help with airborne allergies. Take
advantage of these, if you can, and give yourself a normal life. See your doctor about it today.4. Wash bedding and stuffed toys regularly in hot water.5. Wash your hands often, so that allergens from your hands do not get near your face, which will set off symptoms.6. Get a flu jab.7. Wear a scarf over your mouth and nose during winter months.8. Get to know your triggers and how to avoid them.Now that you know what asthma is, you maybe wondering how exercise fits in. Mostdoctors will not tell you to give up exercise orsport. You just have to take specialprecautions to avoid attacks. Keep yourinhaler and medication close. Never use yourinhaler more than three times during physicalactivity. If your symptoms persist, stop whatyou are doing, and maybe contact your doctorif the symptoms do not go away.If your asthma keeps you awake during thenight with coughing and wheezing, only dolight exercise the next day.For Exercise Induced Asthma (EIA), symptomsusually appear about 6 – 10 minutes of
starting exercise. They get worse during coldor dry air. If you suffer from this type ofasthma, you can still enjoy swimming,walking, biking, downhill skiing and teambased sports.Remember, asthma is “not in your head”; it isa real medical condition that requirespreventative treatment. Take your medicationeverywhere, and be proactive.DO NOT HAVE A MISERABLE LIFE WITHASTHMA; ENJOY EXERCISE JUST LIKEEVERY ONE ELSE!
Eliminating Waste ProductsEven though it is good for our bodies, exerciseuses a lot of energy and produces many wasteproducts. For example, it increases theamount of lactic acid in our bodies. Lacticacid forms when the muscles do not receiveenough oxygen, and they begin to break downglucose. While it may help muscles to contractmore efficiently, it can sometimes makemuscles sore for days after exercising. Inaddition to lactic acid, our bodies will have anexcess amount of carbon dioxide, adenosineand hydrogen ions. All of these things can bebeneficial in small quantities, but areconsidered waste products when they reach acertain level. Once they cross the thresholdinto excess amounts, the bloodstream isresponsible for getting rid of them.Producing Body HeatWhen exercise is taking place, the body takesthe elements that are already present withinand break them down. Lactic acid forms fromthe breakdown of the sugars within the body.This releases a fair amount of energy, but it isonly chemical energy. The body will then takethe energy formed from the chemical reactionstaking place inside of it and transform it into atype of mechanical energy. This mechanicalenergy is what makes the muscles contract
more efficiently. It could even result in betterendurance because the muscles and tissueswill have so much more mechanical energy.Over time, this mechanical energy will convertinto heat energy, which explains why webecome overheated as exercise progresses.The heat energy causes the blood vessels todilate. As the passageways within the vesselsopen up, they allow an increased amount ofblood to flow through them. The increasedamount of blood causes the skin to feel hotter.The body cannot function properly with thatlevel of heat inside of it, so it must find someway to cool itself. Sweat cools the body downby releasing the heat through fluids.However, sweat does not happenautomatically. The brain cannot physicallycommunicate with every part of the body,because of its location in the head. Instead, itcommunicates with different receptor sites
within the body. These will in turn sendvarious messages to the brain to let it knowthat they body is not functioning properly. Inthis case, it will tell the brain that it needs tofind some way to release all of the built-upheat energy. The part of the brain responsiblefor the body’s thermostat is known as thehypothalamus. The hypothalamus canstimulate the body to generate more heat or itcan send the proper signals to release heat.The hypothalamus signals the sweat glands tobegin collecting heat energy and releasing itthrough fluids. The sweat that comes of thebody carries the heat with it and helps to coolthe body down. However, this will lead to adecrease in fluids present in the body. It isvery important to continue drinking plenty offluids during exercise or the body couldbecome dehydrated. Water is a great choicefor this, but sports drinks can also have agreat effect on the body. Sports drinks tend tosupply additional ingredients that restore thebody to its proper levels, such as sodium andpotassium ions, as well as more glucose orsugars.Heat StrokeSometimes the body has a difficult timecooling itself down and can seriously overheat.This is a type of hyperthermia known as a
