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History And Scope
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History And Scope






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    History And Scope History And Scope Presentation Transcript

    • FORENSIC SCIENCE History & Scope
    • Forensic Science
      • science occupies unique role in criminal justice system
        • based on scientist’s ability to supply accurate and objective info that reflects the events that have occurred at a crime scene
      • forensic science in broadest definition is application of science to law
      • is the application of science to the criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system
    • History – Early Developments
      • China – 3 rd century
        • A Collection of Criminal Cases
          • outlined use of experimentation to defy claim of woman saying husband died in accidental fire
        • first to recognize potential of fingerprints for identification
    • Initial Scientific Developments
      • between 1775 and 1806 many advances in detecting various poisons
      • Mathieu Orfila (1814)
        • published first scientific treatise on detection of poisons and their effects on animals
        • established forensic toxicology as a legitimate scientific endeavor
        • Orfila now recognized as “father of forensic toxicology”
    • Late 19 th Century Progress
      • officials beginning to apply knowledge from many scientific disciplines to study of crime
      • Alphonse Bertillon (1879)
        • anthropometry – systematic procedure that involved taking a series of body measurements to establish identity
        • (replaced by fingerprints in early 1900’s)
        • “father of criminal identification”
    • Late 19 th Century Progress
      • Francis Henry Galton (1892)
        • first definitive study of fingerprints
        • developed methodology of classifying them for filing
        • published Finger Prints containing statistical proof supporting uniqueness of fingerprints as personal identification
    • Late 19 th Century Progress
      • Hans Gross (1893)
        • studied and developed principles of criminal investigation
        • Criminal Investigation
          • detailed assistance investigators could expect from fields of microscopy, chemistry, physics, mineralogy, zoology, botany, anthropometry, and fingerprinting
    • Late 19 th Century Progress
      • Sherlock Holmes
        • although fictional, author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle had considerable influence on popularizing scientific crime detection methods
          • first to apply serology, fingerprinting, firearms identification, and questioned document examination
          • long before these were valued and accepted by real life criminal investigators
    • 20 th Century Breakthroughs
      • Dr. Karl Lansteiner (1901)
        • discovered blood can be grouped into categories
      • Dr. Leone Lattes (1915)
        • developed simple procedure for determining blood group of a dried blood stain
    • 20 th Century Breakthroughs
      • Edmond Locard
        • took Gross’ principles and demonstrated how they could be incorporated into a workable crime laboratory
        • 1910 – persuaded Lyons police dept. to give him 2 attic rooms and 2 assistants to start a police laboratory
        • eventually became founder and director of the Institute of Criminalistics at the University of Lyons
    • 20 th Century Breakthroughs
      • Edmond Locard
        • Locard’s Exchange Principle
          • when two objects come into contact with each other, a cross transfer of materials occurs
          • therefore, every criminal can be connected to the crime
          • however, we may not have the technology to see, collect or process all the materials that have transferred
    • 20 th Century Breakthroughs
      • Dr. Walter C. McCrone
        • world’s preeminent microscopist
        • applied microscopy to analytical problems
      • Colonel Calvin Goddard
        • refined techniques of firearms examination by using comparison microscope
    • Modern Scientific Advances
      • Sir Alec Jeffreys (1984)
        • developed first DNA profiling test as a method of personal identification
          • can be used to prove either guilt or innocence
    • Modern Scientific Advances
      • Computerized Databases
        • compare evidence at a scene to thousands of pieces of similar information
        • used for fingerprints (AFIS), markings on bullets and shell casings, and DNA
    • Scope of Forensic Science
      • Crime Laboratories
        • vary by country
        • usu. at least one dedicated facility offering forensic science services
        • in US- many local, regional and state labs
        • FBI runs a national lab in Virginia
    • Scope of Forensic Science
        • basic units of a “full service” lab
          • physical science - applies principles of chemistry, physics and geology to evidence
          • biology – DNA, bloodstains, hair & fibers, botanical materials
          • firearms – examines firearms and ammunition, clothing and other objects for gun shot residue
          • document examination – handwriting, typewriting, paper, ink
          • photography – examines and records the physical evidence, preps exhibits for courtrooms
    • Scope of Forensic Science
        • additional services/units
          • toxicology – examines body fluids and organs to determine presence or absence of drugs and poisons
          • latent fingerprint – visualizes the “invisible” prints not seen by the naked eye, records
          • polygraph – lie detector, staffed more by criminal investigator
          • voiceprint analysis – uses spectrograph to create visual display from speech, used for identification
          • crime scene investigation – evidence collection unit
    • Scope of Forensic Science
        • specialized services/units
          • forensic psychiatry – examines relationship between human behavior and legal proceedings
          • forensic odontology – identify victims through dental evidence if body is left in unrecognizable state, bite mark analysis
          • forensic engineering – concerned with failure analysis, accident reconstruction, causes and origins of fires and explosions
          • forensic computer and digital analysis – identifying, collecting, preserving and examining info from digital devices