Cells Intro Sub
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Transcript

  • 1. CELLS VOCABULARY CELL THEORY
  • 2. VOCABULARY
    • cell (plasma) membrane – controls entry into and out of the cell
    • cell plate – new cell wall that forms in plant cells during mitosis
    • cell wall – provides shape and structure to plant cells
    • centrioles – involved in animal cell mitosis
    • chlorophyll – pigment that traps light and is used to produce food for plants
    • chloroplasts – site of food production in plant cells
    • chromatid – duplicated chromosome
    • chromosomes – long, threadlike groups of genes, made of DNA, found in the nucleus
  • 3. VOCABULARY
    • cytoplasm – jellylike substance that supports organelles
      • cytosol – watery substance (semi-fluid)
      • cytoskeleton – hollow microtubules, provide shape and structure
    • endoplasmic reticulum – surface for chemical reactions to take place, also a pathway for transport, can be rough (with ribosomes) or smooth (without ribosomes)
    • fluid mosaic model – model for the strucure of the cell membrane
    • genes – units of heredity
    • Golgi apparatus – site of packaging and tranport (secretion) in the cell
    • lysosome – digestion center
  • 4. VOCABULARY
    • microtubule – microscopic cylinders that support and give the cell shape
    • mitochondria – powerhouse
    • nuclear membrane – structure that controls what enters and exits the nucleus
    • nuclear pores – tiny holes in the nuclear membrane
    • nucleolus – found in nucleus, where ribosomes are produced
    • nucleus – control center of the cell, contains chromosomes
    • phospholipid bilayer – components of the cell membrane
    • plastid – contains water and dissolved minerals
    • ribosomes – site where proteins are synthesized
    • vacuole – storage center for the cell, holds pigments, waste, food, etc.
  • 5. Cell Theory: History
    • Anton van Leewenhoek (1600’s)
      • master lens maker
      • created own microscopes
      • 1 st to describe and draw
        • bacteria
        • detailed structures of small insects
        • sperm cells of various organisms
  • 6. Cell Theory: History
    • Robert Hooke (1600’s)
      • also made microscopes
      • examined cork layer of oak tree
      • observed rows of compartments and called them “cells”
  • 7. Cell Theory: History
    • Matthias Schleiden (1838)
      • botanist – studied variety of plants
      • said plants “are aggregates of fully individualized, independent and separate beings; namely the cells themselves”
      • translation: Plants are made of cells!
  • 8. Cell Theory: History
    • Theodor Schwann (1839)
      • reported all animals are also made of cells
      • proposed cellular basis for all life
  • 9. Cell Theory: History
    • Rudolf Virchow (1855)
      • “The animal arises from an animal and the plant only from a plant.”
  • 10. Cell Theory: History
    • The work of all of these scientists led to modern day cell theory.
    • Cell Theory
      • Cells are the basic units of life.
      • All organisms are made of one or more cells.
      • All cells arise from pre-existing cells.