heat stroke. Those who work outdoors, whoparticipate in athletics, infants or the elderlytend to be at a greater risk for developing aheat stroke. A heat stroke alters the way thenervous system functions, making itincredibly dangerous. It is very different froma less severe form of hyperthermia known asheat exhaustion. The symptoms of heatexhaustion include nausea, vomiting,dizziness, weakness, headaches, fatigue ormuscle cramps.When it comes to a heat stroke, the symptomsbecome much more severe. They may includehigh body temperature, confusion,hallucinations, agitated behaviours ordisorientation. Another common symptom isthe absence of sweating, even though the skinis hot and flushed. A rapid pulse ordifficulties of breathing are some of the firstindicators of a heat stroke. If not treatedquickly, they could result in seizures orcomas. The symptoms that are experiencedcan vary from person to person. While theseare the most common, not everyone who ishaving a heat stroke will exhibit all of thesesymptoms.It is important to take immediate action whena heat stroke develops. The most importantthing to do for a heat stroke victim is toattempt to cool them down. This could involve
placing ice packs on their body, particularlyunder their arms or over their groin. Youcould fan them to help ward off the body heat.If they are able, you may attempt to have themdrink some cool water or sports drink. Ifavailable, you may even spray them with ahose to help release their body heat. Monitortheir body temperature until it drops to 38.3to 38.8 C.It is always important to contact emergencyservices when this occurs. Continue thecooling process until an ambulance arrives.They may even provide you with additionalinstructions upon calling them. Heat stroke isa severe problem and should be treated assuch. Many who go untreated end in fatalities.
Body FatEverybody needs a certain amount of fat inorder for the body to function properly. Thebody develops this fat through fatty acids andadipose tissues. Fat cells are unique becausethey can form a variety of different things.They can produce fat tissue, fatty acids andadipose. Fatty acids form when long chains offats are broken down inside the body. Thesefatty acids are healthy because the body canuse them as an energy source. Adipose tissueis tissue where fat is stored, typically in theform of triglycerides. This adipose tissue cantake two forms, depending on the place in thebody and the age of the person.White adipose tissue is responsible for threeprimary functions. It insulates the body,providing a certain amount of heat. When thebody does not have enough energy intake toequal the amount of energy that it is using,white adipose can convert into a source ofenergy. The body can break it down and use itto create a mechanical energy. Furthermore,it also provides a certain amount ofmechanical cushioning. It surrounds certainorgans and provides a means of protection forthem. This type of tissue is more commonlyfound in adults.
The other type of adipose tissue is known asbrown tissue. This is the most common type offat found in new-borns. The other place wherebrown tissue collects is between their shoulderblades. While the white tissue is responsiblefor insulating the body, brown tissue isresponsible for thermogenesis. This meansthat the brown tissue is part of the reasonthat our bodies maintain a stabletemperature. This tissue is what keeps usfrom shivering on a regular basis while ourbodies find warmth.Fat Entering the BodyFat enters the body through the things that weeat. Whenever fatty foods are consumed, thebody stores the bits that it does not useimmediately as triglycerides. Triglycerides area type of lipid found in fat cells that can havesome detrimental health side effects. Toomany triglycerides could cause unwantedheart problems later on in life. The stomachand the small intestine cannot digesttriglycerides, and they get stored as fattytissue throughout the body.When fatty foods are consumed, the bodyattempts a process known as emulsification.Emulsification is the process where the bodyattempts to break down the fat that hasentered the body. Large areas of fat mix with
