Cells Intro Sub

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Cells Intro Sub

  1. 1. CELLS VOCABULARY CELL THEORY
  2. 2. VOCABULARY <ul><li>cell (plasma) membrane – controls entry into and out of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>cell plate – new cell wall that forms in plant cells during mitosis </li></ul><ul><li>cell wall – provides shape and structure to plant cells </li></ul><ul><li>centrioles – involved in animal cell mitosis </li></ul><ul><li>chlorophyll – pigment that traps light and is used to produce food for plants </li></ul><ul><li>chloroplasts – site of food production in plant cells </li></ul><ul><li>chromatid – duplicated chromosome </li></ul><ul><li>chromosomes – long, threadlike groups of genes, made of DNA, found in the nucleus </li></ul>
  3. 3. VOCABULARY <ul><li>cytoplasm – jellylike substance that supports organelles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cytosol – watery substance (semi-fluid) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cytoskeleton – hollow microtubules, provide shape and structure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>endoplasmic reticulum – surface for chemical reactions to take place, also a pathway for transport, can be rough (with ribosomes) or smooth (without ribosomes) </li></ul><ul><li>fluid mosaic model – model for the strucure of the cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>genes – units of heredity </li></ul><ul><li>Golgi apparatus – site of packaging and tranport (secretion) in the cell </li></ul><ul><li>lysosome – digestion center </li></ul>
  4. 4. VOCABULARY <ul><li>microtubule – microscopic cylinders that support and give the cell shape </li></ul><ul><li>mitochondria – powerhouse </li></ul><ul><li>nuclear membrane – structure that controls what enters and exits the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>nuclear pores – tiny holes in the nuclear membrane </li></ul><ul><li>nucleolus – found in nucleus, where ribosomes are produced </li></ul><ul><li>nucleus – control center of the cell, contains chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>phospholipid bilayer – components of the cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>plastid – contains water and dissolved minerals </li></ul><ul><li>ribosomes – site where proteins are synthesized </li></ul><ul><li>vacuole – storage center for the cell, holds pigments, waste, food, etc. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cell Theory: History <ul><li>Anton van Leewenhoek (1600’s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>master lens maker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>created own microscopes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st to describe and draw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bacteria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>detailed structures of small insects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sperm cells of various organisms </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Cell Theory: History <ul><li>Robert Hooke (1600’s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>also made microscopes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>examined cork layer of oak tree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>observed rows of compartments and called them “cells” </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Cell Theory: History <ul><li>Matthias Schleiden (1838) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>botanist – studied variety of plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>said plants “are aggregates of fully individualized, independent and separate beings; namely the cells themselves” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>translation: Plants are made of cells! </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Cell Theory: History <ul><li>Theodor Schwann (1839) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reported all animals are also made of cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>proposed cellular basis for all life </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Cell Theory: History <ul><li>Rudolf Virchow (1855) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“The animal arises from an animal and the plant only from a plant.” </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Cell Theory: History <ul><li>The work of all of these scientists led to modern day cell theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Cell Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells are the basic units of life. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All organisms are made of one or more cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All cells arise from pre-existing cells. </li></ul></ul>

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