Chapter 16 Solids, Liquids, Gases


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Chapter 16 Solids, Liquids, Gases

  1. 1. Chapter 16 Solids, Liquids, Gases Section 1 Kinetic Theory- “movement”
  2. 2. Section 1 Kinetic Theory <ul><li>STATES OF MATTER- Solid, Liquid, Gas </li></ul><ul><li>KINETIC THEORY- Explains how particles in matter behave </li></ul>
  3. 3. Section 1 cont. <ul><li>All matter is composed of small particles </li></ul><ul><li>(Atoms) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Section 1 cont. <ul><li>Particles are in constant random motion. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Section 1 cont. <ul><li>Particles collide with each other </li></ul>
  6. 6. Section 1 cont. <ul><li>Particles Collide with each other and walls of their containers </li></ul>
  7. 7. Section 1 cont. <ul><li>(Heat) THERMAL ENERGY-total energy of a material’s particles: cause particle to vibrate in place </li></ul>
  8. 8. Section 1 cont. <ul><li>Average Kinetic Energy- TEMPERATURE of the substance, or how fast the particles are moving: the lower the temperature the slower the particle motion </li></ul><ul><li>SOLID STATE-(Lowest Energy)-Particle are closely packed together in a specific type of geometric arrangement (crystalline) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Section 1 cont. <ul><li>LIQUID STATE- a solid begins to liquefy at the melting point as the particles gain enough energy to overcome their ordered arrangement </li></ul>
  10. 10. Section 1 cont. <ul><li>Energy required to reach the melting point is called the heat of fusion (s>l) </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid particles have more space between them allowing them to flow and take the shape of their container </li></ul>
  11. 11. Section 1 cont. <ul><li>GASEOUS STATE- a liquid’s particles have enough energy to escape the attractive forces of the other particles in liquid (l>g) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Section 1 cont. <ul><li>HEAT OF VAPORIZATION- is the energy required for a liquid to change to a gas </li></ul><ul><li>At the Boiling Point the pressure or the liquid’s vapor is equal to the pressure of the atmosphere and that liquid becomes a gas </li></ul>
  13. 13. Section 1 cont. <ul><li>GAS PARTICLES- spread evenly throughout their container in the process of diffusion (perfume) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Section 1 cont. <ul><li>HEATING CURVE OF A LIQUID- as a solid melts and a liquid vaporizes, the temperature remains constant ; the temperature will increase after the attractive forces of the earlier state have been overcome </li></ul>Save the polar bears!!!
  15. 15. Section 1 cont. <ul><li>PLASMA- state of matter consisting of high-temperature gas with balanced positively and negatively charged particles EX Lighting </li></ul>
  16. 16. Section 1 cont. <ul><li>THERMAL EXPANSION- increase in the Size of a substance when the temperature increases </li></ul><ul><li>The size of the substance will then decrease when the temperature decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion and contraction occur in most solids liquids and gases </li></ul>
  17. 17. Section 1 cont. <ul><li>WATER is an exception because it expands as it becomes a solid </li></ul>
  18. 18. Section 1 cont. <ul><li>Some substances do not react as Expected when changing states </li></ul><ul><li>1. AMORPHOUS SOLIDS- lack the tightly Ordered structure found in crystals </li></ul><ul><li>a. Do Not have definite temperature At which they change from solid to liquid </li></ul><ul><li>b. Glass, plastic (old windows) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Section 1 cont. <ul><li>2. LIQUID- crystals do not lose their ordered arrangement completely upon melting; used in liquid crystal displays , in watches, calculators , and some notebook computers </li></ul><ul><li>Demo- Ball and Ring/ Bimetallic Strip/ KMT (BB’s)/ KMNO4 (Petri Dishes) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Section 2 Properties of Fluids > Liquid or Gas
  21. 21. Section 2 cont. <ul><li>BUOYANCY- ability of a fluid (liquid or gas) to exert an up ward force on an Object immersed in it. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Section 2 cont. <ul><li>An Object in a fluid will float if its weight is less than the buoyant force acting on it from the fluid </li></ul><ul><li>An Object in a fluid will sink if its weight is more than the buoyant force acting on it from the fluid </li></ul>
  23. 23. Section 2 cont. <ul><li>ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE- buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced (moved) by the object </li></ul><ul><li>An object will float if its density is less than the density of the fluid it is placed in </li></ul>
  24. 24. Section 2 cont. <ul><li>PASCAL’S PRINCIPLE- pressure applied to a Fluid is transmitted throughout the fluid </li></ul><ul><li>PRESSURE- is force exerted per unit area </li></ul><ul><li>HYDRAULIC- machines use this principle to lift heavy loads </li></ul><ul><li>P= Force Units = Pascals </li></ul><ul><li>Area </li></ul>
  25. 25. Section 2 cont. <ul><li>BERNOULLI’S PRINCIPLE- as the velocity of a fluid increases the pressure exerted by the fluid decreases; airplane use this principle to fly </li></ul>
  26. 26. Section 2 cont. <ul><li>VISCOSITY- a liquid’s resistance to flow </li></ul><ul><li>MOLECULAR STRUCTURE determines a fluids viscosity </li></ul><ul><li>Increased temperature heat will lower viscosity. EX. (High Viscosity) molasses vs. (Low viscosity) Kool-Aid </li></ul>
  27. 27. Section 3 Behavior of Gases
  28. 28. Section 3 cont. <ul><li>PRESSURE- is measured in units called Pascal (Pa) P= F </li></ul><ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>COLLISIONS- of particles in air result in atmospheric pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Moving particles colliding with the inside walls of a container result in gas pressure </li></ul>
  29. 29. Section 3 cont. <ul><li>BOYLE’S LAW- relates pressure to volume </li></ul><ul><li>Volume decreases as pressure increases </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure decreases as volume increases </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure multiplied by volume is always equal to a constant if the temperature is constant </li></ul><ul><li>EX: Weather Balloons, Tennis Balls </li></ul>
  30. 30. Section 3 cont. <ul><li>CHARLES’S LAW- relates volume and temperature </li></ul><ul><li>At a constant pressure volume increases as the temp. increases </li></ul><ul><li>At a constant pressure volume decreases as the temp. decreases </li></ul><ul><li>EX: Hot Air Balloons, KTM </li></ul>
  31. 31. Section 3 cont. <ul><li>Gay Lussac’s Law- relates pressure and temperature ; at a constant volume, as temp. increases, pressure increases. </li></ul><ul><li>EX: Aerosol Cans Blow Up </li></ul><ul><li>Demos: Fire syringe, Collapsing Can, Atm. Pressure Kit, - Glove –H2O uphill- - “Boil” H2O </li></ul>