bile salts directly from the gall bladder. Thiswill cause them to break down into smallerdrops, known as micelle drops. As thishappens, the surface area of the fatsincreases, which allows for a greater chance atdigestion. Lipases, or enzymes that secretefrom the pancreas, will attack the newlyformed micelles. This will cause them to breakdown into both glycerol (which can be a typeof triglyceride) and fatty acids. They will beabsorbed into the intestine lining.Triglycerides now begin to form, covered in aprotein coating. The fat molecules that thebody could not immediately use are beingstored elsewhere in the body. The new lipidsthat are formed, namely chylomicrons, are aspecial type of protein. They dissolve far moreeasily in water, which is one of the primaryelements in the bloodstream. It is more likelyto enter the bloodstream for use in this way.However, the chylomicrons do not survive for along period of time. The lipoprotein lipase,which supports enzyme breakdown, will againtransform it into a fatty acid. The fatty acids have very few places to goonce they are formed in the body. For the mostpart, much of it is stored in the blood vesselsand heart muscle. The fatty acids will line thewalls of the blood vessels, making it difficultfor blood to pump through. Other times, they
will get stored up in the heart muscle asstorage. Neither option promotes goodcardiovascular health. They will later bereleased into the lymphatic system. They aretoo big for the tiny capillary walls, where veinsand arteries merge. Instead, they will pass intothe blood as a type of drainage system.Fat StorageThe amounts of fat cells that a person has willnever multiply or grow larger, even as theyseem to gain weight. Instead, the cell itself willbegin to carry more and more of the dropletsof fat that were formed during the digestiveprocess. Instead of increasing in number, thefat cells increase in size and take up a greateramount of space within the body. When aperson starts to lose weight, some of the fatdroplets that are in these cells will disappear,but they will always have the same amount of
cells. The average person could haveanywhere from 50 to 200 billion of these fatcells. Majority of them lay directly under theskin, but they may accumulate in variousareas.For females, it is more common for fat cells tobecome distributed around the breasts, hips,waist and buttocks areas. Males tend toaccumulate them in the abdomen, chest andbuttocks regions. However, these are the onlyplaces where we can visibly see the storage offat. Many times, they also surround internalorgans, such as the liver, kidneys, and insidemuscle. The fat that surrounds organs acts asa cushion so that they are not jarred duringphysical activity. The fat that is stored insidemuscle gives the muscle more volume, butwithout proper exercise, the amount of fatwithin the muscle could surpass the amountof muscle and lead to a decrease in strength.InsulinThe body has a difficult time processingglucose on its own, so it uses a specialchemical known as insulin. Whenever you eata meal, the body breaks it down into separatecomponents, such as glucose, amino acidsand fatty acids. Once these things reach theintestine where they must either be absorbedfor use by the body or excreted, the intestine
will stimulate the production and release ofthe hormone insulin. Insulin is stored in thepancreas and released to help the body to usethese various parts of food.It will absorb the glucose, amino acids andfatty acids. However, it will then stop breakingdown these elements and they will become anentirely new component. For example, theglucose will be turned into fats, the fatty acidsand glycerol will become a type of protein, andthe amino acids will be left alone for the bodyto use. It will help to build glycogen from theglucose, fats (or triglycerides) from theglycerol, fatty acids and proteins from theamino acids. Glycogen is a form ofcarbohydrate stored in the body for later useor energy expenditure. The fatty acids thatwere originally present become stored in theblood fat cells, the muscle cells or the livercells. The insulin helps to break down the fatmolecules and store them as fat drops withincells.
Fat BreakdownThe body is constantly using energy, whichcomes mainly from its internal stores ofcarbohydrates, fats and proteins. When youare not eating, it means that you are notabsorbing food or energy. There will be a lowinsulin level in the blood, which helps to breakdown the fatty acids and convert them intouseable energy. Organs within the body,particularly those within the endocrinesystem, begin to secrete hormones, whichwork in the opposite way of insulin. Forexample, the pancreas will secrete glucagon.The pituitary gland will release the growthhormone ACTH, or the adrenocorticotropichormone. The adrenal gland releasesepinephrine, better known as adrenaline. Thethyroid gland will secrete thyroid hormones,the most common of which aretriiodothyronine and thyroxine.All of these hormones work together on theliver, muscle, fat and tissue within the body.The body’s primary source of energy is alwaysglucose. However, if the body is not eating, itmust begin to break down some of the fatsthat are stored away into glucose. In a processknown as glycogenolysis, the carbohydratesand the glycogen that are stored away in thebody will begin to form simple sugars in order
