Criminal Law


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Criminal Law

  1. 1. Criminal Law <ul><li>serves to define offences under a codified system of laws and punishments </li></ul><ul><li>where we define what crime is and how it goes about being prosecuted </li></ul>
  2. 2. Criminal Law - Homocide <ul><li>murder (malice required) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>first degree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>intentional and premeditated killing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>killing in the course of a dangerous felony </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>second degree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>intentional, but not premeditated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>intent to cause serious bodily injury resulting in death </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>death by act creating grave risk of death </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>killing in the course of other mala in se felonies </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Criminal Law - Homocide <ul><li>manslaughter (no malice required) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>voluntary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>killing with the intent to kill or inflict grievous bodily injury but under the influence of passion caused by sufficient provocation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>involuntary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>negligent or reckless homocide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>killing in the course of committing a dangerous misdemeanor </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Criminal Law - Homocide <ul><li>justifiable homocide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>self defense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>defense of others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>defense of property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prevention of felonies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>arresting a felon </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Criminal Law - Homocide <ul><li>accidental death </li></ul><ul><ul><li>duty of care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>involuntary manslaughter or negligence </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Criminal Law – Assault and Battery <ul><li>battery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>intentional or reckless touching of another without excuse or justification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>does not require significant blow that inflicts bodily injury </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Criminal Law – Assault and Battery <ul><li>assault </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an unlawful attempt, coupled with present ability, to commit a battery (such as a missed punch) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Criminal Law – Assault and Battery <ul><li>aggravated assault and battery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>when battery inflicts a serious bodily injury or assault and battery involves the use of a deadly weapon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assault with intent to rape </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Criminal Law – Rape <ul><li>sexual intercourse by a male with a female, who is not his wife, achieved by force or threat of force against the will of the victim </li></ul><ul><ul><li>force can include drugs administered by the male OR inability of the victim to understand what is happening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>spousal “immunity” in some old laws has been done away with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>men don’t rape men – they sodomize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>women may be charged with rape as a accomplice, (this too is changing) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Criminal Law – Rape <ul><li>statutory rape involves sexual intercourse with a minor who is regarded by law as incapable of giving lawful consent to the act </li></ul>
  11. 11. Criminal Law – Conspiracy <ul><li>agreement between two or more people, beyond an undercover government agent, to commit an unlawful act, and some degree of intent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ultimate act can be impossible to carry out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>everyone does not have to know everyone else involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>all parties must have a common end </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>acts of one are acts of all </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Criminal Law – Conspiracy <ul><li>for conspiracy, one overt act in furtherance of the crime by any involved party gives liability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>if one abandons the conspiracy, he is still liable for the conspiracy, but not the resulting act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ overt act” need not be criminal in itself </li></ul></ul><ul><li>individuals are charged with conspiracy and the actual crime (i.e. murder), the two don’t merge </li></ul>
  13. 13. Criminal Law – Burglary <ul><li>at common law, breaking and entering into a dwelling during the night with intent to commit a felony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>modern code includes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>any building or similar structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>day or night </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>unlawful entry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>with or without a breaking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>people get robbed, not houses </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Criminal Law – Larceny <ul><li>taking the property of another, with knowledge of their ownership, to deprive them permanently or infringe upon their rights in a substantial way </li></ul><ul><ul><li>petit vs. grand larceny varies in $$$ amount of property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>one cannot negligently steal </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Criminal Law – Embezzlement <ul><li>persons who lawfully received possession of the property of another and then wrongfully convert that property to their own use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>real property can be embezzled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>does not require intent to permanently deprive </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Criminal Law – False Pretenses <ul><li>applies to persons who induce others to transfer property to them by means of misrepresentation, which must be to a material past or present fact that the seller know to be false </li></ul><ul><ul><li>does not include “seller’s talk” </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Criminal Law – Robbery <ul><li>a larceny with the stolen property taken from the victim in the presence of the victim and with the taking accomplished by means of force or threat of force </li></ul><ul><ul><li>crime against person and property </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does pickpocketing constitute a robbery? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Criminal Law – Extortion <ul><li>threat of force or harm used to achieve some sort of benefit to the criminal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>truth can be used as leverage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>benefit does not have to be monetary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ blackmailing” </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Criminal Law – Arson <ul><li>an intentional or reckless burning or explosion of a building owned by another person or, under limited circumstances, of a building owned by the actor </li></ul>
  20. 20. Criminal Law – Solicitation <ul><li>agreement to commit a crime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hiring individual is just as liable as the actor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>merges into conspiracy </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Criminal Law – Aiding and Abetting <ul><li>involved prior to the crime, contributed to the act or induced the act, even if not involved in the act itself </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one who orders a crime shares the same liability as the actor </li></ul></ul>