to give energy to the rest of the cells. Next, thebody will break down the fats into glycerol andfatty acids. This is called lipolysis. When theinternal stores are broken down this way, itleads to an increase in energy. However, if thebody does not need energy immediately and itneeds glucose instead, lipolysis could be oneof the first steps of gluconeogenesis, theprocess of creating glucose from fatty acidsand amino acids.Losing Weight and FatWeight can be broken down into a simpleformula that explains how we either gain orlose weight. It is the rate at which we consumefood, and store energy, compared to theamount of energy that we use. When we usemore energy than we have stored, we loseweight. The opposite is also true: when westore more energy than we use, then we willgain weight. The number of fat cells willalways be the same, but they can increase anddecrease in size. There are generallyconsidered to be three rules for losing weightand fat.The first important thing to remember whentrying to maintain your weight is to eat abalanced diet. This includes carbohydrates,proteins, and fats because all of these thingsare good for the body. They help to store up
energy in case you may need it at a later time.The second important thing is to make surethat you are not overeating. Having an excessof energy stored away will lead to an increasein weight and fat. Anywhere from 1,500 to2,000 calories a day is normally sufficient fora relatively active person. The last rule tomaintaining a proper weight is to exerciseregularly. This helps to prevent the build-upof stored fats and it keeps muscles toned andhealthy.Targeting the AbdomenWhen attempting to work out or lose weight,sometimes it is best to target one particulararea of the body at a time. The abdomen is agreat place to start, as it helps with many ofour central movements. The abdomen is theset of muscles from the chest to the pelvis,most of which helps us to stretch and movearound. The muscles here can protect organssuch as the stomach and intestine fromreceiving a significant amount of damage.They also help with regular body functions,such as defecation or urination. It isimportant to work out these muscles so thatthe body can stay healthy.One of the most important things to thinkabout and remember during exercise is torepeat the motions. Repetition helps to build
up muscle endurance and builds up musclefaster. It is also important to add stretches tothe routine. Stretches keep the muscles frombecoming too sore and inflexible. When themuscles move more regularly, the movementof the body becomes so much easier. It canalso improve posture and decrease tensionthat can quickly accumulate during a hardworkout.When it comes time for the actual exercise, allmovements should come directly from theabdomen. This keeps unnecessary pressure offyour back, shoulders, knees, neck or anyother joint that may experience discomfortotherwise. The most common type ofabdominal exercise is the crunch. To performa crunch, you lie on the floor with your kneesbent and feet placed firmly on the ground.With the hands behind your head, you useyour abdominal muscles to pull yourself uptowards your knees. The pressure should notbe on your neck or back, but should stemfrom your abdomen. The same thing can alsobe done with variations. For example, youcould keep your arms straight out in acontinuous line of your upper body. Youcould also raise your feet up to form a ninety-degree angle. Another good abdomen workout is a plank.You get into a push-up position, with arms
located directly under the shoulders and therest of your body in a straight line. Theabdomen muscles should help you to stay inthis position. This can also be modified byresting your elbows on the ground underneathyour shoulders. This exercise can be held forbrief periods of time and then repeated inorder to strengthen muscles.
Diet and ExerciseA proper diet is necessary for growth andweight maintenance. It is important toconsume the right foods so that the muscleswill have the correct energy and fuel that theyneed to continue to sustain daily functioning.The most important things that muscles needin order to function properly are glucose andglycogen. The body can convert severaldifferent things into both glucose andglycogen, which it will later store for futureuse. Good examples of foods that are rich inthese two elements are bread, pasta, rice, andseveral different cuts of meat. Ripe fruits andvegetables will also have a high amount ofglucose that occurs naturally, but processedfoods and juices may have glucose included aswell.
The liver plays a crucial role in the storageand maintenance of glycogen. It can hold upto ten percent of its volume in glycogen, sothis is where a lot of it becomes stored. Here,the liver will monitor the amount of sugarpresent in the bloodstream. When it deems itnecessary, it will release some of its storedglycogen into the body. Glycogen can also bestored in the muscles. The muscles will holdon to it until they need to use more energythan they currently have. The glycogen can bebroken down into pieces that allow it togenerate more energy.Weight range is typically measured by theratio of weight to height. This ratio is knownas the body mass index or BMI. When BMI isanywhere from 25 to 29.9, a person isconsidered overweight. At a BMI of 30 or more,they will be considered obese. A normal weightrange is between the 18.5 and 24.9 BMI.Anything lower than 18.5 is considered to beunderweight.In general, fat or adipose tissue is founddirectly beneath the skin. This is calledsubcutaneous fat. While this is the mostcommon placement and storage of fat, it alsotends to gather in other places. For example,much of it will gather on top of the kidneys,within muscles and in the liver. The hormonesin the body make the fat distribution different
in males and females. For example, men willhave more fat in their chest, abdomen andbuttocks. Women will accumulate more fat intheir breasts, hips, waist and buttocks.Crunches are a great way to get rid of excessfat and strengthen the abdominal muscles. Toperform a crunch, rest with your back on thefloor, knees bent, and feet placed firmly on theground. With the hands underneath the headand arms out to the sides, use your abdominalmuscles to draw yourself upwards. Using thesame muscles, slowly lower yourself back tothe ground. This can be repeated until you feelas though your abdomen has had a goodworkout.Push-ups are great for both abdominalstrength and upper body strength. Lie on thefloor with hands directly under the shouldersand push yourself up. Your toes should be onthe floor and hands flat, while the rest of yourbody is being supported. Slowly lower yourselfuntil your chest touches the ground and pushyourself back up again. This can also berepeated for the best effects.Lunges are another great exercise for helpingto build the muscles in your legs. Stand withfeet placed together. Take one-step forwardand lower your body down until your front legis bent at a ninety-degree angle. Come back
up and place both feet back together again.Make sure to repeat this on both sides of yourbody.While these are some simple exercises thatcan help to burn unwanted fat and tonemuscles, you can do several other things aswell. For example, taking a brisk walk or jogis sure to burn some calories and help yourbody get into shape. This raises your heartrate and burns energy, which reduces theamount of stored fat within fat cells.
Benefits of ExerciseBesides helping to keep your body lookinghealthy, exercise has some great long-termhealth benefits associated with it. For manypeople, exercise and regular workouts can bea great stress-reliever. It helps them tochannel frustrations and stresses fromthroughout the day and turns them intosomething positive. Because of this, it canhelp people to tolerate anxiety, stress anddepression in a healthier way. People whoreport regular exercise routines generally havea more positive outlook on life.Apart from the mental side effects of exercise,there are many health reasons to consider aswell. For example, exercising reduces highblood pressure. The heart learns to work moreefficiently when it is exercised with aerobics ona regular basis. Not to mention, there is alarge reduction in weight loss seen withregular exercise. This means that the fat cellswithin in the body are growing smaller. It alsomeans that there is not as much fat build-uparound the heart and inside the blood vessels.This helps with health overall. Exercise canalso control cholesterol. It controls the lipidlevel in the body and helps to reduce it until itis at a healthy level. It also prevents andcontrol diabetes, as well as reducing the riskfor colon cancer.
However, sometimes exercise encouragespeople to make healthier choices. Many peoplefind that they are more committed to quittingsmoking once they start an exercise routine. Itwill also improve muscle flexibility, makingdaily movements much easier. Bones andjoints are more flexible, which could lead togreater comfort with movement later in life.Exercise could be as simple as going for awalk in the evenings or it could require a bitmore time. A good option for a regular workoutis to join a sports team, such as soccer,football, basketball, tennis or cross-country.However, there are also individual sports likehorseback riding, dance, ice-skating andgymnastics. Some sports can be both a greathobby and a beneficial workout for your body.It could be a healthy way to spend your freetime, and something that you enjoy. If joining
a team seems too expensive, perhaps joining asimple class on occasion would be a goodoption. Some classes are offered regularly,such as yoga, Pilates and aerobics. Joining aclass could be a great way to make newfriends and become healthier.
Consulting a DoctorSometimes it is necessary to consult a doctorbefore beginning a new exercise program.There are so many beneficial side effects toexercise that it may seem harmless to beginimmediately. However, some people have pre-existing conditions that could result in a rangeof dangerous side effects if they not exerciseproperly or put too much stress on the body.They may need to consult a doctor todetermine if a particular type of exercise iswell suited to their condition.Some of these conditions include heartdisease, asthma, lung disease, diabetes, liverdisease, kidney disease or arthritis. Peoplewho experience these problems need to be
especially careful with their medical healthwhen considering their exercise regimen. Ifyou believe that you may have any type ofheart or lung problem, you may also decide toconsult a doctor first. Some of thesesymptoms include a heart murmur, swellingin the ankles, dizziness, shortness of breatheven when resting, pain in the chest, jaw,neck or arms when exercising, or muscle painthat subsides once exercise is over.Trainers sometimes recommend consulting adoctor prior to beginning something newdepending on lifestyle instead of diseases orother medical conditions. For example, manysay that if you smoke, have not worked out inthree months or more or are over the age of 45for men or 55 for women, it would be in yourbest interest to make sure it is medically safefor you to proceed. If you are overweight,obese, have pre-diabetes, high blood pressureor high cholesterol, a doctor may also be ofgreat help in determining what type of exercisewould be most beneficial for your lifestyle.Some pain and muscle soreness is to beexpected from exercise. Sometimes, the painfelt during exercise is a good indicator thatyou should consult a doctor before continuingyour exercises. Any type of pain or pressureon the left side of your head, neck, chest orarms is not a good sign. If you feel dizzy, sick,
or break out into a cold sweat, it may seemlike nothing, but it could be a sign that thereis a larger problem. Furthermore, any musclecramps, sharp pains in your feet, joints, orbones, or irregular or rapid heartbeats shouldwarrant some type of medical supervision orconsultation.Many injuries that require medical attentionshould be noted through the amount of painthat you perceive. For example, a sprainedankle or wrist will be very painful. If youexperience something that gives you a greatdeal of pain, it is probably best to err on theside of caution and seek a medical opinion.
Other Books by Cindy Wright Travelling Through the Emerald Isle A Journey through the Histories of the Provinces of the Republic of Ireland By Cindy WrightTake a journey back in time with Travellingthrough the Emerald Isle. Learn about thehistories of the cities that are prominentattractions in Ireland. This book details thehistories of various areas and places locatedthrough the provinces of Leinster, Connaught,Munster and Ulster, including Galway, Dublinand Roscommon. The stories are perfect foranyone who is thinking of travelling to Irelandor someone who just thirsts for the knowledgeof the land.
Worlds of Ice - A Guide to the Life and History of the Arctic and Antarctic By Cindy WrightThis brief textbook gives in-depth detail of thetypes of life forms that are commonlydiscovered in the Arctic Circle and around thecontinent of Antarctica. It provides richinformation about specific animals, both thoseliving on the land and in the icy waters. It isperfect for anyone wishing to expand theirknowledge of the fauna in these ecosystems.Written with enough detail to inform thosewho are new to Arctic studies of the minorsubtleties of life in this area, it is a greatstarting point for those thirsting to know ofthese worlds. It is a great book, whether youhave previous knowledge or not!
Part of Your World - Practical Earth Science Knowledge for the Real World By Cindy WrightThis brief textbook offers an easy tounderstand, comprehensive overview of themost important topics related to earth sciencetoday. From astronomy to geology, it coverseverything you might need to know for realworld application. It features up-to-dateinformation on important topics that everyoneshould understand. Its primary goal is to helpstudents to increase their knowledge, but it isalso perfect for those who have no experiencein this area. It is a great place to start learningabout how nature works!
Christmas Magic for Children By Cindy WrightWant to spread a little Christmas magic and joywith your children this Christmas, then this is thebook for you. Written so that children willunderstand and enjoy from a very small age, evenif read to. It introduces the history of certainChristmas traditions as well as old and popularsongs. Included are short stories that will make itfun for the children and bring the magic alive. Notforgetting the pictures that the children can lookat if being read to. Whether you want to learnabout the first Christmas, when Jesus was born,or when Santa was first recognized for the giftbringer that he is known for today. You will alsolearn about Rudolph and his story, as well asFrosty our faithful snowman that comes back yearafter year when it snows. In this book, you willalso get a summary of other historical traditions;such as when Christmas cards were first sent, andwho were the first people to put up a Christmastree in their home. To found out much, much moreyou will need to purchase the book.SPREAD THE MAGIC, WHICH IS AVAILABLEFOR CHILDREN FROM 1 -100+.
The Different Ways of Celebrating Easter By Cindy WrightChristmas may have come and gone foranother year, but next up is Easter. Whetheryou are a Christian celebrating the crucifixionof Jesus or looking forward to all those Eastereggs. Maybe both!Here is a book to get you in the mood. Filledwith facts, stories and poems. Suitable for allages, whether you are a child or a grown up.Learn about the tradition of Easter andcelebrate in style.